Grammar and Punctuation Week 2, Part 2
Today <ul><li>6 Biggest Grammar Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul>
Word of the Day <ul><li>Mitigate </li></ul><ul><li>To lessen intensity, to make something less severe </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Grammar Questions <ul><li>Why is grammar important? </li></ul><ul><li>How have you learned grammar in the past? </li></ul>
Biggest Grammar Errors
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>For a sentence to be parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All grammatical elements need to match ...
1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Abused children commonly exhibit one or more of the following symptoms: withdrawal, rebellio...
1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Grammatical elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The actor was handsome, articulate, and he loved...
1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>“ than” or “as” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness...
1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>After assuring us that he was sober, Sam drove down the middle of the road, ran one red ligh...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
2. Comma Splices and Run-ons <ul><li>Comma splices and Run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Same problem: two independent clauses fus...
Comma Splices <ul><li>Dependent clause </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot stand alone as a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>May be missing...
Comma Splices <ul><li>Independent clause </li></ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Has at least a ...
Try It!
Comma Splices <ul><li>Two independent clauses cannot be fused together on their own. </li></ul>
Comma Splices <ul><li>Comma Splice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a comma is doing the work of period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Comma Splices <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His new album has an interesting picture on the cover, in other words...
Tools We Need: <ul><li>Coordinating Conjunction (“co-con”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so ...
How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>Stronger punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Use a coordinating conjunction </li></ul><...
How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>Use stronger punctuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><ul><li>2.  Add a coordinating conjunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FANBOYS </li></...
How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>3. Make one phrase dependent  </li></ul><ul><li>with a subordinating word. </li><...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
3. Fragments <ul><li>Missing a subject, a verb, or includes a subordinating word. </li></ul>
Fragments/Incomplete Sentences <ul><ul><li>Easy to recognize apart from other sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffic...
Fragments/Incomplete Sentences <ul><ul><li>Example: On the old wooden stool in the corner of my grandma’s kitchen. </li></...
Test Your Sentence! <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  YES! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YES! </li></ul></ul></ul><...
How to Fix a Fragment <ul><li>Attach the fragment to a nearby sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the fragment into a sentenc...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
4. Subject-verb agreement <ul><ul><li>Subject and verb must agree in gender and number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject ...
Subject-verb agreement: <ul><ul><li>The samples on the tray in the lab need testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High level...
Subject-verb Agreement <ul><li>What’s an indefinite pronoun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyo...
Subject-verb Agreement <ul><ul><li>Indefinite pronouns are treated as singular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Each of...
More Agreement <ul><ul><li>Example:  When someone has been drinking, they are likely to speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Ways to Fix Agreement Errors <ul><li>Replace the plural pronoun with “he or she” or “his or her.” </li></ul><ul><li>Make t...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Dangling Modifier: </li></ul><ul><li>A modifier that does not refer logically to any word in the...
Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Diseased, the farmers disposed of the potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the call display whil...
Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Though only sixteen, UCLA accepted Martha’s application. </li></ul><ul><li>To please the childre...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
6. Wrong Word <ul><li>Affect/Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Its/it’s </li></ul><ul><li>Allot/a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s whose...
Try It!
6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </...
Punctuation <ul><li>Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Colons </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-colons </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphens </li></ul><ul>...
Summary  <ul><li>You have the rest of the class </li></ul><ul><li>No electronic dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>English-Eng...
Summary: How it will be marked <ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Sent...
Why the Blog? <ul><li>Post comments and practice your writing </li></ul><ul><li>Post group work for group work mark and pa...
The Blog! <ul><li>Wait for an email—no email? Email me! </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the link </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in with...
 
