Islam Hadhari and Muslim Christian Relations in Malaysia
ISLAM HADHARI AND MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN
RELATIONS IN MALAYSIA
Janice Chin Yen Ni
A Paper Presented to
Dr. Evelyne Reisacher
and the School of Intercultural Studies
FULLER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree
M. A. in Inter-Cultural Studies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................ii
CHAPTER 1 MALAYSIA: FROM COLONIALISM TO CONSTITUTION ............ 2
British Colonialism............................................................................................... 2
Postcolonial Malaysia and its Constitution ..................................................... 3
CHAPTER 2 MALAYSIA: HISTORY OF MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS...... 4
Background of Islam and Christianity .............................................................. 4
Christian Mission and the Malay Polity ........................................................... 5
Islamic Revivalism ................................................................................................. 5
Towards Dialogue................................................................................................ 6
CHAPTER 3 ISLAM HADHARI IN MALAYSIA............................................................ 8
What is Islam Hadhari? ....................................................................................... 8
The Ten Principles of the Islam Hadhari Framework.................................. 8
Articulation of Islam Hadhari Under Badawi ................................................. 9
Reactions to Islam Hadhari .............................................................................. 10
CHAPTER 4 ISLAM HADHARI FOR MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS ......... 11
Bridging the Divide via Islam Hadhari............................................................ 11
Identity of the Dhimmah .................................................................................. 12
The Imperative of Dakwah............................................................................... 13
The Inevitability of Dialogue ............................................................................ 14
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................ 15
REFERENCES CITED ......................................................................................................... 16
In the Muslim world, Malaysia is reputable for its “stability, tolerance, and steady
economic gains” in the last three decades (Gatsiounis 2006:78). Seeing itself as a model
for the Islamic world, its growth has drawn attention from the Middle East and other
South Asian countries like Thailand (Chong 2006:41-42). In the past three decades, the
Islamic influence in the nation has grown, and this has had significant impact on Muslim-
Christian relations as well as the stability of the racial harmony within this multiethnic
nation. An institutional monarchy, the political system of Malaysia has come under
particular scrutiny in these last three years, as the ethnic tensions underlined by
religious suspicions heightens with the increasing Islamization by the government.
Religion has always been stipulated in the Malaysian Constitution since the
formation of the newly-independent state of Malaysia, with Islam as its official religion
while promising religious freedom to other minority groups. Significant events over the
years have cumulatively impacted the racial and religious tensions leading to the
establishment of the ketuanan Melayu policy. Ever since, the Islamization of law has
proceeded methodically like no other country in Asia (Chong 2006:32; see also
Horowitz 1994). With the installation of Abdullah Badawi as prime minister, a campaign
known as Islam Hadhari was introduced. Like many Islamic movements in other parts of
the world, Islam Hadhari articulates the vision for a restored and empowered Ummah
(global Muslim community) (Gatsiounis 2006:78). We will explore Islam Hadhari in light
of the history of Malaysia’s Muslim-Christian relations, and then take a look at how it
can serve as a bridge for Muslim-Christian relations today.
MALAYSIA: FROM COLONIALISM TO CONSTITUTION
Malaysia, previously known as Malaya, was originally inhabited by Malays
(Goddard 2000:238), as well as orang asli (indigenous groups), who occupied “more
inaccessible regions of the country” (Goddard 2000:238; Lubis 2005:79). Wealth of
natural resources led various European powers to contend for ruling entitlement and
commercial gains, exacerbating existing political instability and causing jurisdictional
conflicts (Hall 1981; Jessy 1985). The British colonialists entered the scene during the
nineteenth-century, significantly impacting the political, cultural and religious climate.
Chinese and Indian immigrants were brought in by the British colonial
administrators as indentured workers (Goddard 2000:238). For example, in 1882 the
British North Borneo Company recruited workers for the development of railways and
coconut plantations with the help of Lechler, a Protestant missionary (Yu 1987).
