Historico theological overview of the seven sacraments

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Historico theological overview of the seven sacraments

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OF THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS METILLO, Lorie Ann QUIBOD, Anfanna Krizza SOLON, Anjelica Mari VILLARBA, Joanne M. Signs may lead us to God because of the realities they signify. Sacraments are considered as signs. They signify realities that are essential to our faith. They are indispensable to the Christian life.
  2. 2. PRINCIPLE OF SACRAMENTALITY Holy Eucharist - an encounter with the sacred, - an intimate interaction between our person and our risen Lord, Jesus Christ - AMEN: indicates our positive and wholehearted assent in receiving the blessed host, that it is no plain bread but the very person of Jesus Christ himself - BREAD: sacramentum (external sign) - JESUS: res (reality) SACRAMENT: sacramentum et res (contains both a sign and a reality)
  3. 3. PRINCIPLE OF SACRAMENTALITY Further… SACRAMENT: confers grace Every sacramentum causes grace. ┏ A newborn child is baptized and the gifts of the Holy Spirit are infused. ┛ Sacraments do not confer grace simply because of “human faith”; sacraments indeed do not confer the grace which they signify; and they do this if there are no human obstacles. Indeed, the council states clearly the reason for such conferral of grace: God has ordained this “quantum est ex parte Dei.” The council emphasizes this free action of God in its use of the term ex opere operato, in contrast to the human good work: the human side of faith.
  4. 4. PRINCIPLE OF SACRAMENTALITY Thus, the Catholic Church affirms and upholds the teaching of the Council of Trent in the following words: This is the meaning of the Church’s affirmation that the sacraments act ex opere operato (literally: “by the very fact of the action’s being performed”), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished once for all. It follows that the “sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God.” From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLE OF SACRAMENTALITY The sacraments are truly signs given to us as a gift, but we are called to cooperate with this grace by receiving it through proper disposition and reception. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Both the CATHOLICS and PROTESTANTS have agreed on such point. However, a dispute as to the exact number of the sacraments has remained a great difference between the two. ---------------------------------------------------------------
  6. 6. SEVEN SACRAMENTS DEVELOPMENTS THROUGH THE CENTURIES Did Jesus really leave the apostles and the Church an explicit and detailed instruction of the seven sacraments that we have today? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In the past, the Church seemed to find refuge in claiming that the teachings of the Church cannot be questioned and therefore, silenced those who made further inquiries on such matter. However, the thirst for historical affirmation and empirical verification has dominated the mind of scholars and
  7. 7. SEVEN SACRAMENTS KENAN B. OSBORNE’s “Timeframe" of The Seven Sacraments 27 A.D. (Easter) Baptism Eucharist 200 400 Holy Order Anointing (Marriage) 150 Reconcilation 1000 1150 Confirmation Marriage See page 115, last paragraph
  8. 8. SEVEN SACRAMENTS The information in the previous slide leads us to a conclusion that not all the seven sacraments were explicitly instituted by Jesus Christ. Even so, all sacraments originate from HIM. The Catholic Church discovered the seven sacraments through the available historical records, scriptural references, and faithpractices of the early Christians. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- On the part of the early Christians, they did not actually call the seven rites that we have today as sacraments. In fact, we cannot find such term in the Gospels or in the entire New Testament. However, it is good to note, with fidelity to historical events in the past, that the Early Christians did practice Baptism, Holy Eucharist, Anointing of Oil, seeking and obtaining forgiveness as well as the power to forgive (as entrusted by Jesus to his disciples), the reception of the Holy Spirit and its gifts, the respect for marriage and the presence of
  9. 9. SEVEN SACRAMENTS So, we ask: In what period of history did the Church use the word sacrament and appropriate for itself the seven sacraments that we have today? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Historical records and ancient traditions reveal that the early Christians adopted the Greek word “ mysterion”, a word originally devoid of any religious meaning and significance, to their sacred rituals and activities. Such decision was likely influenced by the dominance of the Greek culture in the early centuries, and the co-existence of the “mystery cults of the pagans,” wherein its rites of passage for the members remained
  10. 10. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Cicero: Nothing is higher than these mysteries. They have sweetened our characters and softened our customs; they have made us pass from the condition of savages to true humanity. They have not only shown us the way to live joyfully, but they have taught us how to die with a better hope. (1992, Joseph Martos) The secret rites of the mystery religions, and the sacred rites of the Christians shared the word “ mysterion” but with varying shades and nuances of meanings, and significance. It was not until Tertullian in the 3rd century that the word “ sacramentum” began to appear and used as a term with an exclusive reference to the sacred rites of the Christians.
