Sugar industry india


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Sugar industry india

  1. 1. Sugar The sugar industry is one of the largest sectors of the Indian economy and India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Sugar is exported from India in recent years. Maharashtra contributes over one-third of country’s sugar output (36 per cent) followed by Uttar Pradesh with 25 per cent. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the other two important sugar-producing states in the country. There has been record production of sugar during sugar year1999- 2000 (October – September) estimated at 18.2 million tonnes.Year Area Cane Cane Utilization Sugar Production Under Prod. Million tonnes Lakh tonnes Cane Million tonnes Million For For For Target Revised hectares Prod. Sugar Gur & Seed Khandsari. & Chew2002- 4.36 309.9 181 92.0 37 182 19203 In terms of sugarcane production, India and Brazil are almost equally placed. In India, about 60% of cane is utilized for the 1
  2. 2. production of sugar, about 30% for alternate sweeteners, namely gurand khandsari, and the balance 10% for seeds. In Brazil, out of the total cane available for crushing, 45% goesfor sugar production and 55% for the production of ethanol directlyfrom sugarcane juice. This gives the sugar industry in Brazil anadditional flexibility to adjust its sugar production keeping in view thesugar price in the international market as nearly 40% of the sugaroutput is exported. The annual projected growth rate in the area under sugarcaneat 1.5% per annum has doubled during the last five years. This isbecause it is considered to be an assured cash crop with goodreturns to the farmers vis-a-vis other competing crops. About 35 million farmers constituting about 7% of the ruralpopulation are engaged in growing sugar cane. The industry absorbsa sizable portion of the cane crop and provides the farmer with theresources to meet his commitments. Each sugar factory deals withthousands of cane farmers. Sugar cane being a highly perishablecrop, cannot be transported over long distances. On storing cut canefor more than two days inversion of sucrose to mono-saccharidestakes place. Inversion is minimized by shading cuttings and makingquick delivery of the cane, at the mill. 2
  3. 3. Sucrose: C12H22O11Disaccharide of glucose and fructoseQuantitative requirements: Basis: 1 ton of raw sugar (97% sucrose);yield from cane-95% on sucrose basis, 9.5-15% on basis.Sugar cane: 6 to 10.5 tons of 16 to 10% sucrose contentWater: 3 to 4 tonsLime: 12 to 17 kgSO2: 6 to 10 kgProcess description: Canes are shredded in crushers andsqueezed through a series of pressure mills containing grooved walls.Weak juice and make up water are added as extracting fluids beforesqueezing to optimize juice yield at 95 to 97% The juice is treated with Calcium phosphate, followed by lime toprecipitate the colloids. SO2 is next bubbled through until the pH is7.0 to7.1. This procedure provides maximum flocculation of 3
  4. 4. impurities. The SO2 also acts as a bleaching agent. Phosphoric acidor CO2 can be substituted as the acidifying agent. Closed steam in a coil is used to heat and further flocculate theimpurities in a continuous settler. The clarified liquor overflows to theevaporator. The underflow mud is processed on a continuous rotarypress to recover sugar solution that is either passed forward to theevaporator or backward to the thickener again if it is not clear. Thefilter cake is used for fertilizer. The clarified juice is concentrated to 80-85 % water to 40% in a3 or 4 effect evaporator with crystallization completed in a vacuumpan unit. The mixture of syrup and crystal are separated via a highspeed basket centrifugal. The syrup is re-concentrated and cooledsuccessively to obtain one or more crops of crystals. The final mother liquor is known as black strap molasses that issent to distilleries for conversion to ethyl alcohol.Ethanol For ‘gasohol’ in India: India is the worlds second largest sugar producer. It produced arecord 18.5 million tonnes in 2001/02, up from 18.2 million in theprevious year. According to MPNG, 5% ethanol blends (with petrol) on anall-India basis would require 500 million liters. The current availabilityof molasses and alcohol would be adequate to meet this requirementafter fully meeting the requirement of the chemical industry andpotable sectors. 4
  5. 5. Indias oil ministry has already tested ethanol-blended petroland worked out a package of tax concessions to make the fuelcompetitively priced. India consumed seven million tonnes of petrol in the year toMarch 2002, up six per cent from the previous fiscal year. Demandfor the fuel has been rising because of a surge in the sale of cars. India imports more than two-thirds of its crude oil needs for itsrefineries that can process 2.3 million barrels per day. Petrol stations in Indias richest states were directed to blendpetrol with ethanol from January 2003."As a part of the ministrys efforts to reduce oil import dependency,the sale of five per cent ethanol-doped petrol is being mandated innine states," Petroleum Minister, Naik told a meeting of Members ofParliament.The states where ethanol will be blended include the mostindustrialized provinces of Maharashtra and Gujarat, Karnataka,where Indias biggest software firms are located, as well as Punjaband Haryana, Indias biggest grain producers.It will also be introduced in Uttar Pradesh, Goa, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu and the federally ruled regions of Dadra and NagarHaveli, Pondicherry, Daman and Diu, and Chandigarh. 5
  6. 6. BEER AND POTABLE ALCOHOLThe Ministry of Food Processing Industries is the AdministrativeMinistry for beer and non-molasses based potable alcohol. Boththese items are under compulsory licensing of the Govt. of India.However, fresh applications for grant of Industrial Licence for themanufacture of beer and potable alcohol (non-molasses based) arenot being entertained since 1.4.1991 and 16.3.1991 respectively,except in the case of 100% EOUs.At present, there are 33 units manufacturing beer, under licence fromGovt. of India, having an estimated output of 3.75 lac KL per annum.The total foreign investment approved in the beer industry is aboutRs.118 crores.At present [1997] there are 12 units manufacturing scotch whisky /non-molasses based potable alcohol, including wines, under licencefrom the Govt. of India. The total foreign investment approved in thepotable alcohol industry is about Rs.222 crores. 6