Coupled with the booming of tin and rubber industries, there was a dramatic increase of
total population due to immigration, from 2.6 million in 1911 to 5.5 million in 1941
(Lubis 2005:80). Primarily, the Chinese grew in influence as traders or entrepreneurs,
whereas the Indians specialized in plantations, and in civil service or education.
Postcolonial Malaysia and its Constitution
In 1957, Malaysia gained independence (Braswell 1996:196) as Britain withdrew
from colonial control. The Malay Federated States and the two states on Borneo island
(later called East Malaysia) joined forces to become the new state of Malaysia (Goddard
2000:239). At this point, it is necessary to note that Muslim-Christian relations in East
Malaysia has been remarkably different from that of West Malaysia since the formation
of the state (Goddard 2000:239-240). This is to become significant over time,
particularly in the political arena (Goddard 2000:240).
With Malaysia’s merdeka (national independence), Islam was enshrined as the
official religion in the Malaysian Constitution (Lubis 2005:56). By default all Malays are
Muslims, while it is possible to be Muslim without being Malay (Goddard 2000:238). One
can say that Islam in Malaysia is highly racialized; to appear “un-Islamic” is to appear “un-
Malay”, which is a political liability (Gatsiounis 2006:79). The commitment to benefit the
majority of Malays was, and still is, a key to the government’s hegemony. The majority of
the Chinese are adherents to “traditional Chinese religion”, and most Indians are Hindu;
in both, a significant number of Christians are present (Goddard 2000:238).
Proselytization of Muslims is to be penalized, whilst “other religions may be practiced in
peace and harmony in any part of the Federation” (Ackerman 1988).
Today, there is “considerable variety” in the Malaysian population of 26 million
(Goddard 2000:237-238). The three major ethnic groups are the Malays (50.4%),
Chinese (23.7%), indigenous (11%), Indians (7.1%) and others (7.8%) (2004 est.). A
census report in 2000 shows Muslims constituting 60.4% of the population, Buddhists
19.2%, Christians 9.1%, Hindus 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional
Chinese religions 2.6%, other or unknown 1.5%, and none 0.8% ("CIA - The World
Factbook --- Malaysia" 2008).
MALAYSIA: HISTORY OF MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS
Background of Islam and Christianity
Compared to the Middle East, Malaysia is “neither Arabic-speaking nor has been part of
any great Muslim empire” (Ahmed 2007:13). Through Muslim merchants and traders, as well as
the Sufi orders, Islam spread in the fifteenth-century “gently and slowly…and has adjusted to
and blended with different religions, notably Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christianity” (Ahmed
2007:13; Braswell 1996:194). Christianity came to be established very similarly, in that both met
at similar stages of their expansion, and both relatively recently. Christianity also expanded
through seatrade, “through the Portuguese and the Dutch from the West, across the Indian
Ocean, and the Portuguese and the Spanish from the East, across the Pacific Ocean” (Goddard
It was not until the “Great Century” that a surge of Christian mission shaped by the
Protestant missionary movement came to the region (Latourette 1944:1319-1320). At the same
time, the West was expanding its colonial territory. Thus, the missionary enterprise – both
Catholic and Protestant – became associated with Western imperialism, and experienced
resistance from the “solidly Muslim” Malays towards Christian missionaries (Hastings 1999:386;
Christian Mission and the Malay Polity
During British colonialism, following the signing of a treaty in 1874, the British officials
served as chief advisors to each sultan on all matters except Islam and Malay adat (customs)
(McAmis 2002:38). Because “by extension Malays are Muslims and Muslims are Malays” (Lubis
2005:83), no interference was allowed on the Malay religion, thus discouraging missionary work
(Yegar 1979:261-2; Ng 1992:97). Christianizing work then spread among the Chinese and Indian
migrant communities. With this came official recognition of: (1) Islam as the basis of Malay
polity and cultural identity, and (2) the aristocratic status of the Malays (Ackerman 1988:11, 30).