 
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2010 English150 Week2 Part2

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2010 English150 Week2 Part2

  1. 1. Grammar and Punctuation Week 2, Part 2
  2. 2. Today <ul><li>6 Biggest Grammar Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Word of the Day <ul><li>Mitigate </li></ul><ul><li>To lessen intensity, to make something less severe </li></ul><ul><li>In The Informant! Matt Damon’s character’s jail sentence is never mitigated. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grammar Questions <ul><li>Why is grammar important? </li></ul><ul><li>How have you learned grammar in the past? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Biggest Grammar Errors
  6. 6. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-verb agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling participle </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>For a sentence to be parallel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All grammatical elements need to match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items in a list need to match </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Abused children commonly exhibit one or more of the following symptoms: withdrawal, rebelliousness, restlessness, and they are depressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hooked on romance novels, I learned there is nothing more important than being rich, looking good, and to have a good time. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>Grammatical elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The actor was handsome, articulate, and he loved to look at himself in the mirror. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who are in debt should give up credit cards, borrowing money, eating out in expensive restaurants, and living above their means. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They divorced because the husband thought that no one should read while he was talking, and the wife thought that while she was reading no one should talk. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>“ than” or “as” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My grades are just as good as Stephanie. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Parallel Structure <ul><li>After assuring us that he was sober, Sam drove down the middle of the road, ran one red light, and two stop signs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Try It!
  13. 13. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Comma Splices and Run-ons <ul><li>Comma splices and Run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Same problem: two independent clauses fused together improperly </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splice: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject verb, subject verb </li></ul><ul><li>I love ice cream, I love chocolate </li></ul><ul><li>Run on: </li></ul><ul><li>Subject verb subject verb </li></ul><ul><li>I love ice cream I love chocolate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Comma Splices <ul><li>Dependent clause </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot stand alone as a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>May be missing a subject, a verb, or have both but also a subordinating conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Before I leave, I want to dance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Comma Splices <ul><li>Independent clause </li></ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Has at least a subject and a verb </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The star shines. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Try It!
  18. 18. Comma Splices <ul><li>Two independent clauses cannot be fused together on their own. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Comma Splices <ul><li>Comma Splice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a comma is doing the work of period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comma is too weak to take this role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comma = weak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Period = strong </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Comma Splices <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His new album has an interesting picture on the cover, in other words the cover demands attention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand gestures are important for everyone, however they are a means of survival for the hearing impaired. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Tools We Need: <ul><li>Coordinating Conjunction (“co-con”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subordinating Conjunctions (“sub-cons”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: after, although, as, because, before, even though, if, once, rather, than, since, that, though, unless, while </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>Stronger punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Use a coordinating conjunction </li></ul><ul><li>Make one phrase dependent </li></ul>
  23. 23. How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>Use stronger punctuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-colon and a transitional phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: also, anyway, besides, furthermore, incidentally, moreover, otherwise, thus, however, in addition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s an excellent swimmer; he won an Olympic medal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s an excellent swimmer. He won an Olympic medal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s not a good swimmer; however, he enjoys the water. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><ul><li>2. Add a coordinating conjunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FANBOYS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He’s an excellent swimmer, and he won an Olympic medal. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. How to Fix a comma splice/run-on <ul><li>3. Make one phrase dependent </li></ul><ul><li>with a subordinating word. </li></ul><ul><li>by changing it entirely </li></ul><ul><li>He is recognized as a great swimmer because he won an Olympic medal. </li></ul><ul><li>His great swimming ability won him an Olympic medal. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Try It!
  27. 27. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  28. 28. 3. Fragments <ul><li>Missing a subject, a verb, or includes a subordinating word. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fragments/Incomplete Sentences <ul><ul><li>Easy to recognize apart from other sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to recognize next to related sentences. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Fragments/Incomplete Sentences <ul><ul><li>Example: On the old wooden stool in the corner of my grandma’s kitchen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: And immediately popped their flares and life vests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On that morning I sat in my usual spot. On the wooden stool in the corner of my grandma’s kitchen. </li></ul><ul><li>The pilots ejected from the burning plane, landing in the water. And immediately popped their flares and life vests. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Test Your Sentence! <ul><ul><ul><ul><li> YES! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YES! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Is there a verb? Is there a subject? Is there just a subordinate clause or phrase? Complete Sentence ! No Fragment No Fragment YES. Fragment
  32. 32. How to Fix a Fragment <ul><li>Attach the fragment to a nearby sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the fragment into a sentence. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Try It!
  34. 34. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  35. 35. 4. Subject-verb agreement <ul><ul><li>Subject and verb must agree in gender and number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject and antecedent must agree in gender and number. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Subject-verb agreement: <ul><ul><li>The samples on the tray in the lab need testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of air pollution cause damage to the respiratory tract. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Subject-verb Agreement <ul><li>What’s an indefinite pronoun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No one </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Subject-verb Agreement <ul><ul><li>Indefinite pronouns are treated as singular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Each of the students has a textbook now. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Everybody who signed up for the tours is able to go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about collective nouns? </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. More Agreement <ul><ul><li>Example: When someone has been drinking, they are likely to speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Every runner must train rigorously if they want to excel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: If a medical student wants to get a job, he must study every day. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Ways to Fix Agreement Errors <ul><li>Replace the plural pronoun with “he or she” or “his or her.” </li></ul><ul><li>Make the antecedent plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite the sentence completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>When someone has been drinking, he or she is likely to speed. </li></ul><ul><li>When drivers have been drinking, they are likely to speed. </li></ul><ul><li>A driver who has been drinking is likely to speed. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Try It!
  42. 42. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  43. 43. Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Dangling Modifier: </li></ul><ul><li>A modifier that does not refer logically to any word in the sentence. It suggests but does not name the true subject. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Diseased, the farmers disposed of the potatoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the call display while biking, a dog ran in front of me. </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding to join the navy, the recruiter enthusiastically pumped Joe’s hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon entering the doctor’s office, a skeleton caught my attention. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Dangling Modifier <ul><li>Though only sixteen, UCLA accepted Martha’s application. </li></ul><ul><li>To please the children, some fireworks were set off a day early. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Try It!
  47. 47. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-verb agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling modifier </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  48. 48. 6. Wrong Word <ul><li>Affect/Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Its/it’s </li></ul><ul><li>Allot/a lot </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s whose </li></ul><ul><li>Your/you’re </li></ul><ul><li>They’re/their/there </li></ul>
  49. 49. Try It!
  50. 50. 6 Biggest Grammar Errors <ul><li>Parallel structure </li></ul><ul><li>Comma splices/run-ons </li></ul><ul><li>Fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Subject-verb agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling participle </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word </li></ul>
  51. 51. Punctuation <ul><li>Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Colons </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-colons </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphens </li></ul><ul><li>Brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Quotations </li></ul>
  52. 52. Summary <ul><li>You have the rest of the class </li></ul><ul><li>No electronic dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>English-English paper dictionaries permitted </li></ul><ul><li>Write double-spaced </li></ul><ul><li>Write in pen </li></ul>
  53. 53. Summary: How it will be marked <ul><li>Format </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence-level </li></ul>
  54. 54. Why the Blog? <ul><li>Post comments and practice your writing </li></ul><ul><li>Post group work for group work mark and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Find past PowerPoints </li></ul><ul><li>Find readings </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions that may apply to the whole group </li></ul>
  55. 55. The Blog! <ul><li>Wait for an email—no email? Email me! </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the link </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in with previous google account OR create google account </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in with new google account </li></ul>
  56. 58. cameng150-29.blogspot.com
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