5 Orbital Shapes & Covalent Bonding
Shapes of Orbitals
 
<ul><li>Forming SIGMA bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds are formed when 2 orbitals overlap. The greater the degree of...
<ul><li>This type of overlap forms a  sigma  bond </li></ul><ul><li>A sigma bond can also be formed by overlap of an s orb...
<ul><li>Forming PI bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Sideways overlap of two p orbitals results in a weaker pi bond in which there I...
<ul><li>ALL single bonds are sigma bonds! </li></ul><ul><li>A double bond consists of a sigma bond + a pi bond </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Nitrogen for instance is a diatomic molecule with a triple bond. It’s electronic configuration is 1s 2  2s 2  3p 3...
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5 Orbital Shapes & Covalent Bonding

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5 Orbital Shapes & Covalent Bonding

  1. 1. 5 Orbital Shapes & Covalent Bonding
  2. 2. Shapes of Orbitals
  3. 4. <ul><li>Forming SIGMA bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds are formed when 2 orbitals overlap. The greater the degree of overlap the stronger the bond. </li></ul><ul><li>A single covalent bond can be formed when two s orbitals each with 1 electron overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>For example 2 hydrogen s orbitals </li></ul> H 1s orbital H 1s orbital H 2 molecular orbital with 1 electron with 1 electron with 2 shared electrons
  4. 5. <ul><li>This type of overlap forms a sigma bond </li></ul><ul><li>A sigma bond can also be formed by overlap of an s orbital with a p orbital – OR two p orbitals. </li></ul> P orbital with P orbital with molecular orbital 1 electrons 1 electron with 2 shared electrons
  5. 6. <ul><li>Forming PI bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Sideways overlap of two p orbitals results in a weaker pi bond in which there Is less overlap than in a sigma bond. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>ALL single bonds are sigma bonds! </li></ul><ul><li>A double bond consists of a sigma bond + a pi bond </li></ul><ul><li>A triple bond consists of a sigma bond and 2 pi bonds </li></ul><ul><li>P orbitals can only make 1 sigma bond by direct overlap. The remaining 2 p orbitals overlap sideways to give pi bonds </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Nitrogen for instance is a diatomic molecule with a triple bond. It’s electronic configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 3p 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The 2s orbital is filled so does not take part in bonding. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 p orbitals each have 1 electron and can all form bonds with another nitrogen atom </li></ul><ul><li> Nitrogen forms a diatomic molecule with 1 sigma and 2 pi bonds . </li></ul>

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