Ancient & Classical Greece - 2013Presentation Transcript
Important Legacy of Greece – Article: Historians Admit…
Pre-History & Significance of Homer
– Mycenae & Minoans replaced by Invaders
Role of Geography – ag, trade, conquest, polis,
colonization; Importance of Colonization
Importance of Tyrants to idea of Democracy
Government: Democracy in Athens, Spartan Oligarchy…
Athenian culture: philosophy, learning, drama,
architecture, art… and their significance
Significance of Alexander & Hellenism
Personal responses to change in Hellenistic Era
The Greek Phase
Democratic Principles- Polis, Citizen
Art & Architecture – quest for
beauty, balance, realism, man as measure of
Literature – Epic, Myth, Tragedy, Comedy
Science- inquiring spirit
Philosophy- refusal to accept anything short
– COLONIZATION & TRADE spread Greek
WHO WERE THE GREEKS?
What do we know? How do we know it? What difference does it make?
1. Linear B
Translated 1952 CE
Trade with Minoans
No prose or poetry
2. Homer as Historian?
– Agamemnon, King of
Mycenae, asserting control
over city states, Troy.
– Age of Heroes – Achilles
Ritual Battle of Heroes
“Achilles’ Choice:” great &
famous hero & die young, or
live long happy life without
Relationships, role of
fate, anger of gods like Apollo
written –7 th-9th c. BCE
The Odyssey - Fiction
Odysseus’ voyage home from Troy
Famous for deception, trickery
– Trojan horse; Defeat the Cyclops…
– “Man of many tricks”
– Immortal on island with goddess Kalypso OR return to
wife and country to live normal mortal life
– What it is to be mortal, and why anyone would
choose mortal over immortal
– Value of an anonymous human life
– Nature of human civilization & human
Significance of Homer’s Work
THE Defining moment of
Earliest Epic of Western Culture
Legacy of Greece, inspired
Greek Character According
Timé - honor
Areté – virtue / greatness
Kleos – dying with fame, glory, honor
But is it HISTORY?
Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns
Greek & Phoenician Colonies
due to :
- Shortage of Land for Agriculture
- Demand for Raw Materials
- Markets for their goods.
More Effects of Geography
– Excess population
– Plantations to raise grain to
sell in Greece
– Political time out!
– Markets for Greek goods
– Access to raw materials
Trading alliances necessary!
– To be able to count on trade.
– Just in case.
Significance of Colonization:
Rise of non-aristocrats
to power !!
– Trade led to wealth, and
wealth began to rival birth
as basis of political power…
750- 550 BCE
Archons – noblemen
Draco (c. 622 BCE) Draconian (harsh) Laws
Made punishment a duty of the STATE,
Solon (594 BCE)
Abolished slavery for debt & other harsh policies of Draco
Nobles put under the law; citizens’ assembly and people’s court
Imported skilled artisans from other city states and abroad
Cleisthenes - “one Greek is as capable as another”
– Constitution- 508 BCE- Much power in hands of citizens:
Right of citizens to ostracize one man per yr by popular vote (ten year period).
Citizen=all natural born males over 18 (10%)
Legislative Council - 500 citizens, from whom administrative officials chosen by
lot for 1 yr terms
Popular court of 6000 citizens- principle of rotation in office.
Army set up under board of 10 generals elected by citizens.
600- 500 BCE
Tyrant: sole ruler in a Greek
polis, who came to power illegally.
First step toward democracy!
– Opposition to power of nobility
Merchants and others in rising middle class
– extended social rights,
– patronized the arts,
– encouraged development of law,
– Encouraged trade.
Monarchy – rule by ―one‖ (mono);
in usage, by a king
Aristocracy – rule by aristocrats; nobility
Oligarchy – rule by a ―group‖; in practice, by an
elite, either military or wealthy
Democracy - rule by the ―people‖ (demos)
NECESSARY for Popular
Democracy to work:
– Debate & decisions by
assembly of ALL citizens.
– 500-5,000 / polis
Citizenship – Ideal of all
Greeks as free and rational:
750 – 500 BCE
Government DECENTRALIZED – never
Often in competition / conflict with other
Different patron god/godess
Different government forms
Trade competition, military sometimes
Still, A Sense of Greek Unity…
Oracle at Delphi - center
of religious belief for all the
Festivals & Meetings Ie.:
Drama or Poetry
Festivals, Athletic Competitions
First held - 776 BCE in
Held every 4 years
Only for Greek men
Played in the nude
Prize was a wreath of
leaves but the real prize
was the honor.
