2010 English150 Week8 Part2ppt
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  • Additional definition for rhetoric: the body of rules to be observed by a speaker or writer in order that he may express himself with eloquence.
  • Think of the colon as the equivalent of the expression “that is”. For most elements at the end of the sentence, your could say “that is” or “namely” where the colon is needed.
  • One of the most valuable grammar lessons I learned.
  • In persuasive writing, your focus is to change your readers’ minds, to make them see your point of view, or to move them to take action on behalf of your cause. Honest, ethical persuasion means bringing the readers -- through their own reasons and emotions -- to believe or act as the writer does.
  • Deductive argument asserts that the conclusion follows necessarily from the truth of the premises. For example: All men are mortal. Joe is a man. Therefore Joe is mortal. If the first two statements are true, then the conclusion must be true. Inductive argument asserts that the conclusion follows, not necessarily, but only probably from the truth of the premises. For example: This cat is black. That cat is black A third cat is black. Therefore all cats are are black. This marble from the bag is black. . That marble from the bag is black. A third marble from the bag is black. Therefore all the marbles in the bag black. .
  • Abraham Maslow was an American psychologist who was famous for his conception of the hierarchy of needs and is considered to have developed humanistic psychology. The idea is that people cannot move up to the second level until the needs at the first level have been met and so on. This helps you consider the needs of your audience. Physiological: food, shelter, water, sleep Safety: personal security, job security, body security Social: family, friends Esteem: self-confidence, achievement, respect Self-actualization: creativity
  • You can attempt to appeal to your audience through what Aristotle calls “logos,” “pathos,” and “ethos”. Raphael’s (Renaissance painter) depiction of Plato and his student Aristotle.
  • When we argue, we want to appear to be rational thinkers and make our audience respond to us at an intellectual level.
  • Many important issues involve not only thoughts, but feelings as well.
  • Attempt to convince your audience by showing yourself to be a person of good sense, good will, and moral integrity. These include strategies to build up your character.
  • Working thesis. Some people came up with points before the thesis, but it is good to have a working thesis before you begin any serious drafting. Keeps you focused. But remember that writing is always recursive.

Transcript

  • 1. Persuasive Week 8, Part 2
  • 2. Today
    • Persuasion Introduction
    • Group Presentation Marks Back
  • 3. Word-of-the-Day Rhetoric: The art of using language so as to persuade or influence others Examples: She was well versed in the art of rhetoric. Careful use of punctuation can be an important rhetorical strategy.
  • 4. Grammar-Rama
    • Basic Pattern for a sentence containing a colon:
    • General Statement: Specifics
        • (sentence) (list, bullets, or sentence)
        • Ex. Television: it is the bane of our lives and
        • the hardest of hard drugs.
  • 5. Rhetorical Grammar She was interested in only one thing, love. She was interested in only one thing: love She was interested in only one thing—love.
  • 6. Argumentation
    • Play fair
    • Argumentation instead of biased methods
    • Consider your reader’s reaction
  • 7. Persuasive Writing
    • Persuasive Focus:
    • make them see your point of view
    • change readers’ minds
    • move them to action on behalf of your cause
  • 8. Two Styles of Thinking Deduction: begin with a general claim and then support it with evidence Induction: explore specific evidence and then draw a conclusion from it.
  • 9. Abraham Maslow’s
  • 10. Values
    • Make a list of your values (rank them 1-5)
  • 11. Persuasion - logos - pathos - ethos
  • 12. Logos Logos (logical appeal) is an appeal to logic or reason. Appear rational and appeal to audience’s intellect. Most arguments are grounded in reason and supplemented by other appeals.
  • 13. Pathos Emotional appeal
  • 14. Ethos (ethical appeal) is an appeal to people’s sense of decency. Show yourself to be a person of good sense, good will, and moral integrity.
  • 15. How is Credibility Damaged?
  • 16. Argumentation
      • Involves a strong controversy on which opinion is divided or opposed to your view
      • Chooses how far to push argumentation
      • Constructs a fair-minded, respectful, moderate tone
      • Balances ethos, pathos, and logos (with a strong logos appeal throughout)
      • Applies one of the four models for formal argumentation
  • 17. Concession-Refutation
      • Recognizing arguments on the other side
  • 18. Concession Example
    • Story of Stuff http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
  • 19. Concession-Refutation
      • Assures your reader you are aware of the other side/you have explored the ongoing critical conversation.
  • 20. Concession-Refutation Model
    • My opponent says A is true (allude to reasons)
    • A is not true; B is true for these reasons (thesis)
    • Elaborate on the reasons for believing A is not true
    • Elaborate on the reasons for believing B is true
    • State final implications and reflections, perhaps even a call to action
  • 21. Interview Matrix
    • Step 1:
    • 1s ask 2s (question A) and 3s ask 4s (question B)
  • 22. Interview Matrix
    • Step 2:
    • 2s ask 1s (question B) and 4s ask 3s (question A)
  • 23. Interview Matrix
    • Step 3:
    • 1s ask 3s (question D) and 2s ask 4s (question C)
  • 24. Interview Matrix
    • Step 4:
    • 3s ask 1s (question C) and 4s ask 2s (question D)
  • 25. Syllogism
    • Premise 1
    • Premise 2
    • Conclusion
    • Lawyers work long hours.
    • Nima is a lawyer.
    • Nima works long hours.
  • 26. Bad Example of Persuasion
    • It is obvious to anyone thinking logically that minimum wage should be increased. The current minimum wage is an insult and is unfair to the people who receive it. The fact that the last proposed minimum wage increase was denied is proof that the government of this state is crooked and corrupt. The only way for them to prove otherwise is to raise minimum wage immediately.
  • 27. Syllogism
    • Premise 1: Minimum wage should match the cost of living in society.
    • Premise 2: The current minimum wage does not match the cost of living in society.
    • Conclusion: Therefore, minimum wage should be increased.
  • 28. Premise 1
    • The purpose of minimum wage is to ensure that workers can provide basic amenities to themselves and their families. A report in the Journal of Economic Studies indicated that workers cannot live above the poverty line when minimum wage is not proportionate with the cost of living. It is beneficial to society and individuals for a minimum wage to match living costs.
  • 29. Premise 2
    • Unfortunately, our state's minimum wage no longer reflects an increasing cost of living. When the minimum wage was last set at $5.85, the yearly salary of $12,168 guaranteed by this wage was already below the poverty line. Years later, after inflation has consistently raised the cost of living, workers earning minimum wage must struggle to support a family, often taking 2 or 3 jobs just to make ends meet. 35% of our state's poor population is made up of people with full time minimum wage jobs.
  • 30. Conclusion
    • In order to remedy this problem and support the workers of this state, minimum wage must be increased. A modest increase could help alleviate the burden placed on the many residents who work too hard for too little just to make ends meet.
  • 31. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
    • Moves people from awareness to action
    • Arouse attention
    • Demonstrate a need
    • Satisfy the need
    • Visualize the results
    • Call for action
    • Agitprop Theatre
  • 32. Rogerian Conciliation
      • Less concerned with winning and losing
      • Explores common ground, building bridges, resolving differences, and negotiating and achieving reconciliation
      • Example on page 267
  • 33. Structuring the Persuasive Essay
    • introduction
      • catchy opening
      • counter-argument/refutation
      • thesis statement
    • main supporting ideas
    • conclusion
  • 34. Thesis Statement: Persuasive
    • Thesis statements develop in two stages:
    • Narrow the original topic until it is vivid and small enough to handle in your allotted space.
    • Make an assertion or express a viewpoint about this narrowed topic.