Revision for unit 4 multiple choice questions


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Revision for unit 4 multiple choice questions

  1. 1. Which of the following is not dependent on learning? A) Crawling B) Teaching a dog to shake hands C) Knowing your name D) Salivating at the sound of a can opener
  2. 2. The stage in classical conditioning where the researcher tries to establish an association between two stimuli is known as A) Spontaneous recovery B) The pairing stage C) The extinction stage D) The acquisition stage
  3. 3. Which of the following is not an important factor when establishing a token economy? A) The learner must know how many tokens may be earned B) The learner must know how tokens can be lost C) The learner must know how many tokens are needed for exchange D) The learner must know what sort of tokens will be used
  4. 4. Which of the following statements regarding spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning is false? A) Spontaneous recovery involves the reappearance of the unconditioned response B) Spontaneous recovery only occurs after a rest period C) Spontaneous recovery does not always occur D) When spontaneous recovery occurs the response is usually weaker than it was originally
  5. 5. Which of the following is a difference between classical and operant conditioning? A) In classical conditioning the learner is active, while the operant conditioning the learner is passive B) In classical conditioning stimulus generalisation occurs, whereas this does not occur in operant conditioning C) In classical conditioning the time between the stimulus and response can be greater that operant conditioning D) In classical conditioning the response occurs after the stimulus, while in operant conditioning the response occurs before presentation of the stimulus
  6. 6. Which of the following is a difference between classical conditioning and one-trial learning? A) One-trial learning requires repeated association between two stimuli B) Stimulus generalisation is less likely to occur in classical conditioning C) Extinction is less likely to occur in one-trial learning D) All of the above
  7. 7. Thorndike’s work into trial and error learning involved cats being placed in a puzzle box. The cats had to learn to operate in their environment to escape. Thorndike found that A) The amount of time taken for the cats to escape increased B) The amount of time taken for the cats to escape decreased C) The number of incorrect responses the cat made increased D) There would be no change in the number of correct responses
  8. 8. Which psychologist is famous for their work on the influence on observational learning on aggressive behaviour A) Harlow B) Skinner C) Watson D) Bandura
  9. 9. In experiments conducted into insight learning, when the solution is tried and the answer to the problem is obtained, this is known as A) Preparation B) Incubation C) Insightful experience D) Verification
  10. 10. Watson and Rayner’s work with Little Albert demonstrated that a fear response could be conditioned. What stimulus was Little Albert originally conditioned to fear? A) A loud gong B) Cotton balls C) A white rat D) A snake
  11. 11. Psychologists do not look upon Watson and Raynor’s work favourably in terms of ethical standards. Why is this so? A) The child was too young to be experimented on B) Albert’s full name has been published in too many textbooks C) His fear response was not extinguished D) They physically harmed him during the experiment
  12. 12. In Psychological research, the term ‘random allocation’ refers to A) Every member of the sample having an equal chance of being in the control or experimental group B) Every member of the population having an equal chance of being in the sample C) Every member of the population having an equal chance of being in the control or experimental group D) Every member of the sample having an equal chance of being in the population
  13. 13. Research into learned helplessness by Seligman discovered that dogs that have not control over avoiding and electric shock would A) Try to escape the shock every time, even if it was unavoidable B) Try to escape the shock around half the time C) Eventually give up on trying to avoid the shock altogether D) Consistently react differently depending on the dog
  14. 14. Which of the following sampling techniques provides the best chance for obtaining a sample that is representative of the population? A) Random sampling B) Stratified sampling C) Convenience sampling D) Random allocation
  15. 15. Which of the following is the quickest and easiest method for obtaining a sample A) Random sampling B) Stratified sampling C) Convenience sampling D) Random allocation
  16. 16. Participants have the right to remove their results at the conclusion of an experiment if they not wish for them to be included. This is an example of A) Debriefing B) Withdrawal rights C) Confidentiality D) Informed consent