Independence was seen as a Malay – and therefore Muslim – issue, rather than Christian
(Hastings 1999:408). When Malaysia gained independence in 1957, there were predictions of
racial or religious wars (Heim 2004:30). For a long time, differences in language and culture
caused rifts “between the Muslims and Chinese, which [erupted] into violence in both
societies” (Ahmed 2007:86). One reason is that the perceived success of the ethnic Chinese in
generating wealth led other groups to feel threatened, even resulting in loss of lives (Chua
The dakwah (call to action) movement started in the early 1970s from an extremist
minority “pressing for radical Islamic reforms and the formation of an Islamic state” (Johnstone
1993:366). Discriminatory legislation and actions against non-Muslims increased, contributing to
the country’s stress level, as non-Muslims “[suffer] a creeping erosion of religious freedom”
(Johnstone 1993:366; Chong 2006:27-28). With the dakwah movement, a pronounced shift in
Islamic identity took place (Gatsiounis 2006:80). On the international front, more involvement
in Islamic organizations and affairs were also established (Braswell 1996:197).
One of the catalysts for the dakwah movement was the Chinese-Malay racial riots in
1969 dubbed the “May 13 incident” (Gatsiounis 2006:80), which resulted in the declaration of
national emergency. In the aftermath, the government resolved to translate Malay constitutional
privileges into actual policies, and with that, an entrenchment clause came to be applied to
portions of the Malaysian Constitution. This clause, ketuanan Melayu (Malay superiority),
instituted privileges especially for the Malay majority. This became a turning point in ethnic
relations, which directly impacted Muslim-Christian relations in the country until today (Kana
The Malaysian government emphasizes moderation and economic equity to keep peace
between Malay Muslims and other groups, at the same time Malay interests “have always been
central to government policy” (Gatsiounis 2006:78). Even before independence, the United
Malays National Organization (UMNO) championed a positive discrimination policy, and for a
Malaysia ruled by Malays who have special rights and privileges (Kamarulnizam 2003:117). This
policy can be associated with some features of traditional dhimmi (protected minority groups)
status the Malaysian government prescribed for non-Muslims; one way in which positive
discrimination is carried out is the enforcing of a quota structure reserving government
positions and university spots for Malays (Heim 2004:31).
Needless to say, there has been discontentment from non-Muslims, who feel that the
Islamization program of the government “[benefits] exclusively only one racial group” and
results in further encroachment upon their rights (Kana 2004:64; Mutalib 1993:107). This has
increased the gap between Malay Muslims and other groups, making national integration an
even more difficult task (Ackerman 1988). Mahathir’s famous declaration in 2001 that Malaysia
was an Islamic state further heightened the fears of non-Muslims (Chong 2006:37). The number
1 An entrenchment clause of a constitution is a provisional clause that restricts certain amendments, and in
certain cases, makes portions of that constitution irrevocable once adopted; the only exception is the assertion of the
right of revolution. In the case of the Malaysian Constitution, Articles 152, 153, 181, and Part III of the Constitution
were entrenched, reinforced by the amendment of Article 159(5) prohibiting amendment of these Articles as well as
Article 159(5) itself (right of revolution applies).
of minorities choosing private education grew, as more and more public schools were impacted
The rise of Islamic resurgence undoubtedly also witnessed religious revivalism from the
non-Muslims; perhaps accelerated by the perceived threat of the government’s Islamization
policy, the Malaysian Church sought collaboration as a reaction (Ackerman 1988:406; Kana
2004:108). Within this climate, the Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity,
Hinduism and Sikhism (MCCBCHS) was formed in 1983 as an inter-religious organization that
serves as a united non-Muslim front. Ironically, the society seemed “more religiously
conservative and intolerant” while contending for religious freedom, so that tension also grew
between the conservative and progressive Muslims, who wished for greater unity with non-
Muslims (Anwar 2001:239, 250).
