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Indus valley, 2013
 

Indus valley, 2013

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Ancient Civilizations in the Indus Valley

Ancient Civilizations in the Indus Valley

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  • Where is the equator? To the SOUTH of India.
  • Delhi, Mumbai, Sri Lanka used to be Ceylon
  • Cities; Surat as major port in Mughal period; Goa – Vasco da Gama – Portuguese colony for 450 years!
  • US – 3 million; India close to 12 million
  • Garden of Eden!
  • Stretches into Afghanistan
  • More cities, and larger cities than other civs
  • Mohenjo Daro
  • Pakistan
  • Hindu is not what adherents to the belief system originally called themselves.

Indus valley, 2013 Indus valley, 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization Harappan CivilizationHarappan Civilization Aryan Civilization…Aryan Civilization… Sindu-Sarasvati CivilizationSindu-Sarasvati Civilization Ca. 3000 – 1500 BCECa. 3000 – 1500 BCE
  • EquatorEquator So, in which hemispheresSo, in which hemispheres does South Asia lie?does South Asia lie?
  • Present Day India/Pakistan:Present Day India/Pakistan: 2828 officialofficial languageslanguages  Major Official Languages:Major Official Languages: – Hindi, Urdu, EnglishHindi, Urdu, English  Indo-Aryan:70% – Ie: Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi,Ie: Gujarati, Hindi, Marathi, Saraiki, Punjabi, Sindhi, Bengali,Saraiki, Punjabi, Sindhi, Bengali, Oriya / Punjabi, Pashto, Saraiki,Oriya / Punjabi, Pashto, Saraiki, Sindhi, Balochi.Sindhi, Balochi. – Many strongly influenced byMany strongly influenced by PersianPersian – Some derive from ancient SanskritSome derive from ancient Sanskrit  Dravidian: 22%Dravidian: 22% – history independent ofhistory independent of Sanskrit.Sanskrit. – The major DravidianThe major Dravidian languages: Kannada, Tamil,languages: Kannada, Tamil, Malayam, TeluguMalayam, Telugu  29 languages spoken by29 languages spoken by more than 1M nativemore than 1M native speakersspeakers  122 languages each spoken122 languages each spoken by more than 10,000 peopleby more than 10,000 people  What does thisWhat does this tell you abouttell you about South Asia?South Asia?
  • StatsStats IndiaIndia  1,11,166,079,217 pop.66,079,217 pop.  22.2222.22 births/1,000births/1,000 populationpopulation  Area: 1/3 of area ofArea: 1/3 of area of US in India alone –US in India alone – add Pakistan,add Pakistan, Bangladesh…Bangladesh…  48%48% Arable LandArable Land USAUSA  3304,059,724 pop.04,059,724 pop.  1414.18 births/1,000.18 births/1,000 PopulationPopulation  19%19% Arable Land –Arable Land – highly mechanizedhighly mechanized agricultureagriculture
  • Extreme ClimateExtreme Climate 1.1. HimalayaHimalaya Mountains-Mountains- Water flowed to plains viaWater flowed to plains via 7 (now 5 ) rivers:7 (now 5 ) rivers: ““Indus-Saraswati RiverIndus-Saraswati River System”System” 2.2. Monsoon WindsMonsoon Winds  Heavy RainsHeavy Rains Moisture-laden cloudsMoisture-laden clouds meet mountains, dropmeet mountains, drop moisturemoisture
  • Summer MonsoonSummer Monsoon
  • Winter MonsoonWinter Monsoon
  • Climate of Lower Indus PlainClimate of Lower Indus Plain NOW It’s ARID…NOW It’s ARID… But then…But then…  Lush forestsLush forests  GoodGood for hunting andfor hunting and pasturepasture  Plenty of waterPlenty of water  Long growing seasonsLong growing seasons  Fertile soilFertile soil
  • Geography:Geography: Alluvial PlainAlluvial Plain  SometimesSometimes destructive &destructive & unpredictableunpredictable floodsfloods – Cities rebuilt 5-6Cities rebuilt 5-6 timestimes  Wet, marshyWet, marshy environment:environment: – Animals on seals:Animals on seals: rhinos, elephants,rhinos, elephants, tigerstigers – Kiln dried bricks,Kiln dried bricks, not sun driednot sun dried
  • Harappan CivilizationHarappan Civilization  Discovered inDiscovered in 18561856  Alexander CunninghamAlexander Cunningham  British building a railroadBritish building a railroad near Indusnear Indus  Artifacts: pre-datedArtifacts: pre-dated earliest knownearliest known civilizations in Indiacivilizations in India
  • ArtifactsArtifacts DevisDevis
  • Tiny beads for men’s hairTiny beads for men’s hair adornment (see hair?)adornment (see hair?)
