Affective science is the study of emotions and of affective phenomena suchas moods, affects and bodily feelings. It combines the perspectives of many dis-ciplines, such as neuroscience, psychology and philosophy . Emotions have adeep and profound influence on all aspects of human functioning, and altered ordysfunctional emotional responses are implicated in both the etiology and thesymptomology of many pathological conditions. Depression, for example, whichis characterised by abnormally low affect and generally attened emotional re-actions, is one of the fastest-growing public health problems in many countries,corresponding to massive growth in sales of pharmaceuticals (and other sub-stances) which target human aect
Canonical fear also involves an action tendency to fight-or-flight, a bad (powerless, negative, anxious) feeling, a behavioural response to the emotion that includes a characteristic fearful facial expression
Cognitive neuroscience uses research “paradigms” – experimental designs intended to allow comparison of brain activation between different conditions. The subtraction of the brain activation for the control condition from the brain activation for the test condition then gives the “net” activation, which is what is reported on in the literature, subject to statistical analysis.
Emotion Ontology and Affective Neuroscience
ICBO MFO Workshop, 22 July 2012Annotating affective neuroscience data with the Emotion Ontology Janna Hastings1,2 Werner Ceusters3 Kevin Mulligan2 Barry Smith3 1 Cheminformatics and Metabolism, European Bioinformatics Institute, UK 2 Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland 3 National Center for Ontological Research, University at Buffalo, USA
Affective scienceThe interdisciplinary study of: emotional functioning, regulation, expression, and physiological markers affective disorders such as bipolar, depression and schizoaffective disorderTuesday, August 07, 2012 2
To define the characteristics of different emotions start with canonical emotionsEmotion types (such as fear) show enormous variance across instancesJust as do anatomical types, e.g. human bodiesOntology expresses what is always true… But also aims to saysomething useful for representation of domain knowledge.Solution: encode such knowledge in ‘canonical’ types canonical Has part appraisal Has output Appraisal of fear process dangerousness Canonical fear results from an appraisal of dangerousness Tuesday, August 07, 2012 5
Canonical fear fear subtype canonical fear EMOTION COMPONENT CHARACTERISTIC FOR FEAR Action tendency Fight-or-flight Subjective emotional feeling Negative, tense, powerless Behavioural response Characteristic fearful facial expression Characteristic appraisal Something is dangerous to meTuesday, August 07, 2012 6
Affective neuroscienceCognitive neuroscience of emotion and otheraffective phenomena: studying the brain correlatesof emotional functioning in humans usingfunctional brain imaging technology (fMRI, EEG)Meta-analysis: comparing the results of multipledifferent experiments in order to arrive at aconsistent view of brain activation for a process in alarger population
Size of the neuroimaging literature“By the end of the year 2008 approximately9400 fMRI studies investigating human cognitionand action will have been published in Englishlanguage journals” and 2012?Derfuss and Mar, Lost in localization: The needfor a universal coordinate database,NeuroImage 48, 2009
NeuroSynthAutomatically assembled by text miningneuroimaging journals and extractinga) brain localization coordinates reported in tables,andb) words that appear in the papers with activationreported in or near specific coordinates, sorted byfrequency.But, the trouble with words is…
Cognitive AtlasThe Cognitive Atlas is a collaborative knowledgebuilding project (using a Wiki platform) thataims to develop a knowledge base thatcharacterizes the state of current thought incognitive science.• But: the trouble with cognitive scientists’ thoughts is…
Using the Emotion Ontology for annotation of data from Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion Study Task Annotation class in MFO/MFOEM Recognition of gender in emotional Visual perception of emotional facial facial expressions expressions (subClassOf perception) Recall of personal emotional Memory of emotional episodes memories with instructions to try re- (subClassOf memory) create feeling Listening to emotional sounds (e.g. Auditory perception of emotional grunts of disgust) stimuli (subClassOf perception) Viewing emotional film extracts Visual and auditory perception of emotional stimuli (subClassOf perception)Tuesday, August 07, 2012 17
Visual perception of an angry faceMF:visual perception and has-participant some ( IAO:picture and is-about some MFOEM:characteristic angry facialexpression )What is the subject feeling as they perceive?What does the experimenter think they arestudying (and what they report on)?
Acknowledgements Thanks!Emotion Researchers in Geneva David Sander, Julien Deonna Chemistry, Biology, Neuroscience Christoph Steinbeck, Nicolas le Novère, Colin Batchelor, David Osumi-Sutherland, Jane Lomax, Gwen Frishkoff, Jessica Turner, Angela LairdTuesday, August 07, 2012 20