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India has a legal process for Food security now.

India has a legal process for Food security now.

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  • 1. Poverty, Child Nutrition and pre-school Education in India FOOD SECURITY ACT 2013 and
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  • 3. Food_Availability, Access and Absorption • Food availability is assured when enough of it is produced or imported and at an affordable price it is available locally. • Food access is assured when we can buy, prepare and consume food to avail a nutritious diet. • Food absorption is assured when we have normal physical and mental health and are able to maintain it with our diet. 3
  • 4. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY-1 Initiatives to improve the nutritional status of the population during the last five decades include: • Increasing food production and building buffer stocks. • Improving food distribution and building up the public distribution system [PDS] • Improving household food security through: – improving purchasing power, – food for work programmes and – direct or indirect food subsidy. 4
  • 5. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY-2 • Food supplementation to address special needs of – the vulnerable groups, – Integrated Child Development services [ICDS] and – mid-day meals at secondary schools • Nutrition education, especially through – Food and Nutrition Board [FNB] and – ICDS. 5
  • 6. Population below Poverty Line is significant • Although India has become self sufficient in food grains production, the ever increasing population of the country is a major cause of concern in sustaining food security and nutritional security. The population approaches 1200 million, while about 260 million are below the poverty line and prevalence of widespread under-nourishment and mal-nourishment are a cause of concern. 6
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  • 8. IS THIS TRUE OF TODAY'S INDIA? LACK OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, SUPERSTITIONS AND BELIEFS HAVE TO BE DEALT WITH 8
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  • 10. child under-nutrition in India • Stunting (deficiency in height for age) • Wasting (deficiency in weight for height) • Underweight (that is deficient in weight for age - a composite measure of stunting and wasting). • Most of the times, child deaths and suffering because of poor nutrition go unnoticed. • That India reports among the highest levels of child under-nutrition has been rightly termed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as a "national shame". 10
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  • 12. early childcare is very important • People below poverty line neglect the young. India continues to lose 6 % of our newborns before their first birthday; 50 % of our toddlers to malnutrition and a whole generation to poor health, low skills and poverty. • Can we afford to ignore the role that crèches play in the survival, development and wellbeing of young children? 12
  • 13. Eliminate under nutrition 13
  • 14. Brain development from Infancy to childhood • Infants: children below one year • Toddlers: age group 1-2 years • Preschoolers: age group 3 to 5 years • School going: In the age group 6 to 14 • Scientists say 90% of brain develops by age 5 • Economists say prevention is better than cure and • Child specialists say early years are foundational to development 14
  • 15. Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) • It is a major national programme that addresses the needs of children under the age of six years. • It seeks to provide young children with an integrated package of services such as supplementary nutrition, healthcare and pre-school education. • As the needs of a child can not be addressed in isolation from those of its mother, the programme also extends to adolescent girls, pregnant women and nursing mothers. 15
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  • 18. Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) • Over the last two decades the ICDS coverage has progressively increased. As of March 2002, 5652 projects have been sanctioned; there are more than 5 lakh anganwadis in the country. • The number of persons covered under ICDS rose from 5.7 million children of 0 – 6 age, and 1.2 million mothers in 1985 to 31.5 million children and 6 million mothers up to March 2002. 18
  • 19. What is a crèche? • A crèche is not just an enabling mechanism so that mothers can work, but central to the battle against malnutrition, low birth weight and infant mortality. • It essentially facilitates an aware adult to take on the small tasks involved in childcare for children under three years of age such as patient feeding of small katories of soft food three or four times a day. Continued… 19
  • 20. What is a crèche? • It essentially facilitates an aware adult to take on the small tasks involved in childcare for children under three years of age such as • A quick response to fever or diarrhea, • To prevent illness from becoming life threatening, • Some one to greet and comfort the child when she wakes up.
