Mineral Identification Lab
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Mineral Identification Lab

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  • Emerald, ruby, amethyst, watermelon tourmaline

Mineral Identification Lab Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Warm Up – Page 26
    • What are the 5 characteristics of a mineral?
    • Copy down today’s EQ and date on page 27.
    • Turn in your syllabus (only the bottom portion)
    • Have your notebook open to your vocab homework
  • 2. How do we identify minerals? Mineral Identification Lab
  • 3. Minerals are identified by their
    • Hardness – a mineral can scratch any mineral softer than itself but will be scratched by a mineral harder than itself
      • Mohs Hardness Scale – ranks minerals from softest to hardest on a scale of one to ten. Talc is the softest known mineral, and diamond is the hardest known mineral.
  • 4. Hardness
  • 5. Minerals are identified by their
    • Color – some minerals are always the same color (sulfur is always yellow, malachite is always green and azurite is always blue ); most minerals come in a variety of colors
  • 6. Color http://www.minresco.com http://www.gems-afghan.com http://www.globalcrystals.com http://www.prettyrock.com
  • 7. Minerals are identified by their
    • Streak – the color of a mineral’s powder; the color of a mineral’s streak does not change like the color of the mineral may
  • 8. Streak test http://www.uky.edu/KGS Streak is the color of a mineral powder. Many minerals appear a different color when powdered than they do as a big piece. The color may be entirely different, or it may be a different shade. http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu
  • 9. Minerals are identified by their
    • Luster – how a mineral reflects light from its surface ; some ways to describe luster are shiny, earthy, metallic, waxy, and pearly
  • 10. What is luster? Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch How do these look different? Courtesy United States Geological Survey Courtesy United States Geological Survey Each reflects light differently – that is luster! Which of these words would you use to describe these minerals? Glassy, metallic, dull, silky, waxy, pearly
  • 11. Luster Waxy luster Glassy luster dull luster metallic luster metallic luster Glassy luster
  • 12. Minerals are identified by their
    • Density – all minerals have a characteristic density; no matter the size of the sample, its density will remain the same
  • 13. Density How tightly packed the atoms are will make something heavy. Every mineral has its own density. These two items may have the same size – but do not weigh the same. Why?? Because the brick has atoms that are more tightly packed together than the styrofoam.
  • 14. Minerals also have different densities. This means for equal size, they have their own special weight. http://www.palagems.com Which one is worth more? How could you tell? The first one is topaz (worth a lot) and the second is citrine quartz (not worth a lot). A scientist would measure their densities and they would be different!
  • 15. Minerals also have different cystal patterns Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch http://www.wired-artist-jewelry.com http://webphysics.davidson.edu http://www.fabreminerals.com http://www.fabreminerals.com Crystal video clip
  • 16. Minerals are identified by their
    • Crystal System – the crystal structures are divided into six groups
      • Cubic
      • Hexagonal
      • Tetragonal
      • Orthorhombic
      • Monoclinic
      • Triclinic
  • 17. Another property is the way a mineral breaks. Cleavage means it breaks the same way every time. Fracture means it breaks in a random pattern that cannot be predicted. www.mrsciguy.com Calcite and halite break a special way. donsmaps.com www.visionlearning.com Quartz and chert break in a random pattern. There is not way to predict how they break.
  • 18. Minerals are identified by their
    • Cleavage and fracture – the way a mineral breaks apart helps us identify it
      • Cleavage – splits apart along flat surface
      • Fracture – breaks apart in an irregular way
  • 19. Minerals are identified by their
    • Special Properties – some minerals are identified by their special properties
      • Fluorescence – minerals that glow under ultraviolet light
      • Magnetism
      • Radioactive
      • Chemically Reactive
      • Electrical Properties
  • 20. Special Properties Magnetism Radioactivity Chemical Reaction Fluorescence Salty Taste But NEVER taste things in the lab! Double Image
  • 21. Warm Up – Page 26
    • What are the 8 ways we can identify minerals?
  • 22. Is Your Sample . . .? Metallic Non-Metallic
  • 23. Streak Red/Red Brown Green/Brownish/Black Black
  • 24. Your Sample Is
    • Hematite – 3
    • Hematite is a compound – Fe 2 O 3 (iron and oxygen)
    • Start Over
  • 25. Your Sample Is
    • Pyrite – 4
    • Pyrite is a compound – FeS 2 (iron and sulfur)
    • Start Over
  • 26. Hardness 6+ Penny (1-2)
  • 27. Your Sample Is
    • Magnetite – 14
    • Magnetite is a compound – Fe +2 Fe 2 +3 O 4 (iron and oxygen)
    • Start Over
  • 28. Luster Bright Metallic Dull Metallic
  • 29. Your Sample Is
    • Galena (7)
    • Galena is a compound – PbS (lead and sulfur)
    • Start Over
  • 30. Your Sample Is
    • Graphite – 9
    • Graphite is an element – C (carbon)
    • Start Over
  • 31. Color
    • Yellow
    • Other
  • 32. Your Sample Is
    • Sulfur – 8
    • Sulfur is an element - S
    • Start Over
  • 33. Hardness
    • Fingernail
    • Penny
    • 6+
  • 34. Your Sample Is
    • Calcite – 5
    • Calcite is a compound – CaCO 3 (calcium, carbon, and oxygen)
    • Start Over
  • 35. Luster
    • Glassy
    • Pearly
  • 36. Color
    • Colorless/White
    • Brownish
  • 37. Your Sample Is
    • Halite – 15
    • Halite is a compound – NaCl (Sodium and Chloride – salt)
    • Start Over
  • 38. Your Sample Is
    • Muscavite Mica – 2
    • Muscavite Mica is a compound – KAl 2 (Si 3 AlO 10 )(OH,F) 2 (Potassium, Aluminum, Silicon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Fluorine)
    • Start Over
  • 39. Color
    • Pale Green/Gray/White
    • Colorless/White
  • 40. Your Sample Is
    • Talc – 13
    • Talc is a compound – Mg 9 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 4 (magnesium, silicon, oxygen, hydrogen)
    • Start Over
  • 41. Your Sample Is
    • Gypsum – 12
    • Gypsum is a compound – CaSO 4 *2H 2 O (Calcium, Sulfur, Oxygen, Hydride)
    • Start Over
  • 42. Luster
    • Glassy
    • Pearly
  • 43. Your Sample Is
    • Microcline Feldspar
    • Microcline Feldspar is a compound – KAlSi 3 O 8 (Potassium, Aluminum, Silicon, and Oxygen)
    • Start Over
  • 44. Your Sample Is
    • Quartz
      • Color – Clear/colorless – Rock Quartz – 10
      • Color – Pink – Rose Quartz – 6
      • Quartz is a compound – SiO 2 (Silicon and Oxygen)
      • Start Over
  • 45. Conclusion – Page 26 Out activity
    • What was the easiest mineral property to identify?
    • What was the hardest mineral property to identify?
    • What did you learn from this lab?
    • Write a haiku about minerals. A haiku is a three line poem with 7 syllables in the first line, 5 in the second, and 7 in the third. It does not rhyme.