1. Jobs available in the TV and Film industry <br />Jane Nyamuchiwa<br />
2. Job roles <br />There are many job roles within the media sector, like most industries there are job hierarchies. In the media industry there are managerial and non managerial roles that are considered to be creative which include pre-production, editorial and production based jobs. Non-creative roles available in the media industry include research , administrative and financial roles which help the industry function and survive everyday. Most jobs in the media sector have organizational relationships which means that the different jobs rely on each other for tasks to be done efficiently.<br />
3. Contracts<br /><ul><li>The many jobs available in the media could be because of the growing competition for jobs in the industry and people specializing in different fields to differentiate from the competition. This has meant that more people who work in the media industry are paid less now.
4. There are different contract types according to the different jobs, projects and companies.
5. A lot of TV and Film work requires workers to have flexible working patterns.
6. The different types of work contracts include: shift work; fixed term; office hours; freelance; irregular pattern; hourly rates and piece work.</li></li></ul><li>Creative Management roles <br />
7. Director<br />A Director is responsible for realising the creative vision and style of a film or TV project. A director’s responsibilities include script writing, casting, shot selection and editing, the director works with heads of each department in the pre-production, production and post production stages of a project to achieve and fulfill the vision of the film. A director usually has people working under them that help ensure they achieve the film’s objective, these people include the assistant director, the script supervisor, runner etc.<br /> A Director must be able to motivate a team, be a good leader and have exceptional artistic vision and creative skills. Good interpersonal and communication skills are also important along with being able to think clearly under pressure and having a deep passion for filmmaking .<br /> There are no formal qualifications that are essential to be a director, there are optional training courses available. In-depth experience however is important to be able to master this role. This can be through directing and writing your own projects and industry experience, many people who do this usually start as runners.<br />
8. Director: contracts and work patterns <br />A directors work patterns and contracts varies from film project to project.<br />They will need to have flexible work patterns because filming will involve long hours most of the time, this will also include irregular work days.<br />When working on a film directors usually get paid according to the films budget, which can be anything from £10,000 to £5 million .<br />The track record, reputation and experience will also determine how much a director will get paid.<br />Sometimes a director will work for little or no pay on the condition that they get a percentage of the film’s return profits.<br />
9. Editor<br />The editor works closely with the director to decide how the screenplay unfolds. They are usually responsible for first and second assistants and trainees. An editor’s role is to ensure that scenes in a film flow effortlessly to a good standard. They can work on location of the filming with the film crew, often to review the technical standards and performances in scenes that have already been shot. <br />When filming has finished the editor will select the best takes and scenes to create a rough cut of the film. Then in post production the editor will work with the director to improve and refine the film to create a directors cut. The final cut is approved by the director and the executive producer.<br />An editor must be creative, and have a good understanding of narrative, they also need to posses leadership, communication and interpersonal skills. Rhythm in story telling and aesthetic visual awareness are also vital skills to have. They also need to be able to use different movie editing software.<br />Ne specific qualifications are needed to be an editor, however there are short industry recognized courses that can provide more skills. They are provided by the National Film and Television school and Film and Television Freelance Training among others <br />
10. Editor : contracts and work patterns <br />For those employed by a television or post-production studio the typical starting salaries range from £18,000 to £25,000, however this is most for graduates level entrants. Senior editors earn between £37,000 to £70,000 according to salary data 2010, this however varies depending on project, budget and company. Rates are also negotiable when working on an agency , they can take a percentage or flat fee.<br />Most editors work on a freelance basis . This involves intense periods of work with freelance editors sometimes taking on several projects at a time. They usually work long hours in editing suites liaising with the director, effects editor and music editors. Some editors can chose to work at home if they have their own equipment and if the project producers and director allow it.<br />Those working as runners and then assistant editors are usually paid minimum wage, and sometimes nothing at all as they are getting experience.<br />
11. Post-production Sound Manager<br />Sound designers are responsible for providing and or creating any sound or music that fits the concept of the of the visual scenes. They create sounds which add effect to the film such as explosions and bangs which give good effect to action scenes and subtle , slow and emotional sound which helps to transmit feeling during emotional scenes.<br />They also use dedicated sound software to blend the different sound clips together so that they all flow and have the appropriate effects and volume settings.<br />Sound designers work with the director and producer before shooting begins, to create strong sound concept for the film. During filming they will need to work with the director again to make sure that the sound vision is being achieved or working, during this period they also work with the film crew (e.g. boom operator) and special effects sound mixers to ensure that the recordings are of high quality and on par with the sound concept. <br />A sound designer usually has runners and assistant sound editors working under them.<br />To be a sound designer you need have creativity, good aural and communication skills, and the ability to work conceptually and under pressure.<br />
