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Transcript

  • 1. Periodic Trends
  • 2. CA Standards
    Students know how to use the periodic table to identify trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.
  • 3. Atomic Radius
    Definition: Half of the distance between nuclei in covalently bonded diatomic molecule
    • Radius decreases across a period
    • 4. Increased effective nuclear charge due to decreased shielding
    • 5. Radius increases down a group
    • 6. Each row on the periodic table adds a “shell” or energy level to the atom
  • Table of Atomic Radii
  • 7. Period Trend:Atomic Radius
  • 8. Ionization Energy
    Definition: the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
    • Tends to increase across a period
    • 9. As radius decreases across a period, the electron you are removing is closer to the nucleus and harder to remove
    • 10. Tends to decrease down a group
    • 11. Outer electrons are farther from the nucleus and easier to remove
  • Periodic Trend:Ionization Energy
  • 12. Electronegativity
    Definition: A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
    • Electronegativity tends to increase across a period
    • 13. As radius decreases, electrons get closer to the bonding atom’s nucleus
    • 14. Electronegativity tends to decrease down a group or remain the same
    • 15. As radius increases, electrons are farther from the bonding atom’s nucleus
  • Periodic Table of Electronegativities
  • 16. Periodic Trend:Electronegativity
  • 17. Summary of Periodic Trends
  • 18. Ionic Radii
    • Positively charged ions formed when
    an atom of a metal loses one or
    more electrons
    Cations
    • Smaller than the corresponding
    atom
    • Negatively charged ions formed
    when nonmetallic atoms gain one
    or more electrons
    Anions
    • Larger than the corresponding
    atom
  • 19. Table of Ion Sizes