NOT the ONLY athletic
competition!! Plus other types of competition.
Humanlike gods with
12 most powerful
“lived” on Mt. Olympus
Each Polis had its own
Mountains in Northern Greece
Social Hierarchy of the Polis
1. Citizens = STAKE HOLDERS – 10%
– Adult males, NOT WOMEN!
– Stake holders engaged in commerce, agriculture
– NOT foreigners!!
2. Free People with no rights
– Underage men
– Men without a ―stake‖ in the politics
– and future of the polis
– Slaves, who accounted for about 1/3 of people in
Thanks to Jon Mundle for use of ―Groovy Greeks‖ by Terry Deary and Martin Brown
Slavery in Athens
How did one become a slave?
– Born to slaves
– Criminal mines, ship’s crew
– Exposed as an infant
– Sold by a parent in debt
Aphora: Slave nanny
takes baby from
Slavery in Athens
How did it differ from slavery of helots in Sparta?
Private property - ―Chattel”
– Unskilled: domestic
servants, cultivators, mineworkers, ship’s
crew & other heavy labor
– Skilled and educated: Craftsmen, business
– Some earned and saved enough money to
buy their own freedom!
Publicly owned slaves – bureaucrats =
Professionals / Specialists - Lived
separately – they paid a ―living wage‖ to
Slavery as fact of life in Athens
Their labor gave citizens time to
Meet, deliberate, vote
Create great works of art
Think about & teach Philosophy
Laws against abuse of slaves
No inspections, no one to complain to…
¼ to 1/3 Athens’ population
Only very stingy did not
give their wives at least one slave
Wealthy had 10-20 per person
Importance of Slaves
A caryatid is a sculpted
female figure serving as
an architectural element
such as a column or a
pillar supporting an
entablature on its head.
Women who helped
invading Persians, or
wives of conquered army
who then became
Erechtheion , Acropolis, Athens
Dorians conquered and enslaved
inhabitants ―helots‖ for hard
Spartan citizens = 10%
Militarist/physical training from
Little literature, art, architecture
THIS IS Sparta!
– 2 figurehead kings
– An aristocratic council
– Assembly of citizens over the age of 30
– 5 “ephors” elected annually by the assembly
and were the actual rulers of Sparta.
– No discord/political revolution allowed
– Commerce & outside contact discouraged - to
guard against corrupting influence of wealth &
Soldiers: Hoplites formed Phalanxes
Citizens bought their own
weapons: ―Come home with
your shield or on it.‖
– Hoplites (foot soldiers)
– Phalanx- formation
– 10 ft long spears!
Comparing Sparta & Athens
– emphasized physical training
& military discipline.
– Children of 7 selected for
army and left homes
Women had all rights
– Physical training
– Purpose: raise strong boys to
be future soldiers
Little trade, contact with
outside world- mostly
agricultural & militaristic
Education private -
personal, intellectual, &
– Music, literature, art
– 2 years mandatory military
service at age 18
Women not citizens and
had few rights.
– Educated in household duties
Active in trade &
colonies, other countries.
Art & Architecture
Athens - Acropolis
550- 400 BCE
Reported by Herodotus
Greek Ionians Revolted
against Persian overlords in
Asia Minor (now Turkey).
Athens supported the
revolt, so Persia fought 2
punitive wars against
Athens, both of which
Greek War Technology
Battle of Thermopylae Pass- 300
Spartans slaughtered. Athenians
evacuated while city burned.
Brilliant Athenian naval victory at
Straits of Salamis
Battle of Platea- combined Greek
force defeated Persians, forcing
Persia to retreat, and liberation of
Significance of Greek Victory
Aegean Sea controlled
Spread of Athenian
Spread of Athenian
Golden Age of Pericles –
(461- 429 BCE)
Athens for 30 years
– Strengthened democracy
– Built a Commercial
– Glorified & Beautified
Athens (ie: built
The Beginning of the End for the Athenian Empire…
Delian League 477 BCE
140 eastern city-states
– Ships & money contributed by member
city-states became foundation of Athenian
Empire when treasury moved to Athens.