12. Post-production Sound Manager : contracts and work patterns <br />Some sound designers are employed by audio post production houses but the most of them work on a freelance basis, which means they face uncertainty over their employment.<br />They are sometimes required to work in multiple locations including recording studios and film or television sets.<br />Sound designers to have flexible work patterns as most of the time they have to work long unsociable hours, which includes nights, evenings and weekends.<br />Wages for sound designers also vary if they are working on a freelance basis depending on which production companies.<br />For those on fixed work contracts starting salaries usually start from £16,000 - £18,000 p/a, which rises to around £30,000 to £40,000 with experience.<br />
13. Non-Creative Management roles <br />
14. Production Managers<br />Production manager are responsible for interpreting and realising the director’s vision, they usually work with the producers to do this. They are also responsible organising the production schedules and financial budgets for a project, they must liaise with other department managers to make sure production runs within the schedule and budget. They do this using databases which they use to monitor logistics such as actors needed, locations and crew needed, they also use this software to daily report sheets of the shoot for producers. Production managers need to ensure that they have made contingency plans for pre-production to production. Contracts for actors , film crew etc are handled by the production manager and they work closely with other heads of departments in this area such the location department.<br />Production managers report to the Producers and are responsible for 1st assistant directors and runners.<br />Production managers need to have good analytical skills, problem solving, organisation, budgeting and financial skills. The must also have good verbal and written communication skills and the ability to conceptualise ideas, knowledge in relevant legislation and regulations (health and safety, copyright) is also vital.<br />No specific qualifications are needed for this role, health and safety training is important along with experience. Degrees in related subjects and specialist courses may provide candidates with useful background information<br />
15. Most roles in this job are freelance or offered on a contract basis. The number of Permanent jobs available is decreasing which creates job and financial insecurity. The progressive competitive nature of the role makes it difficult for employees to take career breaks and can drive down pay rates as demand for the job for the companies is going down.<br />Working patterns involve irregular, long , unsocial hours spent in meetings or working to meet deadlines. They can be based on location of filming, or in an office.<br />Salaries vary according to the project and the company. Starting salaries range from £15,000-£21,000. Experienced production managers can earn more by freelancing.<br />Production Managers: contracts and work patterns<br />
16. Research Manager<br />Researchers help develop programme ideas which they have been briefed on by the producers and the director. They collect information through various sources to make sure that legal and copyright requirements are met. They also research programme information about the project ideas and the target market, they then present findings to the decision makers and may present recommendations for the producers and directors of improvements or alterations that need to take place.<br />Researchers may also be needed to research location requirements for scripts or programme outlines, and assess locations for suitability and cost, taking various factors into account including the need for any permissions and licenses. They identify and select suitable sources for archive footage, still pictures or audio materials, within time and cost limits. They will need to work with different departmental heads such as the location manager, director or producer, and sound managers as they will need information from this research to make sound decisions. <br />Researchers work with research assistants, production assistants and runners.<br />Skills needed for this role include: communication (verbal and written), analytical, methodological approach to work, conceptualisation, ability to think visually and relevant knowledge in in legislation and regulations.<br />No specific qualifications needed. Experience in pre-production and production processes is required though.<br />
17. Research Manager : contracts and work patterns <br />Freelance and short-term contracts are common in the industry as most projects only need researchers to find out information. However Broadcasting companies like the BBC offer fixed term contracts in research .<br />The role includes unsocial working hours with researchers working the whole week for long hours. They are based in different settings depending on the project; settings include an office or on the street completing surveys.<br />Starting salaries range fro £18,000- £22,000 rising to around £32,000 with experience. Freelancers can expect a daily rate of around £150 to £400.<br />
18. Transport Manager<br />Transport managers ensure that transport needs for a project are met, they are responsible for managing and organising transport for mobile production offices and water closets. Artist trailers, make-up and costume units, camera and other required equipment. Transport Managers are responsible for creating the transport schedule for a production, to ensure that the required vehicles arrive at the right place, at the correct time. They work with other departments to achieve this such as the location manager and the assistant director.<br />Transport Managers also work with the Transport Co-ordinator to ensure that vehicles and their contents have the appropriate permits to travel across international borders.<br />Skills needed include: planning and managerial skills, organised, resourceful, have good understanding of geography, communication skills and knowledge of driving laws and heath and safety.<br />Qualifications: experience in the transport industry, HGV1 licence, good numeracy and literacy skills.<br />
19. Transport Manager: contracts and work patterns<br />A lot of work is freelance or contract based, pay varies depending on size of company and size of film project. Permanent contracts are available for long running tv productions.<br />Hours are long, tedious and unsocial, work patterns vary depending on length of shooting day.<br />Work is often outdoors so it is important to be adaptable and able to work and drive in all kinds of environments and weather conditions.<br />Fixed contract starting salaries: £15,000 - £25,000. Senior managers can expect to earn £30,000+.<br />