A forest is a community of trees, shrubs, herbs, and associated plants and organisms that cover a considerable area that use oxygen , water and soil nutrients as the community attains maturity and reproduces itself.“Lungs of the earth.” The world’s environment owes much of its state of health to the presence of forests. So too does human survival and welfare.
Occupying almost all parts of the country, the greatforest belts are divided into distinct types:1) primary or virgin forests in lowlands, like mangrove, dipterocarp, and molave forests molave forest mangrove forest
2) Secondary forests- developed from virgin forests through succession by illegal logging or the kaingan system, the system in setting the forest on fire for cropping.3) Grasslands and open country- developed from and to secondary forests4) Parang vegetation- grasslands with patches of secondary forest tree species5) Bamboo thickets6) Cultivated fields
The original forests of the Philippines covered nearly halfour land about 145,973.30 square kilometers.
WILD LIFE - means the native animals of a regionENDANGERED SPECIES -These are the species, which are in dangerof extinction and which may not survive if theadverse factors continue to rotate.
- The species likely to move into theendangered category in the near future if thecausal adverse factors continue to operate.REAR SPECIES - These are the species with smallpopulation in the world and are at risk.
THREATENED SPECIES - These are Species, which are in any one ofthe Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare Speciescategories.
Flora is a word of Latin origin referring to Flora, the goddess of flowers. Fauna can refer to the animal life or classification of animals of a certain region, time period, or environment.
Advantages Acts as a wind barrier from heavy winds Provides medicinal remedies Recreation Lumber for the construction industry Promotes rainfall Prevents soil erosion Prevents flooding Maintains the composition of the atmosphere Reduces noise pollution
Causes of Forest Destruction
Forests are often misused by people. Immature trees are cut down ruthlessly, destroying living organisms and standing timber, and consuming the seeds of young trees. And fires, as they destroy trees, cause soil erosion and floods in the lower areas.
In the Philippines, setting the forest on fire in preparation for cropping is a practice known as kaingan. Forest fires are also caused by arsonists, debris burners, smokers and irresponsible campers.
Indiscriminate logging is another way by which humans mismanage our forests. So many trees are cut down that reforestation can not make up for the loss.
• Natural factors may also bring down forests pests, grazing and gnawing animals, lightning that may cause fires, and calamities like storms or strong winds.
CAUSES OF DEFORESTATIONa) Forest fires – caused by careless personsb) Shifting cultivation which destroys large areas of forestsc) Excessive logging activitiesd) Housing which results in the destruction of trees to meet people’s demand for sheltere) Removal of vegetation for mining purposes
Protection by law. Protected species of Phil. Wildlife. Establishment of sanctuaries and national parks. Natural habitat of wildlife should be carefully protected. Shooting and hunting of endangered species should be totally band. Research on wildlife should be encouraged. Public should be educated.
CONSERVATION OF FORESTS1) Design certain areas as forest reserves2) Controlled cutting of trees – this allows for only certain mature trees to be logged3) A massive reafforestation programme – that is replanting trees in areas that were once forested areas4) Education compaign to sensitize people of the importance of forests5) Strict and severe penalties for illegal lumbering
Dry hay orStraw etc.used asanimalfood. 1. They provide raw materials for certain industry. 2. They provide food, fodder, fuel, fertilizer and fiber. 3. They prevent soil erosion and preserve the fertility of the soil. 4. They provide moisture and lower the temperature.
5. They are the home for many animalsand birds, thus , they preserve thebiodiversity.6. They maintain the ecological balance.7. They provide medicinal value resultingin the making of many medicinal drugs.
8. Forests also help to alleviate psychological stress arising from the trials of modern society.9. They provide the opportunity for relaxation and meditation – can lead to the development of eco-tourism.
Lumber- Raw lumber has been one of Philippines’ major exports. The apitong, tanguile, guijo, and narra forests supply most of today’s construction lumber. apitong tree narra tree
Paper- Paper is produced from pulpwood such as pine.Distillation products- Examples of these are wood, alcohol, acetic acid, lampblack, paints and varnishes, and charcoal. Other distillation products can also be secured from sugarcane, coconut, and nipa palms..
Other Products- pine, bamboo, buri, sugar tanning materials, and essential oilsIn addition, forest trees provide food and shelter to our animals. Pine Essential oil Bamboo
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 54 PENALTIES FOR ILLEGAL LOGGING Any natural or juridical person who directly or indirectly cuts, declares, classifies,possesses or exports logs in violation of existing laws, rules and regulations shall be penalized. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9175 An act regulating the ownership, possession, sale, importation and use of chain saws, penalizing violations thereof and for other purposes. REPUBLIC ACT No. 3701 An act to discourage destruction of forests, further amending for the purpose section twenty-seven hundred fifty-one of the revised administrative code.