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Word-of-the-Day Rhetoric: The art of using language so as to persuade or influence others Examples: She was well versed in the art of rhetoric. Careful use of punctuation can be an important rhetorical strategy.
Rhetorical Grammar She was interested in only one thing, love. She was interested in only one thing: love She was interested in only one thing—love.
Argumentation instead of biased methods
Consider your reader’s reaction
make them see your point of view
change readers’ minds
move them to action on behalf of your cause
Two Styles of Thinking Deduction: begin with a general claim and then support it with evidence Induction: explore specific evidence and then draw a conclusion from it.
Make a list of your values (rank them 1-5)
Persuasion - logos - pathos - ethos
Logos Logos (logical appeal) is an appeal to logic or reason. Appear rational and appeal to audience’s intellect. Most arguments are grounded in reason and supplemented by other appeals.
Pathos Emotional appeal
Ethos (ethical appeal) is an appeal to people’s sense of decency. Show yourself to be a person of good sense, good will, and moral integrity.
How is Credibility Damaged?
Involves a strong controversy on which opinion is divided or opposed to your view
Chooses how far to push argumentation
Constructs a fair-minded, respectful, moderate tone
Balances ethos, pathos, and logos (with a strong logos appeal throughout)
Applies one of the four models for formal argumentation
Recognizing arguments on the other side
Story of Stuff http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
Assures your reader you are aware of the other side/you have explored the ongoing critical conversation.
My opponent says A is true (allude to reasons)
A is not true; B is true for these reasons (thesis)
Elaborate on the reasons for believing A is not true
Elaborate on the reasons for believing B is true
State final implications and reflections, perhaps even a call to action
1s ask 2s (question A) and 3s ask 4s (question B)
2s ask 1s (question B) and 4s ask 3s (question A)
1s ask 3s (question D) and 2s ask 4s (question C)
3s ask 1s (question C) and 4s ask 2s (question D)
Lawyers work long hours.
Nima is a lawyer.
Nima works long hours.
Bad Example of Persuasion
It is obvious to anyone thinking logically that minimum wage should be increased. The current minimum wage is an insult and is unfair to the people who receive it. The fact that the last proposed minimum wage increase was denied is proof that the government of this state is crooked and corrupt. The only way for them to prove otherwise is to raise minimum wage immediately.
Premise 1: Minimum wage should match the cost of living in society.
Premise 2: The current minimum wage does not match the cost of living in society.
Conclusion: Therefore, minimum wage should be increased.
The purpose of minimum wage is to ensure that workers can provide basic amenities to themselves and their families. A report in the Journal of Economic Studies indicated that workers cannot live above the poverty line when minimum wage is not proportionate with the cost of living. It is beneficial to society and individuals for a minimum wage to match living costs.
Unfortunately, our state's minimum wage no longer reflects an increasing cost of living. When the minimum wage was last set at $5.85, the yearly salary of $12,168 guaranteed by this wage was already below the poverty line. Years later, after inflation has consistently raised the cost of living, workers earning minimum wage must struggle to support a family, often taking 2 or 3 jobs just to make ends meet. 35% of our state's poor population is made up of people with full time minimum wage jobs.
In order to remedy this problem and support the workers of this state, minimum wage must be increased. A modest increase could help alleviate the burden placed on the many residents who work too hard for too little just to make ends meet.
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
Moves people from awareness to action
Demonstrate a need
Satisfy the need
Visualize the results
Call for action
Less concerned with winning and losing
Explores common ground, building bridges, resolving differences, and negotiating and achieving reconciliation
Example on page 267
Structuring the Persuasive Essay
main supporting ideas
Thesis Statement: Persuasive
Thesis statements develop in two stages:
Narrow the original topic until it is vivid and small enough to handle in your allotted space.
Make an assertion or express a viewpoint about this narrowed topic.