– Athens used force to prevent
secession from League
A Question of POV
– Saw Athens spreading
– Saw Athens control dependent
Government by elites – “old
world view” –
– Concerned that Athens was
strong enough to beat
Trade, Cultural Interests
– Building military might for
Government by Popular
– Concerned about
GROWTH! for trade…
Naïve - spreading colonies
& military / trade alliances
even around areas Sparta
considered its sphere of
• Peloponnesian League
Athens Lost Hegemony!
The Four P’s
Plague - killed ¼- 1/3 Athens population,
including Pericles Power Vacuum Panic,
lawlessness, terror in Athens 421- 415 BCE-
Poor Judgement- 415 BCE- Under new
leadership, Athens attacked Sicily escalation
of war during time of temporary negotiated peace
Persia allied with Sparta - Athens
surrendered, becoming a puppet state of Sparta.
Phillip of Macedon, 338, BCE, with the assistance of
his son, Alexander. Defeated the exhausted Greeks.
Legacy of Classical Greece
Philosopher= One who
Based on two assumptions:
– The universe is orderly
with unchanging laws
– People can understand
these laws through
Sophists (arrived from Ionia during Peloponnesian War)
Brought skeptical humanism:
Elevated mankind to a central place in the Universe.
“Man is the measure
of all things.”
Made a living teaching discourse & rhetoric to wealthy
young men - important skills in a democracy.
Questioned supremacy of the gods during the stalemated
Plato (427- 347 BCE)
Established the basis for Western philosophy.
State’s function: to satisfy the common good.
Common man is unfit to govern himself.
Outlined a Utopia founded on justice, with:
– workers providing the necessities of life,
– warriors acting as guards,
– Philosophers as kings.
– No private property or family organization
– education regulated by the state.
Aristotle (384- 322 BCE)
Brightest student at Plato’s Academy where he
studied ALL subjects over 20 years.
Foundation of Logic:
– Every truth is derived from other truths.
– To make assumptions you must have A, B, & C.
– Syllogism: 3 logically related statements:
All people are mortal
Socrates was a person
Therefore, Socrates was mortal.
Helped develop rational, scientific thought…
Scientific Method: OBSERVATION
Student of Plato and tutor
to Alexander the Great
Classified all fields of
Founded biology (his father
was a doctor), formal
logic, and deductive
The Politics - the first
analytical examination of
politics as a social science.
School of Athens
Socrates (from Athens)
Define, through ceaseless
questioning, what was good in
– Delphic Oracle pronounced him ―the
wisest man in Greece.‖
– Taught young aristocratic men to
question accepted values of Athens:
Democracy, patriotism, religion…
Death of Socrates
by Jaques Louis David
Brought to trial for
corrupting the minds of
501 jurors heard the case.
Defense: his teachings were
good as they encouraged
people to think about their
values and actions.
Condemned to either
ostracism or death by poison.
Originally part of Religious
Moved into entertainment
– Power of the people, and of the leaders
– Justice, morality, War & Peace, Duty to the
– Importance of the Polis
Festivals like Olympics for Drama-
– Aeschylus (525- 455 BCE) –
won 13x, wrote over 30 plays (only 7
survived). Tragedies. Favored by Pericles.
– Sophocles (497- 405 BCE) –
wrote 100 plays- ―Oedipus‖ most
famous. (Antigone is Odeipus’
Euripides' greatest works include
Alcestis, Medea, Trojan Women, and
Strong female characters,
Satirized many heroes of Greek mythology. His
plays seem modern by comparison with those
of his contemporaries, focusing on the inner
lives and motives of his characters in a way
previously unknown to Greek audiences.
Amphitheatre at the Acropolis
Amphitheatre at Delphi
– Aristophanes- first
comedic play: political
– Sappho- female poet
4. Visual Arts
– More natural, life-like, and
– Classical Art =
order, balance, proportion
Most significant change
in sculpture to that date.
– Counterbalance /
s-curve of the body.
– Perfect Ideal of the
Classical Period: IDEALIZATION
the Eternal Pose & Aloof Expression = reasoned control
Thinner, more graceful,
Seen from all angles,
just as real, beautiful,
correct, and natural –
more 3-D…. they seem
to be alive!