In an effort to simultaneously grasp Islam and modernity during the 1990s, one of the
initiatives taken by the government to improve racial and inter-religious relations for the sake
of national integration was identifying deficiencies in the Malay Muslim community (Chong
2006:33-34). Institutions such as Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia (IKIM) were
established, whose task is “to find some common ground between Muslims and non-Muslims,
academics and businessmen, Malays, Chinese and foreign investors” (Chong 2006:34). After
being named Prime Minister in 2003, Abdullah Badawi, Mahathir’s successor, introduced a
political and ideological campaign known as Islam Hadhari (Gatsiounis 2006:78). In 2004, the
wide media coverage the World Council of Churches meeting held in Kuala Lumpur received
was an unprecedented experience for the Malaysian church (Heim 2004:30). These are some of
the significant steps the government has taken towards promoting unity. Nevertheless, the
Muslims showed little interest to dialogue with the Christians; in fact, a high level of suspicion
exists between these two groups (Northcott 1991:66).
What is Islam Hadhari?
Islam Hadhari, or “civilizational Islam,” is an approach that emphasizes
development, consistent with the tenets of Islam, and is focused on enhancing the
quality of life (Badawi 2006:3). Stressing “technological and economic competitiveness,
moderation, tolerance, and social justice”, Badawi speaks of Islam Hadhari not as a new
religion or mazhab (school of jurisprudence) but rather a continuing attempt to “bring
the [Ummah] back in touch with the true essence of Islam” (Gatsiounis 2006:78), as
prescribed in the Quran and Hadith that form the foundation of Islamic civilization
(Bashir 2005). As such, it is a campaign to promote a progressive Islamic civilization,
compatible with modernity and yet rooted in the values of Islam that calls for
moderation and tolerance towards others regardless of religion (Badawi 2005).
The Ten Principles of the Islam Hadhari Framework
Islam Hadhari, as introduced by Badawi, aims to achieve the following principles:
1. Faith and piety in Allah
2. A just and trustworthy government
3. A free and independent people
4. Mastery of knowledge
5. Balanced and comprehensive economic development
6. A good quality of life
7. Protection of rights of minority groups and women
8. Cultural and moral integrity
9. Protection of the environment
10. Strong defenses
Quoting Badawi, Bashir states that these principles “were formulated with the
intention of ensuring peace between groups, while able to empower Muslims to face the
global challenges of today” (Bashir 2005).
Articulation of Islam Hadhari Under Badawi
This idea of a “progressive” Islam, Chong writes, “has been a recurring feature of
the Malaysian political landscape since the early 1970s” (Chong 2006:26). Mahathir
Mohamad, the prime minister whom Badawi succeeded, had also articulated “a vision of
progressive Islam that is open to cultural and economic innovation (Heim 2004:30).
Badawi, however, articulates Islam Hadhari not simply as a political instrument but also
as a campaign to tackle the rise of extremism, particularly after September 11, while
Muslim nations worldwide struggle to reconcile Islamic piety with modern realities
Nevertheless, a main critique of Islam Hadhari is its weak implementation. The
ten principles were not clearly implemented or formally practiced. Most of its
promotion was by means of “seminars, state-run press and speeches by the prime
minister” (Gatsiounis 2006:82). So shallow was its promotion, that “most Malaysians
would be hard-pressed to name [a couple] of [its] 10 points” (Gatsiounis 2006:82).
Reactions to Islam Hadhari
Notably, among the “East Asian Tigers…whose rates of economic growth have
exceeded” that of any other country in the last decade, Malaysia is the only Muslim-
majority country (Goddard 2000:238). However, many Malays felt they were not sharing
in this success, and a growing number saw Islam as the way to restore justice and
righteousness (Gatsiounis 2006:81). Along with that, the dakwah movement fed the
notion that Islamic values were “irreconcilable with Western notions of progress”
(Gatsiounis 2006:81). With the opposition party Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)
accusing UMNO of being un-Islamic, it was hoped that Islam Hadhari would safeguard
Muslim followers’ allegiance to UMNO, the ruling party (Gatsiounis 2006:82). This
means ketuanan Melayu must also be upheld, i.e. the privileged status of Malay Muslims.
Although some observers denounced Islam Hadhari for being vague in its
discourse (Chong 2006:42), others consider its vagueness to be its strength – “to be
vague is to be inclusive” (Gatsiounis 2006:82). For them, Islam Hadhari provides an
accessible point for arguing that Muslims need not support the full implementation of
sharia law or the prescriptive nature of fundamentalism in order to be consistent with
the tenets of Islam.12 In that way, it differs from political Islam, as seen in the rule of
Ayatollah Khomeini (Bashir 2005).