  • 21. A crèche essentially facilitates • We need crèches so that grand-parents do not ask girls to stay back leaving them free to play run and go to school. • We need crèches so that women are treated as citizens with rights and receive the support they need during this time of motherhood and early childcare, thus enabling them to participate in work and life. 21
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  • 24. Women’s education and child malnutrition • Data show that malnutrition among Indian children born to illiterate mothers (52%), is almost three times higher than levels reported among mothers who have completed 12 years of education(18%). 24
  • 25. The proportion of rural population that is below the BPL [ Below Poverty Line] 25
  • 26. National Food Security Bill, 2013 • To provide for food and nutritional security in human life cycle approaches to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. 26
  • 27. The state-run Food Corporation of India will distribute subsidized grains through a nationwide network of ―fair price shops.‖ In 2011, the latest year for which government data are available, the FCI ran more than 505,000 fair price shops in India. Subsidized grain is provided to individuals earning less than the benchmark poverty line, set at 33 rupees (55 cents) a day in urban areas and 27 rupees (45 cents) a day in rural areas. The new bill doesn’t spell out the groups that qualify as beneficiaries or how the government plans to identify them. 27
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  • 29. Because of mid-day meal, it attracted many children to go schools and even if there is some news of discrepancies in the process it is because of the corruption in between not the faulty government policy. Some say that Food Security Bill is nothing than wastage of money or vote bank politics. Government should utilize this amount of village or rural development program like accessing pure drinking water, better infrastructure and hospital, roads and schools. As human right, it will be implemented. 29
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  • 35. Pre-primary Education Pre-primary Education is offered to children in both urban and rural areas. In urban areas, where sufficient children are available within a reasonable radius, separate Nursery Schools or departments are provided. (continued) 35
  • 36. Pre-primary Education • Otherwise nursery classes are attached to Junior Basic or Primary Schools. • In addition to that Pre-Primary education is provided free of cost. • Thus, the main object of Pre-primary Education is to give young children social experience rather than formal instruction. • It has an essential part to play in every school System, though Pre-primary education in India is not a fundamental right and thus a very low percentage of children receive preschool educational facilities. 36
  • 37. • In India these services are called Integrated Child Development Services and Anganwadis. • Indian pre- primary schools have different provisions. • These kindergartens are divided into two stages lower kindergarten (LKG) and upper kindergarten (UKG). • LKG class comprises children from 3 to 4 years of age, and the • UKG class comprises children 4 to 5 years of age. • The completion of preprimary schools sends the children to primary schools. 37
  • 38. In the formal education system, Pre-primary Education is considered to be an integral part of regular schools. Therefore, all pre -primary instruction is attached to Junior Basic or Primary Schools. The pre primary education is termed as `Nursery`. 38
  • 39. Pre primary education also extends to • Kindergartens, • crèches and • Montessori schools. In these sections of schools, these special educational facilities are made available to the children below the compulsory age of six. 39
  • 40. The main objective of pre-primary education is • to present an environment to children to develop a healthy mind through constructive activities and • informal learning experiences. • This environment also prepares children for a later day primary education by • enabling them to adjust to the surroundings outside their home. 40
  • 41. Pre-primary education helps develop • the physical and mental development of the children, • promote their emotional and educational development, and • smoothen their socialization (social development) process. 41
  • 42. Actually, in pre-primary education importance is not to be given to any kind of formal teaching or learning, and attention is to be given to the psychological development of the children. The activities of pre-school are to be designed as per the interest and the need of the children. So, it is ideal not to have a permanent syllabus for the preschool programme. 42
  • 43. Generally, the main activities of pre-schools are free-play, organized play, story sessions, music and dance, acting, drawing and painting, creative work, nature study, language development, and inculcating a sense of counting, measurements, and weight. 43
  • 44. SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES, PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION, LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT MATERIALS • A child who is already a member of a family learns to become a member of a society through the process of socialization in which language plays a very important role. • Though it is often quoted that, as far as preschool is concerned, "love is the language and play is the method," love should also be expressed in a human language, in addition to other parental or caregivers' loving behavior, including nonverbal behavior. 44
