Quality index for digital media

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  • 1. quality index for digital publications contents, production, digitalization@janquimBarcelona
  • 2. indexPROPOSAL: A quick index measuring the quality of digital publications, general and local.VARIABLES: 1. Quality of information content (credibility, richness, depth, exclusivity). 2. Quality of production (in the context of digitization and expansion of the global connections system called the Internet). 3. Quality of digitization (the degree of use of resources provided by ICT and the degree of acceptance of digital code based on transparency and redistribution).CRITERIA: There are five options, scored from 1 to 5. To distinguish between a sporadic presence and a regular or frequent one,1/2 point scores are used. The results obtained are added and then the averages of each group are the measurement results.VALIDATION: Amendments and provisional approval by a group or an institution.OPERATION: Once validated, the index should allow the evaluation of digital publications and the observation of its evolution.PURPOSE: The aim is to have a tool to trace the path to excellence, with a neutral rating that gives clear clues about the quality of digital publications.
  • 3. degrees of quality EXCELLENT GOOD REGULAR based on the sum divided by four to giveDEFICIENTR POOR 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 BAD
  • 4. score on each variable occasional 4.5 frequent 5 occasional 3.5 frequent 4 occasional 2.5 frequent 3 occasionalDEFICIENTR 1.5 frequent 2 minimum variation by level 1 of demand to accept the concepts of occasional and frequent
  • 5. absence of any value decreases the chart occasional 3.5 frequent 4 occasional 2.5 frequent 3 occasional 1.5 frequent 2minimum 1
  • 6. production qualitysources, expertise, multitasking, transparency
  • 7. sourcesREFRIED: Contents are copied without permission, with little change, and are reproduced without mentioning the source.PRECOOKED: Content is purchased from agencies and repositories of digital content. Full copy of press releases (companies, publishing services, public administration).CORPORATE: When a digital medium is part of a group, it often uses raw material or previously published contents from the group’s shared newsroom.COMMON: Contents are derived from original sources, but those sources are simple to access, such as press conferences, open statements, presentations, distributed files and reports, public data.SINGULAR: Statements and exclusive interviews to the media. Exclusive access to written materials, audiovisuals, or databases.
  • 8. sources value singular common corporate precooked +50% of contents = 0.5refried +75% of contents =1
  • 9. expertiseLOADERS: The editors load content. They work full-time at the loading process without any time for other tasks of journalism. They focus on the genre of breaking news. They receive commissions based on the turn, not on their expertise. Editors are expected to work with speed and superficiality. They are candidates for automation.EDITORS: They write from third party content, which is reviewed. They guarantee correct language and they package and prioritize content.AUTHORS: They draw up and sign their own contents. They deal with other genres besides breaking news.THEMATICS: They concentrate on a specific topic and gain the experience to provide context and analysis. They cultivate relationships with sources, and may have access to unique sources.SPECIALISTS: Only writers who have been "thematic" for a few years can become specialists. Getting a specialist requires an investment of the digital newspaper. They dominate the context and access to sources with determination.
  • 10. specialization of journalists specialists thematics authors editors +50% of journalists = 0.5loaders +75% of journalists =1
  • 11. multitaskingWRITERS: Journalists write contents.PHOTOGRAPHERS: In addition, they are able to create, capture and process static images.VIDEOGRAPHERS: In addition, they are able to create, capture and process moving images. They know how to play with them and are good with audio podcasts too.INFOGRAPHERS: In addition, they are able to create simple infographics, with corporate tools or free tools (graphics, maps, tables).DATAGRAPHERS: In addition, they are able to capture data, even hidden data or from open data formats. They know how to deal with data to create simple widgets, embeddable formats, complex infographics and other contents.
  • 12. how journalists create contents + data capture, + simple visual infographics formats + video / podcast + photos +20% of journalists = 0.5 +50% of journalistswriting =1
  • 13. transparencyDARK PYRAMIDAL HIERARCHY: Journalists write copy without knowing much about editorial decisions. Occasionally, they are asked an opinion. It is characteristic of “Tayloristic newsrooms”, focusing on immediacy and breaking news.PARTICIPATED PYRAMIDAL HIERARCHY: Management maintains a pyramidal hierarchy in the organization. At the same time, however, they discuss goals in an open way. Journalists know more than their specific task. There are established ways of participation. It is a transition phase despite the appearance of stagnation.STRUCTURE BY AREAS: This structure comes from the print media. The organization is divided into subject areas, where each area establishes its own hierarchy. Knowledge is shared within areas. There are established ways in which different areas can share ideas and make decisions in common (editorial board).PROJECT TEAMS: Bridging the old structure of areas, journalists are part of temporary teams focused on projects to achieve measurable objectives, with clear purposes and a shared vision conveyed with leadership.OPEN NEWSROOM: In addition, newsroom shares knowledge out by an "editorial blog" or any other instrument for the same purpose. The structure and production processes are explained. Journalists have an open conversation on the editorial board issues with users.