In contrast to this are those who argue that, despite Malaysia’s reputation as a
model Islamic democracy, links to terrorism remain unchecked. Despite the fact that the
government has publicly opposed Islamic extremists, some groups have been reported
for using Malaysia as the launching pad for several attacks in other countries, e.g. al-
Qaeda (Heim 2004:30). Many of the jihadi websites can be traced to Malaysia (Roy
1 Interview with Robert W. Hefner, Associate Director of the Institute on Culture, Religion and
World Affairs, Boston University (as quoted in Gatsiounis, Islam Hadhari in Malaysia, 82-83).
2 Interview with Robert W. Hefner, Associate Director of the Institute on Culture, Religion and
World Affairs, Boston University (as quoted in Gatsiounis, Islam Hadhari in Malaysia, 82-83).
ISLAM HADHARI FOR MUSLIM-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS
Bridging the Divide via Islam Hadhari
Politicians have used race and religion in Malaysia’s racially charged climate to
make advances (Gatsiounis 2006:85). For a God-fearing government, such abuses ought
not to occur. Certainly, Islam Hadhari can be embraced as an Islamization ideology if one
chooses, regardless whether its introduction was intended for such a purpose. But with
the challenge of globalization, diversity in schools of thought (or faith and culture)
cannot be suppressed. To champion progressiveness or economic equity, while
maintaining piety towards God, is much more complex than disputing against a
particular race and religion. Some argue that the Islamic religion was heterogenous to
begin with, and that differences within the Ummah were perceived as a blessing rather
than division (Lubis 2005:91). This is a similar experience in the Christian tradition. We
do well to consider this: the real threat of Islam and Christianity is not each other, but
the secularization of society and the abuse of political power (Chapman 1998:58-9).
Islam Hadhari’s emphasis on broader principles of Islam over religiosity and form,
as stated by Badawi, aims to develop the global mindset of Malay Muslims (Chong
2006:41). The support given towards Islam Hadhari by certain groups of Muslims
demonstrates a willingness on these Muslims’ part to participate in nation-building
without abusing the ketuanan Melayu clause, despite criticism by fellow Muslims for
doing so. Along these lines, the Malaysian government can be commended for
attempting to formulate, albeit vaguely, “a plan to reconcile modernity with the Islamic
faith” (Gatsiounis 2006:87). As Malaysian Christians, who are mostly non-Malays, we can
encourage these Muslims, our fellow Malaysians, to develop their skills and expertise as
part of the global arena, “without being accused of being un-Islamic” and so that they do
not merely depend on state handouts (Chong 2006:41). This is in line with Islam Hadhari
principles that Badawi outlined. We can bridge the divide between Muslims and
Christians based on these main principles, to speak for godliness, morality, tolerance,
justice and poverty alleviation. Rather than bridging only for the sake of nation-building,
the greater good is to recognize we are closer in our belief of the Creator than other
religions (Rippin 2001:11; Ali 2007, Sura 42:13). How should Christians respond to Islam
Hadhari according to the Holy Scriptures? This question is definitely worth exploring in
Identity of the Dhimmi
Undeniably, non-Muslim religious minorities face difficulty in Malaysia (Heim
2004:31). As a marginal minority, the Malaysian Christian community faces formidable
challenges in an increasingly Islamic context (Kana 2004:103). Christians are “the most
affected and vulnerable to pressures exerted by a powerful government” (Ng 1992:36;
70). By virtue of the recognition of the Malay majority (which is predominantly Muslim)
as having a special status as stated in the ketuanan Melayu clause, all other racial groups
are therefore granted lesser rights and privileges. This then, when applied, elevates the
status of Malay Muslims at the expense of other races, and subsequently, other religious
groups, rather than providing protection or equality for the dhimmi.