  • 45. SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES, PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION, LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT MATERIALS • The shelter of parental love takes a backseat in the pre-school environment, and is, kind of, substituted by an institutional arrangement of a learning environment in which teacher and other children come to play a part. • From a family situation, a child thus begins to get exposed to the rain and shine of the community that surrounds it. 45
  • 46. Role of mother tongue • This process of socialization becomes very natural if it is done in the mother tongue of the child. • Since language itself is a system of symbols, when the initial socialization is done in a nonmother tongue of the child, language symbolism gets more complicated and the child begins to feel uneasy. 46
  • 47. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • This happens more so, especially when the language used in the pre-school has no opportunities of reinforcement outside its school environment. • First generation learners and children from the families which have very little exposure or competence in English face this barrier. 47
  • 48. The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (referred to as Elementary Education in India.) It has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. Both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run/supported, making it the largest provider of education in the Country. 48
  • 49. • However, due to shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from • massive gaps including high pupil teacher ratios, • shortage of infrastructure and • poor level of teacher training. • Education has also been made free for children for six to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. 49
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  • 51. UN-MDG Progress Report 2010 • In India, the per cent age of undernourished population was reduced from 24 % to 21 %. • Human Development Index of India was 134 in 1984 and it has remained same in 2007. • South Asia has done well in providing universal primary education, reaching 90% in 2008. • National Advisory Council in India submitted a draft of a Food Security Bill to Govt. of India; Food Security Act has become a law now. 51
  • 52. Negative comments: On FSA-2013 Provide Food for the poor, but it should not be done by burning hands of lower middle class people. It should not be done by promoting unproductivity. Rather than being charitable, the Govt would do well to make the unprivileged class earn this food. Their being productive can contribute to the nation Building exercise. If this is not done, it would just seem as if government is keen to feed the Lazy millions. A lot of money is being poured into them without getting any benefit for the country. Therefore it would not be wrong to say that Food Security bill is a Poison Pill. 52
  • 53. Delivery Infrastructure – Ours is a 1.2 billion strong country. This Bill aims to benefit 80 Crore + people. It is highly unlikely that we have a infrastructure in place to deliver the output to the originally intended recipient. Most of the states have raised their hands (including some Congress ruled states) saying that they do not have the adequate infrastructure in place to make this delivery program a success. Storage of such large quantities of food grains is another issue. Last year thousands of metric tonnes grains were left to rot in the open due to lack of proper storage facility 53
  • 54. Rampant Corruption – This scheme has all the ingredients it needs to fill the pockets of corrupt bureaucrats and politicians. With no transparency in the Delivery mechanism and lack of proper storage facilities, the Bill could act as a catalyst for Black marketing. With an estimated cost of 1.2 Lakh Crores in the 1st year, estimated to grow upwards, this scheme has the potential to turn into one of the largest scams to have ever happened in the History 54
  • 55. Quality & Compromise – FSB aims to fulfill the bellies of Indians, but is it adequate? We for once do not know what would be the quality of grains that would be used to distribute. Secondly is it feasible for someone to survive just with Rice or Wheat. Food Security Bill does not address the problem of a Balanced Diet. Human Body needs Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Proteins, Minerals and other nutrients. With Food Security Bill one only consumes Carbohydrates, other nutrients are ignored. So if the aim is to just fill/stuff bellies, FSB serves its purpose but if it is to provide adequate nutrition, FSB falls way short of target. 55
  • 56. How Bad, Really, Is India's New Food Security Bill? The bill, which is expected to become law in the coming days, will likely create the world’s largest welfare scheme. It has caused much hand wringing amongst political pundits, economists and the media, asking if India, already suffering from a budget deficit and struggling with a slowing economy and a depreciating currency, can afford this extra burden. 56
  • 57. India, passed a food security law, and Timor-Leste have the highest prevalence of underweight in children under five — more than 40 per cent in both countries. Social inequality and low nutritional, educational, and social status of women as the major causes of child under-nutrition in South Asia. ―2.6 billion people have to live on less than two dollars a day. For them a sick family member, a single drought or the job loss of someone working abroad is a major crisis…. These people have simply no coping mechanisms left to react to a crisis,‖ according to Welthungerhilfe’s Chairperson Bärbel Dieckmann. 57