  • 14. Newsroom openness open newsroom project teams structure by areas participated occasionally pyramidal = 0.5 frequent hirearchy =1 darkpyramidalhierarchy
  • 15. information qualitygenres, depth, multimedia, editorial
  • 16. genresBREAKING NEWS & UPDATE: They tell the facts and keep them up to date, using digital capabilities to update pieces of content rapidly or report in special formats such as the so-called "minute by minute” report, for example. They are candidates for partial automation.OPINION: Usually presented as a "blog". There is a huge contrast between the wealth of the blogosphere, with blogs of all kinds, and the uniformity of the media where blogs tend to correspond to the "opinion columns". It is the space where there is usually a smaller degree of hypertext.INTERVIEW & CHRONICLE: This genre adds perspective or treatment that complements the story. It demands story writers with a certain uniqueness. If update is the publication priority it is difficult to obtain the necessary time for processing. Candidates for outsourcing in “Taylorist” newsrooms .REPORTS & MONOGRAPHS: They are distinguished by the development and provision of required context. These sorts of depth are not as demanding on the uniqueness of the author as the previous but they need more time in the development process. The monograph is often presented in the form of picture galleries, thematic packs or “calendar specials”.RESEARCH & SUPPLEMENTS: The provision of research with exclusive information and social relevance is the highest degree of information content. Includes special supplements aimed at segments of the public who seek a degree of specialization.
  • 17. degree of genres variety + research & supplements + report & monograph + interview & chronicle + opinionnews & +25% of contents = 0.5update +50% of contents =1
  • 18. depthIMMEDIACY: Emphasizes speed of delivery, with no value placed on the archive. There is an obsession with the audience in absolute terms. It emphasizes the ephemeral nature of content and uses this effect to avoid an increase in quality. Model candidate for automation.CONTEXT: Provide context, often as a list of related links, almost always to own content. A thematic writer is capable of guaranteeing the context. It requires a certain degree of use of the archive.CONTRAST: It involves an active habit of contrast, to enhance the story with more than the context. It requires a certain degree of specialization or a shared contacts list. Sometimes it is replaced by a "confrontation of experts opinions", so it is outsourced.ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION: Only available to editors and intense thematic specialists. It requires more perspective and time investment and a hard editorial position to avoid confusion. It provides more depth and gives the receiver a more important role.OPEN DATA: At a still higher level, the medium can offer direct access to raw data and original sources. Thus, the reader acquires a knowledge of it like a journalist.You can also let these materials be reused to develop new applications based on third-party content, including maps, data visualizations, apps.
  • 19. degree of depth in content + open data + analysis & interpretation + contrast + context occasionally = 0.5 frequentimmediacy =1
  • 20. multimediaLIBRARY PICTURES: The texts are complemented by library images, sometimes with screenshots.NEWS PICTURES: Own or acquired (agencies, citizens).AUDIO, VIDEO: They can be external, purchased or owned.INFOGRAPHICS: Maps, graphs, tables... are produced or acquired.WIDGETS, EMBEDDED ELEMENTS: Widgets and embedded elements are produced, shared and allowed to be reused.
  • 21. multimedia levels embedded widgets infographics audio, video news pictures occasionally = 0.5 frequent libray =1pictures
  • 22. editorial positionHIDDEN: They pretend not to have an editorial position or take refuge in neutrality as a concept to avoid transparency. That situation is negative to credibility.CORPORATE: They adopt the editorial position of the corporate group to which they belong. Strengthens the corporate character but weakens own brand.IMPLICIT: It is understood that the approach taken by the selection of content and opinion articles provide a clear enough idea of the editorial line. It is often just an excuse to avoid commitment.EXPLICIT: It is clearly exposed an editorial position.SUSTAINED: Moreover, media managers refer to the editorial position in their activity on social media and in “digital environments”. The whole newsroom team sustains or debates that position in their public digital activity. It requires a high degree of commitment, persuasive and effective leadership and an excellent digital reputation.
  • 23. degree of commitment sustained explicit implicit corporate there’s no half pointhidden
  • 24. quality of digital commitmenthypertext, dissemination, discussion, reputation
  • 25. hypertextEXTERNAL: They list hyperlinks not in the article. Almost always to own content.INTERNAL (OWN): The links are in the text but only to items of the same medium. Provide context or proof that the publication has already dealt with the same subject.INTERNAL (REFERENCE): The hyperlinks are in the text, but they only adress to a direct source of information or a document, along with links to other references such as Wikipedia, study centers, institutions, organizations, people. The links are transparent, so you could see whats behind the click. It is a kind of hypertext that provides reference and quotation and expands, clarifies, or confirms.INTERNAL (WIDE): The text is enriched with hyperlinks and reference to other complementary information. There are “opaque links”, where is not always clear what is behind the click.ABSOLUTE: The article is conceived of as hypertext. It is not text but a fragment of an almost infinite set where you can move freely without losing the orientation. They invite to read deep (left/right, up/down, link/back). Most of hyperlinks are “opaque”. There are embedded widgets. All non-textual items have quote hyperlinks.