  • LargestLargest AncientAncient CivilizationCivilization Parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
  • URBANURBAN 1.1. HarappaHarappa NorthernNorthern area, on onearea, on one of 5 great riversof 5 great rivers 2.2. Mohenjo-daroMohenjo-daro -- LargestLargest 400 miles400 miles SouthSouth onon IndusIndus More cities, &More cities, & Larger cities thanLarger cities than other early complexother early complex societies….societies….
  • Planned UNIFORMITY!!Planned UNIFORMITY!! 1.1. Grid PatternGrid Pattern layoutlayout of all their cities:of all their cities: - Divided into 12 precise segments by main roads 30’ wide - Cities were walledwalled- 1 mile east to west, and 1/2 mile north to south 2.2. Standardization:Standardization: Identical ratio forIdentical ratio for kiln-dried brickskiln-dried bricks
  • CAREFUL PLANNINGCAREFUL PLANNING  Large, raised, walled & gated citiesLarge, raised, walled & gated cities with large public areaswith large public areas  Upper & Lower cityUpper & Lower city  Smallest homes nearSmallest homes near walls & agriculture,walls & agriculture, in lower cityin lower city
  • Dyers’ Workshop?Dyers’ Workshop?
  • Residential areasResidential areas Brick homesBrick homes ofof varying sizesvarying sizes mixed together:mixed together:  Each had centralEach had central courtyardcourtyard  City-wide sanitationCity-wide sanitation systemsystem  Wells in homes andWells in homes and neighborhoodsneighborhoods  Bathing area – standBathing area – stand  Some with toilets!Some with toilets!
  • City Planning & Sewage SystemCity Planning & Sewage System Best in the Ancient World!Best in the Ancient World!
  • Limestone drain covers on streetLimestone drain covers on street
  • City-wideCity-wide DrainageDrainage SystemSystem
  • 1. Agricultural Economy1. Agricultural Economy  Bronze toolsBronze tools  Irrigation &Irrigation & CisternsCisterns  Massive granaries inMassive granaries in citiescities  bureaucraciesbureaucracies toto administer themadminister them  Domesticated animalsDomesticated animals:: – camels, cats, dogs,camels, cats, dogs, – goats, sheep, and buffalo.goats, sheep, and buffalo.
  • 2.2. TRADETRADE  EXPORT:EXPORT: – PotteryPottery ––  Undecorated or with long hornedUndecorated or with long horned bullsbulls – JewelryJewelry- precious metals &- precious metals & stonesstones – SpicesSpices – Textiles - cottonTextiles - cotton  ImportImport:: – Jade from ChinaJade from China -- Precious jewels fromPrecious jewels from BurmaBurma - Goods carried by riverboat- Goods carried by riverboat or ox cartsor ox carts
  • Port City:Port City: LothalLothal  Harappan sealsHarappan seals found in Sumerianfound in Sumerian cities, with picturescities, with pictures of animals that didof animals that did not exist innot exist in Mesopotamia (ie:Mesopotamia (ie: tigers).tigers).  Not manyNot many MesopotamianMesopotamian artifacts found inartifacts found in Harappan cities.Harappan cities. Where is the port Where is the port of Lothal NOW? of Lothal NOW?
