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# Chapter 5 Satellite

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### Chapter 5 Satellite

1. 1. Chapter 5 1
2. 2. Introduction 2
3. 3. Satellite Communication Systems 3
4. 4. Basic operation of a communication satellite between two earth stations 4
5. 5. Satellite System Links 5
6. 6. Satellite Transponder 6
7. 7. Satellite Frequency Bands 7
8. 8. Satellite Bandwidth 8 • Bandwidth of the satellite will determine the number of signals that can be transmitted • Wider bandwidth can allow many signals to be carried at a time • C-band has different frequencies for uplink≈ 500 MHz • Each transponder is assigned a bandwidth, eg : MEASAT-1 has a bandwidth of 36 MHz for each transponder (total of 12 transponders) • There are 4 MHz guard bands between channels that are used to minimize adjacent channel interference
9. 9. Increasing Channel Capacity 9 • There is not enough spectrum space for satellite to use all the transponders unless some form of frequency reuse is employed • This method determined that half of the transponders use vertical polarization and another half uses horizontal polarization, with overlapping frequencies
10. 10. Satellite Orbits 10
11. 11. Satellite Orbits 11
12. 12. Satellite Orbits – Orbital Path 12 • There are an infinite number of orbital paths, but only three are useful for communication satellite • Three paths that a satellite can follow as it rotates around the Earth : inclined, equatorial or polar
13. 13. Polar Orbit 13
14. 14. Equatorial Orbit 14
15. 15. Inclined Orbit 15
16. 16. Antenna Tracking and Adjustment 16
17. 17. Azimuth Angle 17
18. 18. Elevation Angle 18
19. 19. Earth Station 19
20. 20. Types of Satellites  Geostationary satellites - located 22,236 miles or 35,786 km from earth at the geosynchronous orbit  Low Orbital Satellites (LEO) located 300 to 1500 km above earth  Medium Orbital Satellites (MEO) located 8000 to 20000 km from earth 20
21. 21. Application of Geostationary Satellites 21