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  • 1. Part 1: How to Nail Your Essay November 12, 2009
  • 2. Today
    • Essay Workshop: Part 1
    • Jeopardy Quotation Selection
  • 3. 1: Read Comments from Earlier
  • 4. 1: Read Comments from Earlier
    • Format
    • Structure
    • Content
    • Sentence-level
    • Documentation
  • 5. 2. Talk to Your Instructor
  • 6. 3. Start Early
    • Topic
    • Brainstorming
    • Thesis
    • Outline
    • Research
    • Draft
    • Revision
    • Final
  • 7. 4. Brainstorming
    • Start with every example that strikes your topic
    • List them all
    • Start grouping in logical categories
  • 8. 4. Brainstorming Is Gertrude a good mother? Topic
    • Wants him to get out of his funk (1.2.68)
    • Unaware of Hamlet’s digs (1.2.75)
    • Wants him to stay at Elsinore (1.2.119)
    • More interested in R&G as Hamlet’s friends, not using him (2.2.19)
    • Diminishes “ov’r hasty marriage 2.2.56)
    • Wants to cut to the chase (2.2.97)
    • Want the extant reading (2.2.114)
    • Aware that he walks (2.2.161)
    • Wants the cause to be Ophelia (3.1.39)
    • Unaware of mirror in the play (3.2.210)
    • Polonius recognizes Gertrude as a buffer (3.4.1)
    • Gertrude unaware of Hamlet’s accusations (3.4.38)
    • Oblivious (3.4.50)
    • Understanding through her son (3.4.69)
    • Bothered by accusations (3.4.84; 181)
    • Looking for excuses (3.4.96; 127; 4.1.6))
    • Looks for advice (3.4.164)
    • Runs to Claudius (4.4)
    • Rats out Hamlet in favour of Claudius (4.5.124)
    • Helpful to other children: wants to listen to Ophelia to relieve her madness
    • Delivers news to Laertes that Ophelia is dead (4.7.134)
    • In the sword fight, Gertrude is on Hamlet’s side (5.2.230)
  • 9. 5. Outlining Is Gertrude a good mother? Topic
    • Wants him to get out of his funk (1.2.68)
    • Unaware of Hamlet’s digs (1.2.75)
    • Wants him to stay at Elsinore (1.2.119)
    • More interested in R&G as Hamlet’s friends, not using him (2.2.19)
    Evidence Major Point 1 Major Point 3 Major Point 2 Thesis
  • 10. Outline
    • Task #1:
    • In booklet, look at evidence.
    • Break into three major points and put these on the bubble sheet
  • 11. 6. Thesis
    • Concession-refutation: giving into the other side
    • Example: Although experts say that eating burnt food can cause cancer, a child who refuses to eat a burnt marshmallow at summer camp could face more immediate consequences of social alienation.
    • Example: While Harlen may appear as a liar, he actually distinguishes between harmful lies and untruths that help people, justifying his transgressions of sincerity.
  • 12. 6. Thesis (cont’d)
    • Has to be an argument/angle of some kind
    • Cannot just be a restatement or summary of plot
    • Can begin as a “working thesis” that changes as you write the paper
    • Comes as the last sentence of the first paragraph (the introduction)
    • Can include a path (the main major points you will be making)
  • 13. 6. Thesis (cont’d)
    • Examples:
    • Although Rosencrantz and Guildenstern appear to be bad friends, they are loyal to Hamlet to the best of their knowledge and are merely pawns of Claudius.
    • While Horatio may seem more loyal than Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he makes several moves against Hamlet that in some ways count him in the same “bad friend” category.
  • 14. 6. Thesis: Example
    • Task #2: Come up with a concession-refutation thesis for your bubble sheet based on your three major points.
  • 15. 7. Paragraph Mechanics
      • Is 6-12 sentences long—easy reading.
      • Begins with a topic sentence
      • Is indented
      • Expresses ONE idea
      • Includes a transition
      • Get away from the strictly five paragraphs!
  • 16. 7. The Perfect Paragraph Topic Sentence Point #3 Point #2 Point #1 Concluding Sentence to Summarize and Transition
  • 17. 7. 4-F Test
      • Focus
        • Topic Sentence
      • Fine Points
        • Details
      • Flow
        • Transitions
      • Finality
        • Concluding Sentence
  • 18. Focus: The Topic Sentence
      • Is like a sequel in a movie.
      • Looks in two directions: backwards (to the thesis) and forwards (to the body of the paragraph).