  • SealsSeals
  •  UndecipheredUndeciphered  WrittenWritten  LanguageLanguage
  • What do we know? How do we know it?What do we know? How do we know it? What difference does it make?What difference does it make?
  • What do we know?What do we know?
  • 1 2 3 4
  • Theories: Harappan DeclineTheories: Harappan Decline 1.1. SevereSevere floodingflooding  abandonment?abandonment? 2.2. Short term naturalShort term natural disaster -disaster - (earthquake)?(earthquake)? 3.3. Long-termLong-term environmentalenvironmental changeschanges::  shifts in monsoon patternshifts in monsoon pattern  warming temperaturewarming temperature  desertification of areadesertification of area  over-use of land and cuttingover-use of land and cutting of treesof trees deforestationdeforestation
  • More theories…More theories… 4.4. Administrative decline?Administrative decline? – Too many people to care for, ORToo many people to care for, OR – Authorities lost desire/talent to controlAuthorities lost desire/talent to control Definite decline in quality of planning &Definite decline in quality of planning & building observedbuilding observed.. 5.5. Aryan Invasion Theory?Aryan Invasion Theory? Harappans too weak to militarilyHarappans too weak to militarily prevent newcomers from settling/prevent newcomers from settling/ taking over?taking over? -- No weapons found at sitesNo weapons found at sites 6.6. NomadicNomadic ImmigrationImmigration theory?theory? Sudden wave of different type ofSudden wave of different type of potterypottery == new trade, or new people arrivednew trade, or new people arrived
  • Indo European LanguageIndo European Language on theon the MOVE…MOVE…
  • ARYAN INVASION / ArrivalARYAN INVASION / Arrival TheoryTheory 2500 - 1500 BCE2500 - 1500 BCE  WhyWhy would they migrate to South Asia?would they migrate to South Asia? – Climate shiftsClimate shifts  needed more pasture forneeded more pasture for herds?herds? – Increased populationIncreased population  conflict over grazingconflict over grazing land?land?
  • Mobile & Military AryansMobile & Military Aryans  PastoralPastoral NOMADSNOMADS  WARRIORWARRIOR CultureCulture  PatrilinealPatrilineal && PatrilocalPatrilocal
  • Importance ofImportance of “Kine”“Kine” for Pastoralfor Pastoral PeoplePeople Kept cattle alive to get YEARS of Milk,Kept cattle alive to get YEARS of Milk, Butter and Cheese, Dried Dung burned forButter and Cheese, Dried Dung burned for fuel…for ALL.fuel…for ALL. At death, Leather, horns, stomach… MEAT-At death, Leather, horns, stomach… MEAT- for a FEW.for a FEW.
  • VEDASVEDAS  OriginallyOriginally ORAL –ORAL – later transcribedlater transcribed  Passed down throughPassed down through priests, unchanged…priests, unchanged… Hymns composedHymns composed for religiousfor religious rituals,rituals, entertainment,entertainment, historyhistory……  Strictly meteredStrictly metered verses easilyverses easily memorizedmemorized
  • Brits tried to learn about Aryans from early translations of the VEDASVEDAS Aryans respected:Aryans respected: – Physical StrengthPhysical Strength – Martial skillsMartial skills – Heroic ExploitsHeroic Exploits – Monogamy (someMonogamy (some polygamy, esp.polygamy, esp. Epics)Epics) – Male childrenMale children Aryans:Aryans: - gambled w/ dice,- gambled w/ dice, - drank beer- drank beer - raced horses- raced horses - fought wars- fought wars Earliest “Hindu”Earliest “Hindu” Sacred LiteratureSacred Literature
  • Let’s take a Look atLet’s take a Look at The Rig VedaThe Rig Veda
  • Early Aryan BeliefsEarly Aryan Beliefs Priests & Rituals-Priests & Rituals- THETHE central rolecentral role
  • Settled Indus SocietySettled Indus Society  4 “Varnas”4 “Varnas” appeared:appeared: 1.1. BrahminBrahmin (priests) (not Brahman)(priests) (not Brahman) 2.2. KshatriyaKshatriya (rulers and warriors)(rulers and warriors) 3.3. VaishyaVaishya (Business people – Merchants,(Business people – Merchants, artisans, farmers… )artisans, farmers… ) 4.4. ShudraShudra (common laborers, do lowest work)(common laborers, do lowest work) Later, “jati”Later, “jati” and lower classes: “outcaste” and “untouchables”and lower classes: “outcaste” and “untouchables”
  • Women in Ancient South AsiaWomen in Ancient South Asia Patriarchal Society?Patriarchal Society? HarappansHarappans –– – No evidence - Lots of assumptions!No evidence - Lots of assumptions! AryansAryans –– –Laws of Manyu:Laws of Manyu: Rules for women & allRules for women & all classesclasses
  • What role didWhat role did women play inwomen play in earlyearly Vedic society?Vedic society?  What role doWhat role do women play inwomen play in anyany patriarchalpatriarchal society?society?
