The development of professional identity in early career teachers                 Janet Lord          University of Manche...
What is professional identity (PI)?• It concerns how we see ourselves as professionals – our  ‘beings and doings’ as teach...
Background• Our ‘beings and doings’ as teachers• Links to agency, action, self-concept and self-  efficacy• Symbiotic rela...
The interactive and dynamic relationshipbetween professional identity and agency             Janet Lord   November 2012   ...
And of course….• Teachers have situated experiences- which  impact on the development of identity- in a  dynamic social, c...
WHY IS PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN     TEACHERS IMPORTANT?          Janet Lord   November 2012   Identity   5
Context                      • Which means…….                             – Schools will undertake                        ...
So what?• Why does it matter that we understand the  factors mediating the development of  professional development?  It m...
Aim for todayTo discuss the work of MashaIzadinia, recently published in BERJ, and tocompare it to my own conceptual frame...
Izadinia (2012)• Review of 29 empirical studies to identify the  main foci of research on student teachers’ (ST)  identity...
What were her findings?• Identity is neither stable nor predetermined• A range of internal and external factors have an  i...
And…• Large number of interacting factors• Development of PI clearly situated• Notes the ‘bewildering complexities on the ...
So……Izadinia (2012) defines student teacher (ST)identity as  student teachers’ perceptions of their cognitive  knowledge, ...
Graphical representation of Izadinia’s      definition of ST identity            Janet Lord   November 2012   Identity   13
And• She makes the valid point that most of the  studies she reviews are oversimplistic, with  the consequence that teache...
BUT• The model does not represent the foci which she  identified in the review as being key• No sense of nested intersecti...
What is missing?• Theoretical basis for her work• Analysis of context, which is overgeneralised.• Understanding of the com...
My work• Literature reviewed was that surrounding the  emergence of professional identity in  teachers.• The work of Urie ...
Theoretical Bases• Urie Bronfenbrenner                • James Gee                 Janet Lord   November 2012   Identity   18
James Gee• Identity as an analytic lens in education  • Nature  • Associative  • Institutional  • Discourse               ...
Bronfenbrennerbio-ecological systems theory      Janet Lord   November 2012   Identity   20
My work• My framework encapsulates a fluid  intersectionality between a number of  interacting factors which influence the...
Conceptual framework                             The large oval represents the                             time – based co...
Key features of the conceptual                   framework• Dynamic intersectionality                                  The...
Advantages of this approach• Sound theoretical basis, rooted in theory and  literature• Can be investigated using a number...
So what?• I argue that this complex intersectionality may  inform early career teachers’ agency in the  teaching contexts ...
References• Bauman, Z (1996). From Pilgrim to Tourist – or a short history  of identity. Chapter 2 in Hall, S. and du Gay,...
Discussion              Contact:janet.lord@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk           Janet Lord   November 2012   Identity   27
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  • Figured worlds – Holland et al. (1998) ‘‘socially produced, culturally constituted activities’’ (pp. 40–41) where people come to conceptually (cognitively) and materially/procedurally produce (perform) new self- understandings (identities). (Urietta 2007)
  • Pronounce like ‘when”.
  • Nurture identityA state developed from forces in nature   Institution identityA position authorized by authorities within institutions  Discourse identityAn individual trait recognized in the discourse/dialogue of/with rational individualsAffinity identityExperiences shared in the practice of affinity groups   
  • Bronfenbrenner sets out the nested systems of relations that impact on development, starting with microsystems (like the family or the classroom) and the mesosystem – the interaction between these microsystems. The exosystem also influences development, but less directly –in the case of a child, this could be parental employment status, for instance. The macrosystem- which involves aspects of the environment that may connect many members of a culture or subculture (such as cultural values, customs, and laws)- also impacts on an individual’s development. According to Bronfenbrenner, the effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. For example, if it is a strongly held cultural belief that schools are responsible for children’s behaviour, then there may be significant impacts on (say) inspection frameworks and the availability of resources available to support parents. The macrosystem therefore takes a much more anthropological view of the factors which may impact on development. Within Bronfennbrenner’s model the influence of the chronosystem is also taken as read; the patterning of environmental events and transitions over time as well as socio-historical contextualization are key in patterning development.  
