Causes of WWI – MANIA! M ilitarism - policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war A lliances – agreements between nations to provide aid and protect on another A ssassination – of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand I mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politically. N ationalism – extreme pride in one’s country
Militarism 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
At the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the principle of nationalism was ignored in favor of preserving the peace. Germany and Italy were left as divided states, but strong nationalist movements and revolutions led to the unification of Italy in 1861 and that of Germany in 1871. Another result was that France lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, and regaining it was a major goal of the French. Nationalism posed a problem for Austria-Hungary and the Balkans, areas comprised of many conflicting national groups. The ardent Pan Slavism of Serbia and Russia's willingness to support its Slavic brother conflicted with Austria-Hungary's Pan-Germanism.
Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution.
These countries competed for economic expansion in Africa. Although Britain and France resolved their differences in Africa, several crises foreshadowing the war involved the clash of Germany against Britain and France in North Africa.
In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring to Austria-Hungary, the Balkans and Russia.
European Conquest of Africa
Assassination Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28th, 1914.
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.
Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia.
Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
Germany declares war on Russia.
France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
Allied Powers Central Powers World War I
Why was WWI a Stalemate ?
What’s a stalemate?
Neither side can make a move to win.
Machine gun. How did this change war? How was it fought before?
Trench Warfare = “solution”.
Millions die without gaining ground.
What new weapons were used in WWI ?
Why these weapons? Why now?
What were the results ?
Allies impose Treaty of Versailles .
Declares Germany guilty for war.
Germany must pay reparations to Allies.
This sets the stage for WWII!
League of Nations formed to try to prevent war in the future.
Total troops mobilized by all countries in WW1 65,038,810
Total troops dead from all countries in WW1 8,556,315
Total troops wounded from all countries in WW1 21,219,452