One of the ten principles of Islam Hadhari is the protection of rights of minority
groups (see above). If the dhimmah in Hadith tradition is to be interpreted as a universal
governing principle based on honor and genuine tolerance, not lordship or superiority,
then this is not to confer an inferior status on non-Muslims (Ayoub 2007:37; 101-2; see
also Chapman 1998:33). The Injil (Gospels) also teaches us to serve and protect others
and to show kindness; the dhimmah system can be likened to the injunction God gave to
Israel in the treatment of ‘foreigners and aliens’ among them (Barker 1985 - Mk 10:42-
44; Ex 23:9; Lev 19:34). A foremost reason the Israelites were to worship the LORD
their God was that he would be exalted among the nations, and they will know that he
is God, even though they were small in number (Ps 46:10). Mazhar speaks of enabling
Muslims to “see Christ”, by demonstration through his followers (Chandler 2007:83).
The Imperative of Dakwah
In Islam, the Arabic word dakwah is best understood ‘to call to action’ (Kana
2004:62). It carries connotations that are individual and collective; people respond to
the message of Islam, and the community that forms the Ummah thus has the obligation
of ‘calling’. In the work of dakwah, there must be respect and free exchange of ideas, if
that dakwah is to be “legitimately regarded as an act of worship” (Kettani 1990:228).
Within the context of Malaysia, dakwah is highly associated with the resurgence of Islam,
as dakwah groups like Jamaat Tabligh and Darul Arqam were missionary in outlook,
calling the individual and the society to closer adherence to Islam as they interpreted it
On the part of the Christians, the calling of others to the faith is popularly called
‘evangelism’. As mentioned, evangelism among Muslims is prohibited as per legal
restrictions specified in the Constitution. Christians in their zealous response to the call
to evangelize Muslims have, by their attempts, been summoned by the Internal Security
Act and suffered hostility (Batumalai 1996:127). Batumalai, in Muhibbah, speaks of
greater sensitivity and patience towards Muslims, even as Christians remain faithful in
demonstrating muhibbah (a sense of kinship, friendship, love and warmth) to their
neighbors (Rustam 2009).
The Inevitability of Dialogue
If Christians resist the implementation of the Syariah law on non-Muslims, should
they in turn avoid aggressive proclamation of the Gospel which at times lead to the
treatment of our neighbors of other faiths as objects of evangelism (Batumalai
1996:357)? This is a hard question. As far as the Church is concerned, in order to
sustain itself under Malay Muslim polity, dialogue is inevitable:
“The challenge now and in the future is for Christians to engage
positively in a “dialogue of life” with their neighbors of other faiths. This
allows for sharing of mutual concerns over religious freedom whilst
genuinely striving, at the same time, to live in the spirit of the
government’s declared vision to make Malaysia a caring, liberal and just
society” (Kana 2004:112).
From our discussion so far, we have come to understand a little more the
history of Muslim-Christian relations in Malaysia. The participation of Church to in what
Kana calls “dialogue of life” cannot just serve the sake of resolving religious conflicts as
we have seen from past reactions, but for the solidarity and integral development of
Malaysian society. This kind of interaction is beyond verbal dialogue, but one of
exchange, gift-giving, opening of hearts and reciprocal mutuality. For Malaysian
Christians, the lack of understanding often breeds fear and resentment towards the
privileged Other, the one that is protected by ketuanan Melayu. But Jabbour invites us to
move towards understanding the Muslims, for “understanding triggers compassion and
makes acceptance possible” (Jabbour 2008:14).
Consider again the Islam Hadhari ideology. Does faith and piety in Allah require
of us more than conversions? Using Bosch’s missionary paradigm, the interrelationship
between dialogue and mission is where we can rediscover the “integrally dialogical
nature” of mission (Bosch 1991:483, 487). To borrow Islamic terms for Christian
mission, can true dakwah happen without dialogue? If true dakwah is an act of worship,
then dialogue is to be inseparable from the act of dakwah.
