”The captain of the death of the men” -William Osler
What is PNEUMONIA? PNEUMONIA is aninfection of the lungs that iscaused by bacteria, viruses,fungi, or parasites. It ischaracterized primarilyby inflammation of the alveoli inthe lungs or by alveoli that arefilled with fluid (alveoli aremicroscopic sacs in the lungs that
Inflammation of alveolar wallFluid and pus filledair space contains bacteria
What causes pneumonia?There are over 30 differentcauses of pneumonia, but themost common causes arebacteria (including mycoplasma)and viruses. Corresponding tothese causes are the mostcommon types of pneumonia -bacterial pneumonia,viralpneumonia and mycoplasmal
3 Common Types of PneumoniaA. BACTERIAL pneumonia - present in many throats4 CAUSATIVE AGENTS: streptococcus pneumoniae -resulting in lobar pneumonia
4 CAUSATIVE AGENTS: hemophilus influenzae -resulting in bronchopneumonia legionella pneumophilia -resulting in Legionnaires’ disease staphylococcus aureus - is a type of bacteria that about 30%of people carry in their noses
B. VIRAL pneumonia - Half of all pneumonias are believed to becaused by viruses, such as: influenza (flu) adenovirus coxsackievirus chickenpox measles cytomegalovirus respiratory syncytial virus
C. MYCOPLASMAL pneumonia a.k.a. "walking pneumonia" the mycoplasmas multiply and spread,causing infection
WHO ARE AT RISK? •65 years of age or older •People with AIDS or •Male HIV •Children under the age •Organ transplant of two recipients •People with colds or •People other respiratory infectio receiving chemotherapy ns •People who smoke •People with reduced •Alcoholics immunity •People with chronic •People with other lung health problems, such diseases, such as lung disease, heart as asthma cystic fibrosis disease, kidney and lung cancer disorders or diabetes
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS VIRAL BACTERIAL •fever •shaking •dry cough •chills •headache •chattering teeth •muscle pain •severe chest pain and weakness •cough that produces ----------------------------------- rust •increasing •colored or greenish breathlessness mucus •dry cough becomes •very high fever worse and produces a •sweating small amount of mucus •rapid breathing •higher fever •rapid pulse rate •bluish color to the lips
MYCOPLASMAL Regardless of the type•violent coughing of pneumoniaattacks •a loss in appetite•chills •feeling ill•fever •clammy skin•nausea & vomiting •nasal flaring•slow heartbeat •fatigue•breathlessness •mental confusion•bluish color to lips and •joint and muscle stiffnessnailbeds •anxiety•diarrhea •stress•rash •tension•muscle aches •abdominal pain
legionella pneumophilia and staphylococcusaureus bacteria- antibiotics: erythromycin
Treatment of VIRALpneumonia to antibiotic treatment does NOT respond This type of pneumonia usually resolves over time. If the lungs become infected with a secondary bacterial infection, the doctor will prescribe an appropriate antibiotic to eliminate the bacterial infection.
Treatment ofMYCOPLASMAL pneumonia often treated with antibiotics such as: - erythromycin - clarithromycin (Biaxin®) - tetracycline or azithromycin (Zithromax®).
Radiographic images in a patient with right upper lobepneumonia(bacterial). Note the increased anteroposterior chest diameter, which is suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Wedge-shaped portion of Wedge-shaped pneumonia infected lungs portion of pneumonia infected lun
BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA BACTERIAL PNEUMONIARadiographic images in a Radiographic images in a patientpatient with early right middle with bilateral lower lobelobe pneumonia. pneumonia. Note the spine sign, or loss of progression of radiolucency of the vertebral bodies
How is pneumonia prevented? Practice good hygiene. Get an influenza shot each fall. Practice good preventive measures by eating a properdiet, getting regular exercise and plenty of sleep. Do not smoke.
Get a pneumococcal vaccine:-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar®) Prevnar is generally administered as part of the normal infant immunization procedure and is recommended for children less than 2 years of age or between two and four years with certain medical conditions.-pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax ) ® is provided for adults who are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia, such as the elderly, diabetics, those with chronic heart, lung, or kidney disease, alcoholics, smokers, and those without a spleen. The pneumonia vaccine may not completely prevent older adults from getting pneumonia, but it can reduce the severity of a future pneumonia.
PNEUMONIA3 most common Summary agents of bacterial Causative types pneumonia ( most common type ) BACTERIAL STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA PNEUMONIAE VIRAL PNEUMONIA HEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA MYCOPLASMAL LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILIA PNEUMONIA STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Causative agents of viral pneumonia INFLUENZA (FLU) ADENOVIRUS COXSACKIEVIRUS CHICKENPOX MEASLES CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
Summary of drugs for pneumonia (generic only)Bacterial BacterialCaused by streptococcus Caused by hemophilus influenza penicillin cefuroxime ampicillin-clavulanate ampicillin-clavulanate erythromycin ofloxacin trimethoprim-sulfanethoxazoleBacterial MycoplasmalCaused by legionella erythromycinpneumophilia &staphylococcus aureus clarithromycin erythromycin tetracycline or azithromycin
At times of very serious condition, pneumonia can make a person very sick or even cause death. Although the disease can occur in young and healthy people, it is most dangerous for older adults, babies, and people with other diseases or impaired immune systems.
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