  17. 17. Which of the following must be met for informed consent to have been given? A) Participants are made aware of the risks involved B) Participants are made aware of their rights C) Participants sign a form that gives their permission to be involved D) All of the above must be adhered to
  18. 18. Ethical principles are an important part of psychological research. What are they? A) Moral principles and standards B) Rules that govern research C) Rights that protect participants D) All of the above are correct answers
  19. 19. _____ is an active information processing system which receives, organises, stores and recovers information A) Sensory memory B) Echoic memory C) Memory D) Elaborative rehearsal
  20. 20. Memory can be considered as having three main processes; encoding, _______ and _____ A) Storage and retrieval B) Maintenance and storage C) Organisation and storage D) Recall and organisation
  21. 21. The three ways in which memory can be tested are A) elaboration, rehearsal and recall B) Free recall, serial recall and cued recall C) Recall, reception and re-learning D) Recall, recognition and re-learning
  22. 22. Sensory memory, ______ and _____ are considered to be the three different memory types, according to the information processing theory A) Working memory, short term memory B) Short term memory, long term memory C) Echoic memory, iconic memory D) Tactile memory, long term memory
  23. 23. Visual sensory memory is called ______ memory and auditory sensory memory is called _____ memory. A) Echoic; iconic B) Visual; auditory C) Tactile; olfactory D) Echoic; auditory
  24. 24. Short term memory is defined as having limited_______ and limited ______ A) storage; duration B) Time; working C) Capacity; storage D) Capacity; duration
  25. 25. ______ rehearsal is the process of linking new information wit existing information in memory A) Maintenance B) Elaborative C) Decorative D) Linking
  26. 26. Declarative and procedural memories are the components of _______. Declarative memory can be divided into ______ memory and _____ memory A) Short term; procedural; episodic B) Episodic; Declarative; long term C) Semantic; episodic; Long term D) Long term; episodic; semantic
  27. 27. ______ is considered the most sensitive form of memory retention A) Episodic B) Recognition C) Relearning D) Recall
  28. 28. Short term memory is said to last around _____ and to be able to contain ______ bits of information. A) 20 seconds; 9 B) 20 seconds; 5 C) 20-30 seconds; 7+ 2 D) 20-30 seconds; 5+ 2
  29. 29. Information in long term memory is stored in relation to its _____. The collections of items in memory and the links between them are called_____ A) meaning; semantic network B) Relevance; nuerons C) Links; ganglions D) Importance; relevance to self
  30. 30. In recalling a list of items in sequence with each item only heard once we are most likely to remember the ______ items on the list and the _______ items from the list. A) Interesting; last B) First; last C) First; middle D) Middle; last
  31. 31. The _____ is a representation of the rate of forgetting over time. In general, the most rapid forgetting happens ______ after the learning has taken place. A) Forgetting graph; within the first 4 hours B) Forgetting curve; within 20 minutes C) Forgetting curve; within the first hour D) Forgetting theory; within the first half hour
  32. 32. The general word for significant memory loss is______ A) Antergrade amnesia B) Amnesia C) Retrograde amnesia D) Forgetting
  33. 33. _____ involves memory loss of events after the injury or illness occurred. A) Retrograde B) Retroactive C) Proactive D) Anterograde
  34. 34. Alzheimer's disease involves _____ memory disturbance and generally begins with _____ amnesia with ____amnesia happening later in the development of the disease A) complete; retrograde; retroactive B) Progressive; anterograde; retrograde C) Progressive; retrograde; anterograde D) Complete; anterograde; retrograde
  35. 35. The decay theory of forgetting suggests that the memory trace fades with _______ A) Boredom B) Disuse C) Over time D) sleep
  36. 36. ______ theory suggests that forgetting can be caused by the use of insufficient ______ cues at the time of encoding. A) Decay; use B) Retrieval Failure; retrieval C) Dependent; independent D) Decay; boredom
  37. 37. In the tip of the tongue phenomenon, we are most likely to remember ______ and _____ of a word without being able to recall the word itself. A) beginning; sound B) Context; end C) Ending; sound D) Sound; shape
  38. 38. There are two types of possible interference in memory. Retroactive interference is when ______ information interferes with _____ information. A) interesting; boring B) Boring; interesting C) Old; new D) New; old
  39. 39. Some people believe that forgetting occurs when unpleasant memories are placed in the unconscious mind to prevent them from being remembered. This is known as_____ A) Repression or motivated forgetting B) Motivated forgetting or suppression C) Suppression D) blocking
