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Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. He is noted for his conceptualization of a "hierarchy of human needs", and is considered the founder of humanistic psychology.
Physiological needs are literally the requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met (with the exception of clothing, shelter, and sexual activity), the human body simply cannot continue to function. Physiological needs include: Breathing Food Homeostasis Sex Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements.. Physiological needs
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. These needs have to do with people's yearning for a predictable orderly world in which perceived unfairness and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like. Safety and Security needs include: Personal security Financial security Health and well-being Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts Safety needs
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. This aspect of Maslow's hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as: Friendship Intimacy Family Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. Love and belonging
Esteem All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. Note, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.
“What a man can be, he must be.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. Self-actualization
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Criticisms on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
They have several problems with Maslow's pyramid. One of them is that needs, once they are met, do not simply disappear. Rather, certain environmental cues can make them come back. Thus, Kenrick et al. created a new pyramid in which the needs overlap one another and coexist, instead of completely replacing each other. The bottom four levels of this pyramid are highly compatible with Maslow’s, but their top three are mate acquisition, mate retention and parenting. Made in this way, human needs are considered from the perspective of evolutionary psychology Psychologist Douglas Kenrick of Arizona State University
Revised version of Maslow's pyramid of needs. Credit: Doug Kenrick, Arizona State University
(May 13, 1893 – June 23, 1988) was an American psychologist who taught for over 30 years at Harvard University. He was founder of the Boston Psychoanalytic Society and developed a theory of personality based on "need" and "press". He also is developer of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) which is widely used by psychologists. Henry Alexander Murray
Primary NeedsPrimary needs are based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water. Secondary NeedsSecondary needs are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement. Murray's Types of Needs
List of Psychogenic Need (The following is a partial list of 24 needs identified by Murray and his colleagues. According to Murray, all people have these needs, but each individual tends to have a certain level of each need.) 1. Ambition Needs Achievement: Success, accomplishment, and overcoming obstacles. Exhibition: Shocking or thrilling other people. Recognition: Displaying achievements and gaining social status. 2. Materialistic Needs Acquisition: Obtaining things. Construction: Creating things. Order: Making things neat and organized. Retention: Keeping things. 3. Power Needs Abasement: Confessing and apologizing. Autonomy: Independence and resistance. Aggression: Attacking or ridiculing others. Blame Avoidance: Following the rules and avoiding blame. Deference: Obeying and cooperating with others. Dominance: Controlling others. 4. Affection Needs Affiliation: Spending time with other people. Nurturance: Taking care of another person. Play: Having fun with others. Rejection: Rejecting other people. Succorance: Being helped or protected by others. 5. Information Needs Cognizance: Seeking knowledge and asking questions. Exposition: Education others.
An American psychological theorist. Noted for his work on achievement motivation and consciousness, he published a number of works from the 1950s until the 1990s and had a hand in the creation of the scoring system for the Thematic Apperception Test One of McClelland’s most well known theories is that human motivation, is dominated by three needs. McClelland's theory, sometimes referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory, categorises the needs as follows; the need for achievement ( N-Ach), the need for power ( N-Pow) and the need for affiliation ( N-Affil). David McClelland
This is the need for friendly relationships and human interaction. There is a need “to feel liked” and “accepted” by others. A person with a high need for affiliation is likely to be a team player and thrive in a customer services environment. They will perform best in a co-operative environment. The need for affiliation (N-Affil)
This is the need to lead others and make an impact. This need can exhibit itself in two ways. The first which is the need for personal power may be viewed as undesirable as the person simply needs to feel that they have “power over others”. They don’t have to be effective or further the objectives of their employer. The second type of “need for power” is the need for institutional power. People with the need for institutional power; want to direct the efforts of their team, to further the objectives of their organization. The need for power (N-Pow)
This is the need to achieve, excel and succeed. A person with this type of need, will set goals that are challenging but realistic. The goals have to be challenging so that the person can feel a sense of achievement. However the goals also have to be realistic as the person believes that when a goal is unrealistic, its achievement is dependant on chance rather than personal skill or contribution. This type of person prefers to work alone or with other high achievers. They do not need praise or recognition, achievement of the task is their reward. The need for achievement (N-Ach)