  • 19. Flow: Transitions: Adding ideas
      • Also
      • Finally
      • As well as
      • Too
      • In addition
      • Moreover
      • Furthermore
      • Another
      • Again
      • Further
      • First, second …
  • 20. Transitions: Showing Time
      • Later
      • As soon as
      • Until
      • First, last
      • Until
      • While
      • Soon
      • Now
      • Eventually
      • To begin with
      • Afterwards
      • Meanwhile
      • During
  • 21. Transitions: Showing Contrast
      • But
      • In contrast
      • However
      • Yet
      • Despite
      • Although
      • On the other hand
      • Even though
      • Otherwise
      • Conversely
  • 22. Transitions: Showing Similarity
      • Both
      • Each
      • Likewise
      • Like
      • Similarly
      • Also
      • Compared to
  • 23. Transitions: Showing Cause and Effect
      • As a result
      • Consequently
      • Therefore
      • Thus
      • Accordingly
      • So
      • To conclude
      • Hence
      • For this reason
      • Then
  • 24. List of Transitions
    • http://maclife.mcmaster.ca/CSD/accesstomac/images/common.pdf
  • 25. Finality
      • Is the concluding sentence
      • Restates the main point of the paragraph
      • Transitions into the next paragraph.
  • 26. Example of 4-F Paragraph
    • Watching the news before going to sleep can cause sleep disturbance or insomnia. The late-news is often filled with depressing events. As a result, an individual is put into a kind of stage of alert. Images, sounds, or phrases may remain in a person’s immediate consciousness, and therefore may plague the person as he or she tries to settle down and relax. Consequently, overstimulation and restlessness follow. Thus, a person becomes centred on worry and stress. Accordingly, the person becomes aroused rather than calmed into a state of sleep, so late-night news watching is not recommended.
  • 27. Example of a 0-F Paragraph
    • Sports and fitness trends are related to what John Kelly, a University of Illinois sociologist, calls “the Olympic effect.” Since the Olympic Games get such an abundance of media coverage and promotion, adult viewers tend to participate more just before, during, and immediately after the Olympics. The Olympics occur every four years. After the Olympic flurry is over, participation in sports and fitness activities tends to spiral downward again, according to Dr. Kelly. However, casino gambling have increased since 2004.
  • 28. 7. Paragraph Mechanics
    • Choose one of your major points and make a topic sentence for it that relates back to the thesis.
    • As bullets, put three quotation citations underneath that topic sentence
  • 29. 8. Quote Integration: Step 1
    • Frame all quotes with your own writing
    • Never drop a quotation as its own sentence
    • Spend as much time or more explaining each quote as the quote is long
    • Example:
    • Rosencrantz is no longer Hamlet’s friend by the end of the play, as Rosencrantz keeps asking where Polonius’ body is buried. “What have you done, my lord, with the dead body?” Also “Tell us where ‘tis, that we may take it thence And bear it to the chapel.”
  • 30. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are no longer Hamlet’s friends by the end of the play, as Rosencrantz keeps asking where Polonius’ body is buried. “What have you done, my lord, with the dead body?” Also “Tell us where ‘tis, that we may take it thence And bear it to the chapel.” Rosencrantz demonstrates his disloyalty to Hamlet when he keeps asking Hamlet to tell him “what [he has] done . . . with the dead body,” not to help Hamlet but so that Rosencrantz can “take it thence and bear it to the chapel”—not likely a consideration of Hamlet’s. Which one is easier to read?
  • 31. 8. Quotation Integration: Step 2
    • Change tense or pronouns from original that do not mesh with your own framing text
    • Claudius explains that “I have sent to seek him, and to find the body” (4.3.1).
    • Claudius explains that he has “sent to seek [Hamlet], and to find the body” of Polonius (4.3.1).
  • 32. 8. Quotation Integration: Step 2
    • Use present tense for your own framing words
    • Example:
    • The closet scene involves both Gertrude and Hamlet in a heated debate.
    • Hamlet was mad because his mother married too quickly.
    • The scene set up the next act so the characters could enter from the side.
  • 33. 8. Number
    • The article begins with a quote from Lisa McFarren who states that “I’ve known many men to have a garage sale.”
    • The author explicitly states that “my field research indicates there is indeed a division of labour.”
  • 34. 8. Quote Integration: Step 3
    • Quote too long?
    • Summarize (20% of original)
    • Paraphrase (same length as original)
    • Use ellipses (the dot-dot-dot)
  • 35. 8. Quotation Integration: Step 4
    • Punctuation Must Be Correct
    • Only put a comma before the quote if it could be replaced with the word “that”
    • Commas and periods belong inside quotation marks if no bracketed citation
    • No single quotations—only doubles
  • 36. 8. Quotation Integration
    • On worksheet, fix poorly integrated quotations.
    • Put “OK” next to the ones that are OK
  • 37. Taking Stock