  • 26. hypertext quality absolute internal (wide) internal (reference) internal (own) +50% of content = 0.5 +75% of contentexternal =1
  • 27. disseminationINTERNAL: This is self-promotion. The media announces their novelty and successes.CORPORATE: Cross-promotion. Digital publication is regularly mentioned by other corporate media.SOCIAL MEDIA: The media plays in social networks, with preference to those that are most popular, trying to attract users in large areas of digital presence. They make a step towards customers but they do not create their own communities.COMMUNITIES: They have a better presence on social media and have established relationships with communities interested in its editorial line or in its content offering, with an effort to attract the potential user.EXTERNAL: Media complies with all previous requirements. In addition, users are promoting, linking to their content, sharing them, contributing to its creation, discussing them with added value, and unashamedly assuming an enthusiastic and motivating diffusion.
  • 28. dissemination external communities socialmedia corporate only if frequentinternal
  • 29. discussionANONYMOUS: Users can comment on the information, anonymously, and it is usually easy to pass the filter that prevents insult. They provide little value but are celebrated as an indicator of success. Users can also answer polls and submit some information or pictures.PARTICIPANTS: Users find a suitable place where they can make contributions that give clues about the information or complete it with pictures and other content based on their experience. In addition, users can declare affinity with the brand in social media.IDENTIFIED: Users are identified by name and their identities are verified. Number of inputs is lower but value is increased. In addition, users are not anonymous in social media and they suggest tracks to information, provide materials, or request natural conversation.ANSWERED: Users receive answers from authors as comments to the information. In addition, the areas of participation are more than just a brand – there are people who attend and talk with you. Users receive explanations and find someone responsible.PARTNERS: Users become genuine partners in the context of a collaborative writing. The members of the newsroom have become accustomed to having their tracks, their materials, their help and contribution. The conversation with the users is part of the natural task of writing.
  • 30. discussion value partners answered identified go forward only if there are users as participants describedanonymous
  • 31. reputationPRESENCE: The media puts its brand in the digital environment, to promote their activities and products. This is why social media is called social. They use Twitter and other tools to redistribute content.ACTIVE: In addition, the media provides an active dialogue with users when they ask for it. But this is done impersonally.LEADERS: In the newsroom a minority of members is active in digital environments. They give personal answers about their activities and try to establish discussions with users through social media and Twitter, and sometimes they respond to comments. These individuals enjoy improved reputations at a personal level, but their reputations are not linked to the overall reputation of the media.MANAGERS: When digital leaders are newsroom managers the ability to add value to the conversation is increased. Answers become clear clues about the editorial position, reinforcing it. Digital managers work to present a specific image of the media in this environment. They assume the links between the media reputation and their own personal reputation.NEWSROOM: The maximum degree of reputation is when the newsroom is a group of people active in digital environments, because it ensures the highest degree of conversation and answer. Editorial cohesion is achieved and an intense relationship between digital publication reputation and all of the individual digital reputations is established .
  • 32. activity to build a reputation newsroom managers leaders activepresence only if frequent
  • 33. panelfor all variables
  • 34. refried precooked corporate common singular sources (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) loaders editors authors thematics specialists expertise (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5)production quality writers photos videos graphics data multitasking (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) dark pyramidal participated structure by areas project teams (3.5 open newsroom transparency hierarchy pyramidal (2.5 - 3) -4) (4.5 - 5) (1) hierarchy breaking news (1.5 - 2) opinion interview & reports & research, genres & update (1.5 - 2) chronicle monographs supplements (1) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) immediacy + context + contrast + interpretation & open datainformatio depth (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) analysis (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) n quality library pictures news pictures audio, video infographics embedded widgets multimedia (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) hidden corporate implicit explicit sustained editorial position (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) external internal (own) internal internal (wide) absolute hypertext (1) (1.5 - 2) (reference) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) (2.5 - 3) internal corporate socialmedia communities external dissemination (1) (1.5 - 2) (2.5 - 3) (3.5 - 4) (4.5 - 5) digital quality participants identified answered partners discussion anonymous (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) presence active leaders managers newsroom reputation (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
  • 35. thanks to Cristina Ribas Ismael Peña-López Ramon Sangüesa Xavier Mas de Xaxàs Ross Casley for comments & helpjnqm bcn