  40. 40. In general, how well we remember information relates to the number of ______ cues we can place on it during the _____ process. A) cues; storage B) Linking; organisation C) Retrieval; encoding D) Memory; reception
  41. 41. _____ refers to the surrounding environment in which learning takes place. ______ refers to the physiological, psychological and emotional condition we are in at the time of learning. A) State; context B) Feeling; surrounding C) Context; state D) Boredom; concentration level
  42. 42. A mnemonic device is a technique or to used to______ A) Make learning fun B) Link memories C) Complicate encoding D) Improve memory
  43. 43. _______involves constructing a story using items that need to be remembered. A) Story telling B) Narrative chaining C) Linking D) Peg word method
  44. 44. The method of loci involves imagining a ______ visual scene and visualising items to be remembered in the scene. A) Strange B) Distant C) Familiar D) Common
  45. 45. The ______ method involves using the first letter of each word in the phrase to make a pronounceable word. A)Acronyms B) Acrostic C) Peg word method D) Narrative chaining
  46. 46. The least sensitive measure of retention is A) Recognition B) Relearning C) Recall D) Reflection
  47. 47. At age 36, Lauren went surfing for the first time since she was a teenager. Although it was almost 20 years since she had been on a surfboard, Lauren found that she could still surf quite well. Lauren’s knowledge and skills about surfing have been stored in her ______________ memory A) Episodic B) Procedural C) Semantic D) Declarative
  48. 48. Lucy arrives at a friend’s party where she doesn’t know anyone except the hostess who invited her. Despite her friend introducing Lucy to at least half a dozen of her friends immediately after she arrives, within half an hour, Lucy can only remember the name of the first few friends she met. Lucy’s ability to remember only the names of the first few people she met suggests and example of the_____________ A) Recency effect B) Limited capacity of the echoic memory C) Cocktail party phenomenon D) Primacy effect
  49. 49. In performing the mental arithmetic to add 17+6+29+8, we use our ________________ memory. A) Echoic B) Iconic C) Long-term D) working
  50. 50. In operant conditioning, the reinforcer should be given A) After the desired response B) At the same time as the desired response C) Before the desired response D) All of the above are correct, because the correct timing of the reinforcer always depends on the kind of response that is being conditioned
  51. 51. In the experiment conducted by Watson & Rayner (1920), when little Albert showed a fear response to white fur on the collar of a coat, it was a demonstration of A) Spontaneous recovery B) Extinction C) Stimulus generalisation D) Stimulus discrimination
  52. 52. An ethical principle that appears to have been disregarded in this research by Watson and Rayner is A) Confidentially B) Informed consent C) Withdrawal rights D) All of the above are correct
  53. 53. In order to avoid her mothers constant nagging. Sophie empties her laundry hamper first thing every Saturday morning. Sophie’s behaviour of emptying her laundry hamper is A) Positively reinforced behaviour B) Negatively reinforced behaviour C) Punished behaviour D) Classical conditioning
  54. 54. Alan became violently ill the first time he ever ate oysters and could not contemplating eating an oyster for the rest of his life. This is an example of ___________ and the unconditioned stimulus would have been__________ A) Operant conditioning; the oyster B) One-trial learning; the bacteria in the oyster C) One-trial learning; vomiting D) One-trial learning; the oyster
  55. 55. A researcher has two groups of participants. He gives caffeinated coffee to one group of participants before asking them to learn and then recall 50 four-letter nouns. To the other group of participants, he gives decaffeinated coffee and then asks them to learn and recall the same 50 four- letter nouns. In this research, caffeine is A) A confounding variable B) The dependent variable C) The independent variable D) A placebo
  56. 56. The control group in the research from the previous slide would be A) All coffee drinkers B) The participants who drank caffeinated coffee C) The participants who drank decaffeinated coffee D) The population form which the participants were selected
  57. 57. The results of an experiment showed a difference in the mean scores of experimental group and the control group. The experimenter conducted a test of significance on the results and obtained a significance level of p<.001 A) The results of the experiment are important B) The likelihood of the difference of the difference in the mean scores occurring by chance is extremely high C) The hypothesis of the experiment is not supported D) If the experiment were to be repeated, then there is a strong likelihood that a similar difference in the mean scores of the groups will be obtained.
  58. 58. THE END