• What is Mythology?• Why should we study Mythology?• Why are myths important to ustoday?
MythologyA body or collection of mythsbelonging to a people and addressingtheir origin, history, deities,ancestors, and heroes.Mythology is the study of “myth” -From the Greek mythos, myth meansstory or word.
Knowledge of Mythology3 classic epics:I. The “Iliad”II.The “Odyssey”III.The “Aenid” are all based on ancientmyths , and so areAgamemnon,”Oedipus the King,” andthe “Medea all classic plays of
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.Zeus
The Olympians are a group of 12 gods who ruledafter the overthrow of the Titans. Allthe Olympians are related in someway. They are named after theirdwelling place Mount Olympus.
Zeus (Jupiter)Zeus was the god of the sky and ruler ofthe Olympian gods. Zeus overthrew hisFather Cronus. He then drew lots withhis brothers Poseidon and Hades. Zeuswon the draw and became the supremeruler of the gods. He is lord of the sky,the rain god. His weapon is athunderbolt which he hurls at thosewho displease him. He is married toHera but, is famous for his many affairs.
Cronos and Rhea
Poseidon (Neptune)God of the sea, protector of allwaters. Poseidon is the brother of zeus.After the overthow of their father cronus hedrew lots with zeus and hades, another brother,for shares of the world. His prize was to becomelord of the sea. He was widely worshiped byseamen. He married amphitrite, a granddaughterof the titan oceanus.
Hades(pluto orDis)Hades is the brotherof Zeus. After theoverthrow of theirFather Cronus he drewlots,with Zeus andPoseidon, anotherbrother, for shares of theworld. He had the worstdraw and was made lordof the underworld, rulingover the dead.
Hera (Juno)Hera is Zeus wife and sister.She was raised by the Titans Ocean and Tethys.Shea is the supreme goddess, goddess ofmarriage and childbirth and takes special careof married women.
Pallas Athena (Minerva)Athena is the Greek virgin goddess ofreason, intelligent activity, arts andliterature. Athena is the daughter of Zeus.She sprang full grown in armour from hisforehead, thus has no mother. She isfierce and brave in battle but, only warsto defined the state and home fromoutside enemies.
Phoebus Apollo (Apollo)Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto. His twin sisteris Artemis. He is the god of music, playing a golden lyre.The Archer, far shooting with a silver bow. The god ofhealing who taught man medicine. The god of light. .Thegod of truth, who can not speak a lie.One of Apollos more importaint daily tasks is to harnesshis chariot with four horses an drive the Sun across thesky.He is famous for his oracle at Delphi. People travled to itfrom all over the greek world to devine the future.His tree was the laurel. The crow his bird. The dolphin hisanimal
Artemis (Diana)She was goddess of chastity,virginity, the hunt, themoon, and the naturalenvironment. Artemis is thedaughter of Zeus and Leto.Her twin brother is Apollo.She is the lady of the wildthings. She is the huntsmanof the gods. She is theprotector of the young. LikeApollo she hunts with silverarrows.
Aphrodite (Venus)Goddess of love, beauty, and desire. Symbolsinclude the dove, bird, apple, bee, swan, myrtle,and rose. Daughter of Zeus and the OceanidDione, or perhaps born from the sea foamafter Uranus semen dripped into the sea afterbeing castrated by his youngest son, Cronus, whothen threw his fathers genitals into the sea.Married to Hephaestus, although she had manyadulterous affairs, most notably with Ares. Hername gave us the word "aphrodisiac", while herLatin name, Venus, gave us the word "venereal“.
Ares (Mars)Ares is the son of Zeus and Hera. He wasdisliked by both parents. He is the god ofwar. He is considered murderous andbloodstained but, also a coward. Whencaught in an act of adulterywith Aphrodite her husband Hephaestus isable publically ridicule him. His bird is thevulture. His animal is the dog.
Hermes (Mercury)Messenger of the gods; god of commerce,thieves, and games. Symbols includethe caduceus (staff entwined with twosnakes), winged sandals and cap, stork,and tortoise (whose shell he used to inventthe lyre). Son of Zeus and the nymphMaia. The second-youngest Olympian, justolder than Dionysus.
Hestia(Vesta)Hestia is Zeus sister. She is a virgin goddess. Shedoes not have a distinct personality. She playsno part in myths. She is the Goddess of theHearth, the symbol of the house around which anew born child is carried before it is receivedinto the family. Each city had a public hearthsacred to Hestia, where the fire was neverallowed to go out.
Hephaestus (Vulcan or Mulciber)Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera. Sometimes it issaid that Hera alone produced him and that he has nofather. He is the only god to be physically ugly. He isalso lame. Accounts as to how he became lame vary.Some say that Hera, upset by having an ugly child, flunghim from Mount Olympus into the sea, breaking his legs.Others that he took Heras side in an argument with Zeusand Zeus flung him off Mount Olympus. He is the god offire and the forge. He is the smith and armored of thegods. He uses a volcano as his forge. He is the patrongod of both smiths and weavers. He is kind and peaceloving. His wife is Aphrodite. Sometimes his wife isidentified as Aglaia.
Dionysus (Bacchus)He was the god of fertility and wine, laterconsidered a patron of the arts.He invented wineand spread the art of tending grapes. He has adual nature. On the one hand bringing joy anddevine ecstasy. On the other brutal, unthinking,rage. Thus, reflecting both sides of wines nature.If he choses Dionysus can drive a man mad. Nonormal fetters can hold him or his followers.
Demeter(Ceres)He was the great Olympian goddess ofagriculture, grain, and bread, the primesustenance of mankind. She also presided overthe foremost of the Mystery Cults whichpromised its initiates the path to a blessedafterlife. Demeter was depicted as a maturewoman, often crowned and holding sheafs ofwheat and a torch.