– Even less rigid & more fluid
– More lifelike
– More emotion exhibited
Hellenistic period: so much
personality that they could be
A single moment in
Almost classical in
& drape of
Laocoon and His Sons
Subject of a lost play by Sophocles
Now in Vatican Museum
―Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.‖ Punished for advising Trojans not to accept
Trojan Horse, and for having sons…
Quiz: Archaic, Early Classical, Late
The Dying Gaul
(485- 425 BCE)
– The ―father of history‖
– Wrote ―The History of the Persian Wars‖
Thucydides (460- 400 BCE)
– One of 10 generals of Athens exiled for 20 yrs
– Wrote about Peloponnesian Wars and was 1st
scientifically critical historian.
– Considered History utilitarian: one could learn
from study of the past.
Euclid & Pythagoras
– laid foundations of
– Worked out the
principles of Geometry
– Earth is a sphere &
computed its size
– Physician - Age of Pericles
– Medicine as disciplined
philosophy or art
– Hippocratic Oath
– Borrowed heavily from
- Professional tools
Sewer & drainage
Baths & showers
Cranes, winches, levers,
Water / Steam-operated
machines and toys
The Gear, Screw, Rotary
Mills, Screw Press…
“Give me a place to stand on, and I
will move the earth!”
Mathematician, Physicist, Engineer,
Moderation, Balance, Prop
– Themes of famous buildings
such as the Parthenon &
City planners? Ah… not so much!
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its
top (the capital), is plain. This style was
used in mainland Greece and the
colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.
The Ionic style is thinner and more
elegant. Its capital is decorated with a
scroll-like design (a volute). This style
was found in eastern Greece and the
The Corinthian style is seldom used in
the Greek world, but often seen on
Roman temples. Its capital is very
elaborate and decorated with acanthus
“The Golden Ratio”
Mathematics & the Arts:
Two quantities are in the golden ratio if the
ratio between the sum of those quantities
and the larger one is the same as the ratio
between the larger one and the smaller.
The golden ratio is approximately
The Golden Ratio
The Golden Ratio
“Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from
Pythagoras and Euclid in Ancient Greece, through the medieval
Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance
astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such
as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over
this simple ratio and its properties.
But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to
Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, an
d even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its …appeal.
In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired
thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of
— Mario Livio, The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, The
World's Most Astonishing Number
ure, Math, Natu
DaVinci’s Vitruvius Man “Divine Proportion”
Listen to the “Music of the Spheres” for
Emergence of Hellenic Greece:
Phillip II of Macedonia-
- 338 BCE- defeated forces of
– Assassinated 336 BCE and
Alexander, his son, acceded to
Alexander the Great
King at age 20
& inspired leader
by making slaves
other poleis did
not resist him.
Tutor – Aristotle
Carried Greek values , technology, culture everywhere he went: “Hellenizing”
Alexander the Great
– Freed Egypt from
– Married an
Alexander as pharaoh
on a relief in Luxor in the
temple of Amenhotep III
Library with 500,000 papyrus
scrolls used for research
… the BEST of MANY Alexandrias!
Library of Alexandria
Defeat of Persia
Continued East…conquering and
Helenizing and urbanizing as
he went… all the way to Bactria, in
Wanted troops to intermarry with
conquered peoples to create a ruling
Greek, Macedonian, and Persian
ancestry… to rule the “world.”
He and his soldiers
traveled 7 years, and
His goal was to
conquer all the way
to CHINA… Why?
What were his troops’
Death of Alexander
On the way home, died of a
“fever”…or?... on June
10, 323 BCE at age 33.
Last words of Alexander: When
asked who should inherit his
empire he answered “..the
His generals took his words to
mean that he intended them
to divide his empire among
themselves... What do YOU
Dividing an Empire
Educated Elite turned to new
Sought peace in a time of stress and
Pleasure is the
pressures of the
world, … into a world
Refused to take strong positions
on political, moral, and social
Doubted the possibility of
Instead of fruitless debate, they
avoided disputes & sought
Withdrew from pressures of
All individuals have the
duty to aid others and
lead virtuous lives.
Did NOT withdraw
from pressures of
on performing duties
that reason & nature
demand of them.
Believed all people are part
of the universal family.
Sought inner peace and
tranquility through duty and
Roman Culture was
built on Greek Ideals
Meanwhile, in Rome…