  11. 11. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Tertullian was looking for an equivalent of the Greek word mysterion for his Latin-speaking audience. He adopted sacramentum perhaps because it is already referred to Roman religious rites, and even accused the Greek mysteries of imitating the Christian sacraments. In a discussion of the meaning of Baptism, Tertullian explained that it was similar to the sacramentum which was adminisered to Roman recruits when they entered the army. The sacramentum was a religious initiation; so was Baptism. It marked the beginning of a new way of life, so did Baptism. It was an oath of allegiance
  12. 12. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Thus, the word sacramentum replaced the Greek word mysterion. But Tertullian only regarded Baptism and Eucharist as the sacred rites. Later in the 4th century, Augustine (354-430) spoke of sacrament as “a sacrum signum or a verbum visible.” Augustine employs the term for many things, not just Baptism and Eucharist, but he does so on the basis of this sign character. For Augustine, there is hidden, mysterious reality which enters our human world through special signs. The distinction between the reality and the sign is the basis of a true sacramental theology. It is this combination of reality/sign which will be developed in a very rigorous way after 1000. Truly, we are thankful to Augustine for his contribution to sacramental theology, and his definition of sacrament as “a sign of a sacred thing"
  13. 13. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Isidore of Seville (633) discovered an important aspect of the sacraments – the act of remembrance (or anamnesis) so that “the sacrament themselves recalled the saving activity of God in the incarnation.” Hugh - a monk in the Abbey of St. Victor, was dissatisfied with the broad definition of Augustine on the sacrament, and proposed a narrower definition which includes “not only the familiar seven but also such things as the incarnation of Christ, the Church, holy water, bleed ashes, the sign of the cross, and vows.”
  14. 14. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Peter Abelard enumerated only six sacraments, excluding holy orders Peter Lombard “gathered together biblical quotations and patristic texts on every major theological issue of the day, and added his own observations and conclusions about them.” His work became very helpful because it was accepted and came to be adopted as a “standard theological source book for all beginning theology students.” His treatment on the number of sacraments was seven, as it was practiced during his day and as we know it
  15. 15. SEVEN SACRAMENTS Lombard’s book became very popular and widely used. Thus, his “enumeration of the Catholic sacraments (the seven sacred rites) soon became accepted by theologians and preachers alike, and by the end of the next century it was accepted by synods and councils.” His description of sacrament can be read from his book on Sentences V, 1.2, which reads: SOMETHING IS PROPERLY CALLED A SACRAMENT BECAUSE IT IS A SIGN OF GOD’S GRACE, AND IS SUCH AN IMAGE OF INVISIBLE GRACE THAT IT
  16. 16. SACRAMENT DEFINED A SENSIBLE SIGN, INSTITUTED BY CHRIST IN ORDER TO GIVE GRACE. Catechism for the Filipino Catholics: symbolic acts or visible signs, arising from the ministry of Jesus Christ and continued in, by and for the Church, which, when received in faith, fashions us into likeness to Christ in his Paschal Mystery, through the power of the Holy Spirit.
  17. 17. JESUS AS PRIMORDIAL SACRAMENT TRUE TO ITS FAITH IN JESUS AND FAITHFUL TO ITS TRADITION, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BELIEVES THAT: “Instituted by Christ” does not mean that Jesus taught his apostles in detail that there were to be seven sacraments, and how to administer them. Rather Jesus “instituted” the sacraments by first being the sacrament of his Father through his whole life of word and action, and then by establishing the Church to be his basic sacrament.
  18. 18. JESUS AS PRIMORDIAL SACRAMENT The Church has remained humble in its claim about the historical beginning of the seven sacraments by not insisting on it literal, explicit origin in the person and teaching of Jesus. Instead, it simply and firmly claims that the sacraments, in essence, are rooted in the humanity of Jesus Christ. It emphasizes his humanity to be the Primordial Sacrament of the Father, not his divinity. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jesus must be considered as primordial sacrament only in virtue of his human nature. His divinity should not be seen as sacramental order to avoid any
  19. 19. JESUS AS PRIMORDIAL SACRAMENT Catechism for the Filipino Catholics: 1. SOURCE/ORIGINATOR Jesus is the one whom all the sacraments are rooted and from whom they derive their efficacy 2. PRIMARY AGENT Jesus is the one who baptizes, confirms, forgives and reconciles, heals, offers himself in sacrifice, binds in faithful love, and consecrates for service 3. GOAL OF ALL SACRAMENTS Jesus is the perfection toward which our life on earth tends
  20. 20. CHURCH AS THE BASIC SACRAMENT But how can Christ continue his ministry of loving, and saving souls if he is no longer physically around? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In the communal celebration of the sacraments, the Church utters the Epiclesis wherein the Church invokes the presence and power of the Holy Spirit in order to make the signs effective and efficacious as they are intended to be, and celebrate the redemptive acts of Jesus, thereby making present and active the person of Jesus Christ and his saving grace to the community. And it is in this sense that the
  21. 21. PURPOSE OF THE SACRAMENTS CFC: All the sacraments have their special graces since they all manifest the different ways in which Christ comes to us, meeting us at all the decisive and ordinary moments of our lives. THE EFFECT OF THE SACRAMENT IS TWOFOLD: To draw us into a closer relationship to the Church To relationship to Christ himself, in the Spirit and to the Father
  22. 22. PURPOSE OF THE SACRAMENTS How do the sacraments effect this? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ We know that when we fully, consciously and actively celebrate them, the sacraments exercise all our powers – mind, heart, affections, will, imagination, and behavior. The sacraments exercise their special POWER to shape our imaginations, develop our affections and direct our behavior in “Childlikeness” – in brief, to gradually transform us into Christ’s way of thinking, Christ’s way of acting, Christ’s way of praying and loving, , forgiving and serving.