The global resurgence of democracy poses an incredible challenge to countries
“with a multiethnic fabric”; Malaysia is one such country (Mohammadi 2002:96). There is
increasing external pressure to adjust to global standards of democracy and universal
human rights. Now, with a new Prime Minister having succeeded Abdullah Badawi, the
ideology of Islam Hadhari seems to have been sidelined, particularly amidst the political
upheaval the nation has been undergoing since 2008. Even if the term “Islam Hadhari”
has been replaced or discarded, the ideology behind it remains. To the interests of
Muslim groups that champion progressive Islam in Malaysia and its economic
development, the principles are still relevant.
But what does it mean for the Christian community? What can she learn from
interacting with Islam Hadhari’s principles and its implications on her relationship with its
Muslim neighbors, who are also the privileged Other under ketuanan Melayu? At this
moment, the Church has yet to demonstrate united willingness to participate in
interfaith dialogue with Muslims over racial-religious conflicts that have so deeply
impacted the non-Muslim population in Malaysia, much less play an active role in
reconciliation and muhibbah for the integral development of the nation. Maybe, this
move towards genuine dialogue will take much time and effort, and we see this
beginning to take shape as more Christians are participating in conversation with
Muslims for the benefit of Malaysian society. The blessings that can emerge from such a
move will surely go beyond the nation’s borders, when there emerges true
demonstration of faith and piety, in loving God and neighbor, as we love ourselves.
Ackerman, Susan Ellen Lee Raymond L. M. 1988. Heaven in transition : non-Muslim
religious innovation and ethnic identity in Malaysia. Honolulu: University of
Ahmed, Akbar S. 2007. Journey into Islam : the crisis of globalization. Washington,
D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. 2007. The Qur'an : translation. 20th U.S. ed. Elmhurst, N.Y.:
Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Publishers and Distributors of Holy Qur'an.
Anwar, Zainah. 2001. What Islam, Whose Islam: Sisters in Islam and the Struggle for
Women's Rights. In The politics of multiculturalism : pluralism and citizenship in
Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia, edited by R. W. Hefner. Honolulu:
University of Hawai'i Press.
Ayoub, Mahmoud Omar Irfan A. 2007. A Muslim view of Christianity : essays on
dialogue, Faith meets faith;. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.
Badawi, Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad. 2005. Dialogue and Cooperation. In Informal Summit
on Inter-Religious, Inter-Cultural and Inter-Civilisational Dialogue and
Cooperation, edited by U. Nations. New York.
———. 2006. Islam Hadhari : a model approach for development and progress. Petaling
Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia: MPH Pub.
Barker, Kenneth L. Burdick Donald W. 1985. The NIV study Bible : New International
Version. [Personal size ] ed. Grand Rapids, Mich., U.S.A.: Zondervan Pub.
Bashir, Mohammed Sherif. 2010. Islam Hadhari: Concept and Prospect. IslamOnline.net
2005 [cited March 12 2010]. Available from
Batumalai, S. 1996. Islamic resurgence & Islamization in Malaysia : a Malaysian
Christian response : the re-awakening of Islam in relationship to other religions
in Malaysia. 1st ed. Perak, Malaysia: S. Batumalai.
Bosch, David Jacobus. 1991. Transforming mission : paradigm shifts in theology of
mission, American Society of Missiology series. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books.
Braswell, George W. 1996. Islam : its prophet, peoples, politics, and power. Nashville,
Tenn.: Broadman & Holman.
Chandler, Paul Gordon. 2007. Pilgrims of Christ on the Muslim Road : exploring a new
path between two faiths. Lanham, MD: Cowley Publications.
Chapman, Colin. 1998. Islam and the West: conflict, co-existence or conversion?,
Easneye lectures. Carlisle, England: Paternoster Pr.
Chong, Terence. 2006. The Emerging Politics of Islam Hadhari. In Malaysia : recent
trends and challenges, edited by S.-H. Saw and K. Kesavapany. Singapore:
Insitute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Chua, Amy. 2003. World on fire : how exporting free market democracy breeds ethnic
hatred and global instability. New York: Doubleday.
"CIA - The World Factbook --- Malaysia". 2009. CIA.org 2008 [cited March 9 2009].