  • Janetlord seminar

    1. 1. The development of professional identity in early career teachers Janet Lord University of Manchester Manchester 2012
    2. 2. What is professional identity (PI)?• It concerns how we see ourselves as professionals – our ‘beings and doings’ as teachers. One thinks of identity whenever one is not sure of where one belongs…Identity is a name given to the escape sought from that uncertainty. (Bauman 1996, p19)• Recent discursive explosion. Simultaneously - and paradoxically - a searching critique about identity• PI is constantly in flux – more of a process than a single fixed outcome.• Identity as a verb – and a verb in the future. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 1
    3. 3. Background• Our ‘beings and doings’ as teachers• Links to agency, action, self-concept and self- efficacy• Symbiotic relationship between professional identity and agency. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 2
    4. 4. The interactive and dynamic relationshipbetween professional identity and agency Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 3
    5. 5. And of course….• Teachers have situated experiences- which impact on the development of identity- in a dynamic social, cultural and political context• Figured worlds – Holland et al. (1998) ‘‘socially produced, culturally constituted activities’’ (see Urietta 2007) Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 4
    6. 6. WHY IS PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN TEACHERS IMPORTANT? Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 5
    7. 7. Context • Which means……. – Schools will undertake initial teacher education themselves, with support from existing providers – They will therefore have a key role in facilitating the development of teacher identity. – Article in last week’s TES with comments from Andy Jones, Dean of Education at MMUJanet Lord November 2012 Identity 6
    8. 8. So what?• Why does it matter that we understand the factors mediating the development of professional development? It matters for the schools and for teacher educators, for policy makers and those involved in enacting these policies ……and it matters for the early career teachers. An understanding of the factors which affect their sense of identity and agency is likely to be empowering. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 7
    9. 9. Aim for todayTo discuss the work of MashaIzadinia, recently published in BERJ, and tocompare it to my own conceptual frameworkwhich is derived from a literature review onthe development of identity in early careerteachers. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 8
    10. 10. Izadinia (2012)• Review of 29 empirical studies to identify the main foci of research on student teachers’ (ST) identity• Four main factors were the foci of research – – reflective activities STs undertake; – learning communities STs are involved in; – their (prior) experiences and – contextual factors. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 9
    11. 11. What were her findings?• Identity is neither stable nor predetermined• A range of internal and external factors have an influence and leave identity in flux• Only ‘positive’ findings reported in studies.• Interconnected components of identity are discussed in most research, rather than one construct of identity.• (A shaped) understanding of self is key to identity development• ‘Educational contexts, prior experiences and learning communities’ are the contextual factors which shape this self understanding. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 10
    12. 12. And…• Large number of interacting factors• Development of PI clearly situated• Notes the ‘bewildering complexities on the horizon’ (p16).• Some work possibly suggests that identity formation is the key component of learning to teach (n.b. misrepresented Nguyen 2008).• Acknowledgement of exploratory nature Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 11
    13. 13. So……Izadinia (2012) defines student teacher (ST)identity as student teachers’ perceptions of their cognitive knowledge, sense of agency, self awareness, voice, confidence and relationship with colleagues, pupils and parents as shaped by their educational contexts, prior experiences and learning communities. (p.15) Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 12
    14. 14. Graphical representation of Izadinia’s definition of ST identity Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 13
    15. 15. And• She makes the valid point that most of the studies she reviews are oversimplistic, with the consequence that teacher educators and policy makers are likely to fail to recognise the challenges and complexities involved in PI formation.• Then she falls into the same trap. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 14
    16. 16. BUT• The model does not represent the foci which she identified in the review as being key• No sense of nested intersectionality of factors/clusters of factors• The term ‘context’ (conceptualised as a single factor) is not analysed• Changes in PI – not really discussed how these are identified or measured• Talks about ‘positive’ and ‘negative’ effects on PI• Main focus of her work on methodology rather than a framework for understanding the research Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 15
    17. 17. What is missing?• Theoretical basis for her work• Analysis of context, which is overgeneralised.• Understanding of the complex intersectionality between factors• Understanding – or even describing- the processes involved Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 16
    18. 18. My work• Literature reviewed was that surrounding the emergence of professional identity in teachers.• The work of Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979) on ecological systems theory and of James Gee (2001) on identity as a critically analytic lens in education, are used as bases for the development of a conceptual framework. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 17
    19. 19. Theoretical Bases• Urie Bronfenbrenner • James Gee Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 18
    20. 20. James Gee• Identity as an analytic lens in education • Nature • Associative • Institutional • Discourse Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 19
    21. 21. Bronfenbrennerbio-ecological systems theory Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 20
    22. 22. My work• My framework encapsulates a fluid intersectionality between a number of interacting factors which influence the development of professional identity in early career teachers.• Three clusters of factors are aligned along two dimensions – a distal/proximal axis and a continuum relating to structure and agency. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 21
    23. 23. Conceptual framework The large oval represents the time – based context/milieu Context and and fluctuations in this Time factors context Distal MACRO cluster- macrosystemic, political and socio- cultural influencesCloseness of factors to the individual Context, and the discourses MEDIAL cluster - Person and exosystemic and Process with which they engage situational influences factors PROXIMAL cluster - micro and mesosystemic influences; psychological factors Proximal Structure Agency Continuum showing factors related to agency/structure Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 22
    24. 24. Key features of the conceptual framework• Dynamic intersectionality The large oval represents the time – based context/milieu and fluctuations in this Context and Time factors context of factors which mediate the development of PI in Distal early career teachers. MACRO cluster- macrosystemic, political and socio-• Two axes – distal/proximal Closeness of factors to the individual cultural influences Context, and the discourses MEDIAL cluster - Person and and structure/agency with which they engage exosystemic and situational influences Process factors• Contextual and time- PROXIMAL cluster - micro and mesosystemic based factors influences; psychological factors Proximal Structure Agency Continuum showing factors related to agency/structure Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 23
    25. 25. Advantages of this approach• Sound theoretical basis, rooted in theory and literature• Can be investigated using a number of different methods that can be triangulated for validity and synergy• Value on process and fluidity• Factors, interactions between factors and effects on individual acknowledged. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 24
    26. 26. So what?• I argue that this complex intersectionality may inform early career teachers’ agency in the teaching contexts with which they engage.• This model has the potential to facilitate beginning teachers to frame their personal narratives about the development of their professional identity in a critically reflective way.• This may lead to a powerful sense of agency. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 25
    27. 27. References• Bauman, Z (1996). From Pilgrim to Tourist – or a short history of identity. Chapter 2 in Hall, S. and du Gay,P. (Eds.), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage• Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press.• Gee, J.P (2001) Identity as an analytic lens in education. Review of Research in Education, 25, 99-125.• Holland D., Lachicotte W. Jr., Skinner D., & Cain C. (1998). Identity and agency in cultural worlds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.• Izadinia, M. (2012). A review of research on student teachers’ professional identity. British Educational Research Journal, iFirst article, 1-20.• Urrieta, L. (2007). Figured Worlds and Education: An Introduction to the Special Issue. The Urban Review, 39 (2), 107- 116. Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 26
    28. 28. Discussion Contact:janet.lord@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk Janet Lord November 2012 Identity 27
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