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  1. 1. The Rise of Napoleon
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Sent to military school at age 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Started in the artillery as a 16 year old lieutenant </li></ul><ul><li>When the revolution broke out he joined the New Republic's Army </li></ul>
  3. 3. His Accomplishments <ul><li>His legen began in 1795 when he put down a Royalist threat </li></ul><ul><li>1796 the Directory appointed Napoleon General of the French Army against Austria and Sardinia </li></ul><ul><li>He soon swept into Italy and won a series of victories </li></ul><ul><li>Soon he became the most famous general in France. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Napoleon’s Coup <ul><li>Directory quickly loses faith of the people </li></ul><ul><li>In 1799, Napoleon takes control of France by force and assumed a dictatorship </li></ul><ul><li>He became emperor by using the plebiscites-election where you vote yes or no </li></ul><ul><li>He won with overwhelming support. France wanted a strong central leader </li></ul><ul><li>Through a series of victories, Napoleon controls almost all of Europe </li></ul>
  5. 7. Reasons for His Success <ul><li>It is a citizens army </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent mobility (good cavalry, strike-retreat) </li></ul><ul><li>They live off the land </li></ul><ul><li>They look good, very intimidating. </li></ul>
  6. 8. His Domination of Europe <ul><li>By 1810, Napoleon’s empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to Russia </li></ul><ul><li>As he marched across Europe, he eliminated serfdom, introduced religious tolerance, and spread the ideals of liberty and equality. (Influenced by…?) </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon thought that he was invincible </li></ul><ul><li>At this time he set up universal laws known as the Napoleonic Code </li></ul>
  7. 9. His First Mistake <ul><li>He cut off all trade between Britain and the rest of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon thought that this would cripple Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan backfired when British formed a blockade to stop all French imports </li></ul><ul><li>This hurt France and angered Napoleon’s allies </li></ul>
  8. 10. His Second Mistake <ul><li>Napoleon misjudged the power of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism fueled insurrection in Germany and Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon lost over 300,000 men to Spanish and German guerrillas. </li></ul>
  9. 11. His Third Mistake <ul><li>Napoleon invaded Russia because the Czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>He expect his larger army to defeat Russia inferior army. </li></ul><ul><li>The Russians retreated towards Moscow and burned everything as they went (Scorched-earth policy). </li></ul>
  10. 13. His Third Mistake Continued <ul><li>The worst winter in 100 years hit Russia </li></ul><ul><li>The Russian’s completely burned Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon lost over 400,000 men in his retreat. </li></ul>
  11. 14. An Injured Napoleon <ul><li>Sensing that Napoleon had been fatally weakened, Britain formed a Grand Alliance against France. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : Take back land Napoleon conquered </li></ul><ul><li>Within a year the allies had defeated France and exiled Napoleon. </li></ul>
  12. 16. The End of His Reign <ul><li>In 1815, he escaped from Elba and returned to France for 100 days </li></ul><ul><li>A wave of enthusiasm swept through France upon his return </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands again joined Napoleon’s army </li></ul><ul><li>When British and Prussian armies rushed towards France, Napoleon met them at Waterloo. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Waterloo <ul><li>After a long battle, Napoleon’s troops retreated </li></ul><ul><li>This ended Napoleon’s last bid for power </li></ul><ul><li>The British exiled Napoleon to the island of Helena and he died 6 years later </li></ul>
  14. 18. Congress of Vienna <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore balance of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon. </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years </li></ul><ul><li>France would pay indemnity of 700,000,000 francs. </li></ul>