  • Where did the Aryans go?Where did the Aryans go? From c. 1500 BCE:From c. 1500 BCE: no more evidenceno more evidence of “Aryans” as aof “Aryans” as a separate group inseparate group in South Asia…South Asia… Where did they go?Where did they go?
  • Time Passed…Time Passed… The needs of society changed…The needs of society changed… gradually.gradually.
  • UpanishadsUpanishads  Sacred Hindu LiteratureSacred Hindu Literature – More than 200 are known  ““Sitting down near”Sitting down near” a spiritual teacher, or GURUGURU  BrahmBrahmaann – universal spirit– universal spirit “The ultimate, both transcendent and immanent, the absolute infinite existence, the sum total of all that ever is, was, or shall be.”  Atma(n)Atma(n) –– individual self /individual self / soul / “breath”soul / “breath”
  • Upanishads: MeditationUpanishads: Meditation  First & most definitiveFirst & most definitive explications of the divineexplications of the divine syllablesyllable AUMAUM or OMor OM – the cosmic vibration thatthe cosmic vibration that underlies all existenceunderlies all existence..  TheThe mantramantra ""Aum ShantiAum Shanti Shanti ShantiShanti Shanti"" (the(the soundless sound, peace,soundless sound, peace, peace, peace)peace, peace)
  • Doctrines in UpanishadsDoctrines in Upanishads  SamsaraSamsara – cycle of rebirth– cycle of rebirth  KarmaKarma – accounts for the specific– accounts for the specific incarnations of the soulincarnations of the soul  MokshaMoksha – liberation from reincarnation;– liberation from reincarnation; reaching eternal peaceful ecstasy in thereaching eternal peaceful ecstasy in the ultimate reality of Brahman.ultimate reality of Brahman.  Asceticism & MeditationAsceticism & Meditation – ways to– ways to reach Moksha.reach Moksha.
  • UpanishadsUpanishads Seeking Ultimate Truthg Ultimate Truth  Cultivation of High Ethical StandardsHigh Ethical Standards – Greed, envy, gluttony- over-attachment togluttony- over-attachment to physical world  Personal Integrity && Responsibility – Honesty, self-control, charity, mercycharity, mercy  Respect for all living thingsliving things
  • Uddalaka uses analogies to explain toUddalaka uses analogies to explain to his son, Svetaketu, how the ultimatehis son, Svetaketu, how the ultimate reality of Brahman pervades the world.reality of Brahman pervades the world. What can we learn about the socialWhat can we learn about the social values from this source?values from this source? Chandogya Upanishad on the Nature of Reality
  • SourcesSources  http://www.mohenjodaro.net/index.htmhttp://www.mohenjodaro.net/index.htm  http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/Hhttp://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCINDIA/H  http://www.archaeologyonline.net/http://www.archaeologyonline.net/