JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU
- Genevan philosopher, writer, composer
- During childhood, he often read in the
tranquillity of a public garden - which he
later describes as the most serene part of
Mother: Susan Bernard Rousseau
Spouse: Therese Levasseur
1743 – 1744 – secretary to the French
ambassador in Venice
1762 - Literally of the social contract,
Principles of political Right
- Emile, or On Education
SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY
“Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chain.”
Addresses the fundamental philosophical problems:
How can we be free and live together?
How can we live together without succumbing to
the force and coercion of others?
We can do so, by submitting our
individual, particular wills to the collective or
general will, created through agreement with
other free and equal persons.
Rousseau was the first to give the child his rightful place;
and he was renowned as the liberator of the child.
Aim: to learn how to live righteously
The growth of a child divided into 3 sections.
1. To the age about 12 children live like animals
2. From 12 – 16 starts to develop
3. 16 onwards, child develops in to an adult.
The child should be allowed to grow close to
nature and he should be given the right to think
in his own way.
(0-2 years old)
HABIT & TRAINING OF EMOTIONS
Stage of Nature
(2-12 years old )
NECESSITY & TRAINING OF SENSES
(12-15 years old)
UTILITY & TRAINING OF INTELLECT
(15-20 years old)
(20-25 years old)
1. The child is a child and not a small adult.
2. The child should learn from nature and the child
should not be forced to do things.
3. Teachers are our feet, hands and eyes.
4. Physical exercises are important.
5. Children should never receive punishment; and
6. They should learn the natural consequences of
7. The child should be self-reliant.
• S.N., Paul (2009) Early Childhood Education: Jean
Jacques Rousseau. Retrieved from