  23. 23. PURPOSE OF THE SACRAMENTS St. Paul: “put on the Lord Jesus Christ ” It is the power of the Holy Spirit that effects this gradual transformation into Christ’s way. But sacraments can effect this only if celebrated in faith, for without faith no saving personal relationship can be established or strengthened… Vatican II had likewise stressed faith while explaining that the purpose of the sacrament is: to sanctify men and women, to build up the Body of Christ, and to give worship to God. Because they are signs, they also instruct.
  24. 24. CONCLUSION Make use of these new knowledge for growth and advancement of our faith in Jesus, and for greater appreciation of the Sacramental life of the Church. We must not forget that we, too, in our own unique and humble ways are “signs” to others , and to the rest of creation – sacred persons who are fashioned in the image and likeness of God. The way we act our faith, and the way we practice the preaching we received reveal our identity as Christians, and children of God.
  25. 25. CONCLUSION The manner by which we relate to others – in our attitude of kindness and compassion, in our commitment to love the least and the unloved, in our dedication to seek what unites and builds community of persons, is itself a concrete visible sign of God’s kindness, compassion and love to all. BE A SIGN THAT WILL LEAD OTHERS TO GOD. BE AN INSTRUMENT OF FAITH, HOPE, AND LOVE OF GOD.
  26. 26. SEVEN SACRAMENTS BAPTISM CONFIRMATION (CHRISMATION) EUCHARIST PENANCE ANOINTING OF THE SICK HOLY ORDERS MATRIMONY
  27. 27. THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS The seven sacraments touch all the stages and the important moments of Christian life: They give birth and increase, healing and mission to the Christian’s life of faith There is thus a certain resemblance between the stages of natural life and the stages of the spiritual life
  28. 28. BAPTISM Biblical Foundations: Matthew 28:19-20 Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of age.
  29. 29. BAPTISM In Acts 2:37-38, the Apostle Peter, after declaring Jesus as Lord and Messiah on the Day of the Pentecost, stresses the necessity of Baptism to those who seek in receiving Christ into their lives: Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and they asked Peter and the other apostles, “What are we to do, my brothers?” Peter [said] to them, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
  30. 30. BAPTISM Baptism, during the time of Jesus, and even during the time of his apostles, was the sacrament accepted and continued as the first step into early Christian community, and the external, public act of receiving Christ. It is imperative for every believer in Christ to be baptized as it is briefly explained by Jovian Lang (1989): Baptism is the cleansing by water of all sins, bringing about rebirth and sanctification in Christ, which incorporates the person into the Church. By means of it the person passes from death of sin into life, and its celebration should reflect the
  31. 31. BAPTISM Recipient: given for every person not yet baptized and only such person is able to be baptized With the gratuitous intention of sharing to all the gift of new life in Christ and the promise of salvation inherited as sons and daughters of God, both infant, and the adult are invited to receive Christ in an act of faith by the community (infant baptism), and by the candidate himself (adult baptism).
  32. 32. BAPTISM Minister: the ordinary minister of baptism is a bishop, a priest, or deacon On the other hand, in case of necessity, any person, even someone not baptized, can baptize, if he has the required intention. The intention required is the will to do what the Church does when she baptizes, and to apply the Trinitarian formula.
  33. 33. BAPTISM Matter: Water Form: The Trinitarian Formula “I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.”
  34. 34. BAPTISM Effects - enables the newly baptized to receive forgiveness from all sins, original sin and all personal sins, as well as all punishment for sin; - Not only purifies from all sins, but also makes the neophyte “a new creature,” and adopted son of God, who has become a “partaker of the divine nature,” member of Christ’s

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