Available from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-
Gatsiounis, Ioannis. 2006. Islam Hadhari in Malaysia. In Current trends in Islamist
ideology. vol. 3, edited by H. H. Hillel Fradkin, Eric Brown. Washington, D.C.:
Center on Islam, Democracy, and the Future of the Muslim World, Hudson
Goddard, Hugh. 2000. Christian-Muslim relations in Nigeria and Malaysia. In Islamic
interpretations of Christianity, edited by L. Ridgeon. New York: St. Martin's
Hall, Daniel George Edward. 1981. A history of South-East Asia.
Hastings, Adrian. 1999. A world history of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B.
Heim, S. Mark. 2004. Malaysian model: a different kind of Islamic state. Christian
Century 121 (20):30-33.
Horowitz, Donald L. 1994. The Qur'an and the common law : Islamic law reform and the
theory of legal change.
Jabbour, Nabeel T. 2008. The Crescent through the eyes of the Cross : insights from an
Arab Christian. 1st ed. Colorado Springs, CO: NAV Press.
Jessy, Joginder Singh. 1985. History of South-East Asia, 1824-1965. Lunas, Kedah,
Malaysia : Penerbitan Darulaman: Singapore.
Johnstone, Patrick J. St G. 1993. Operation world : a day-by-day guide to praying for the
world. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House.
Kamarulnizam, Abdullah. 2003. The politics of Islam in contemporary Malaysia, Series
on Malaysian politics; Variation: Siri politik Malaysia. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti
Kana, Maria Perpetua. 2004. Christian mission in Malaysia : past emphasis, present
engagement and future possibilities. Virginia, Qld.: Australian Catholic
Kettani, M. Ali. 1990. Muslims in Non-Muslim Societies : Challenges and Opportunities.
Journal - Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 11:226-233.
Latourette, Kenneth Scott. 1944. The great century in northern Africa and Asia, A.D.
1800-A.D. 1914, A history of the expansion of Christianity. New York: Harper.
Lubis, Abdur-Razzaq. 2005. Mandailing Islam Across Borders. Taiwan Journal of
Southeast Asian Studies 2 (2):55-98.
McAmis, Robert Day. 2002. Malay Muslims : the history and challenge of resurgent
Islam in Southeast Asia. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub.
Mohammadi, Ali. 2002. Islam encountering globalization, RoutledgeCurzon Durham
modern Middle East and Islamic world series. London: New York.
Mutalib, Hussin. 1993. Islam in Malaysia : from revivalism to Islamic state? [Singapore]:
Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore.
Ng, Kiok Nam. 1992. Islam in Malaysia. In Islam in Asia : perspectives for Christian-
Muslim encounter : report of a consultation sponsored by the Lutheran World
Federation and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, Bangkok, June 11-15,
1991, edited by J. P. W. W. H. S. Rajashekar. Geneva: Lutheran World
Northcott, Michael S. 1991. Christian-Muslim relations in west Malaysia. Muslim World
Rippin, Andrew. 2001. Muslims : their religious beliefs and practices. 2nd ed, Library of
religious beliefs and practices;. London: New York.
Roy, Olivier. 2004. Globalized Islam : the search for a new Ummah, The CERI series in
comparative politics and international studies;. New York: Columbia University
Rustam, Mohd Ali bin Mohd. 2009. Speech by YAB Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali bin Mohd
Rustam. Paper read at Muhibbah Dinner, November 18, at Dewan Mini Stadium
Yegar, Moshe. 1979. Islam and Islamic institutions in British Malaya : policies and
implementation. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, the Hebrew University.
Yu, Wai Hong. 1987. "Chongzhenhui yibaisishinian laiwen gongzuo, yingxiang yu
zhanwang" (Work, influence, and prospects of the Tsung Tsin mission in the past
hundred and forty years). Xianggang Chongzhenhui lihui yibaisishi zhounian
jinian teken, 1847–1987 (Hong Kong Tsung Tsin mission one hundred and
fortieth anniversary special publication, 1847–1987), 55-70.