2010 English150 Week10 Part1ppt

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  • In persuasive writing, your focus is to change your readers’ minds, to make them see your point of view, or to move them to take action on behalf of your cause. Honest, ethical persuasion means bringing the readers -- through their own reasons and emotions -- to believe or act as the writer does.
  • You can attempt to appeal to your audience through what Aristotle calls “logos,” “pathos,” and “ethos”. Raphael’s (Renaissance painter) depiction of Plato and his student Aristotle.

Transcript

  • 1. Persuasive: Midterm Preparation Week 10, Part 1
  • 2. Today
    • Persuasion Continued: Midterm Preparation
  • 3. Word-of-the-day
    • Surreptitious: Done by secret/stealth
    • His surreptitious theft of the cookie scared her.
  • 4. Grammar-rama
    • Review:
      • Semi-colons (two independent clauses on either side)
      • Colons (one independent and on dependent)
      • Colons: replaces the expression “and here it is”
  • 5. Persuasive Writing
    • Persuasive Focus:
    • make them see your point of view
    • change readers’ minds
    • move them to action on behalf of your cause
  • 6. Persuasion - logos - pathos - ethos
  • 7. Syllogism
    • Premise 1
    • Premise 2
    • Conclusion
    • Lawyers work long hours.
    • Nima is a lawyer.
    • Nima works long hours.
  • 8. Bad Example of Persuasion
    • It is obvious to anyone thinking logically that minimum wage should be increased. The current minimum wage is an insult and is unfair to the people who receive it. The fact that the last proposed minimum wage increase was denied is proof that the government of this state is crooked and corrupt. The only way for them to prove otherwise is to raise minimum wage immediately.
  • 9. Syllogism
    • Premise 1: Minimum wage should match the cost of living in society.
    • Premise 2: The current minimum wage does not match the cost of living in society.
    • Conclusion: Therefore, minimum wage should be increased.
  • 10. Premise 1
    • The purpose of minimum wage is to ensure that workers can provide basic amenities to themselves and their families. A report in the Journal of Economic Studies indicated that workers cannot live above the poverty line when minimum wage is not proportionate with the cost of living. It is beneficial to society and individuals for a minimum wage to match living costs.
  • 11. Premise 2
    • Unfortunately, our state's minimum wage no longer reflects an increasing cost of living. When the minimum wage was last set at $5.85, the yearly salary of $12,168 guaranteed by this wage was already below the poverty line. Years later, after inflation has consistently raised the cost of living, workers earning minimum wage must struggle to support a family, often taking 2 or 3 jobs just to make ends meet. 35% of our state's poor population is made up of people with full time minimum wage jobs.
  • 12. Conclusion
    • In order to remedy this problem and support the workers of this state, minimum wage must be increased. A modest increase could help alleviate the burden placed on the many residents who work too hard for too little just to make ends meet.
  • 13. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
    • Moves people from awareness to action
    • Arouse attention
    • Demonstrate a need
    • Satisfy the need
    • Visualize the results
    • Call for action
    • Agitprop Theatre
  • 14. Rogerian Conciliation
      • Less concerned with winning and losing
      • Explores common ground, building bridges, resolving differences, and negotiating and achieving reconciliation
  • 15. Concession-Refutation
      • Recognizing arguments on the other side
  • 16. Concession Example
    • Story of Stuff http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
  • 17. Concession-Refutation
      • Assures your reader you are aware of the other side/you have explored the ongoing critical conversation.
  • 18. Concession-Refutation Model
    • My opponent says A is true (allude to reasons)
    • A is not true; B is true for these reasons (thesis)
    • Elaborate on the reasons for believing A is not true
    • Elaborate on the reasons for believing B is true
    • State final implications and reflections, perhaps even a call to action
  • 19. Structuring the Persuasive Essay
    • introduction
      • catchy opening
      • counter-argument/refutation
      • thesis statement
    • main supporting ideas
    • conclusion
  • 20.
    • Paragraph 1 – Introduction
    • Topic Sentence
    • Acknowledgement of the opposition
    • Points of support for the thesis
    • Thesis Statement
    • Paragraph 2 – Body paragraph (Con)
    • Topic sentence
    • Summary of opposition
    • Reasons why opposition is misguided
    • Concluding Sentence
  • 21. Paragraph 3 – Body paragraph (Pro) Topic Sentence Point 1 of support for the thesis Examples and Discussion Concluding Sentence   Paragraph 4 – Body paragraph (Pro) Topic Sentence Point 2 of support for thesis Examples and Discussion Concluding Sentence   Paragraph 5 – Conclusion Restate thesis/argument Summarize opposition and its problems Summarize strengths Concluding sentence
  • 22. Practice
    • Choose a problem that springs from the picture
    • Fill in the blanks on page 283
    • Add these blanks to the outline handout
  • 23. 8 Tips to Nail Your Midterm
    • BONUS TIP BEFORE WE START*****
    • BIGGEST SECRET EVER*************
  • 24. 1. Introduction: Follow the Recipe
    • 1) Catchy Opening
    • 2) Background/Context
    • 3) Concession/refutation thesis
    • 4) Thesis
  • 25. 1. Samples At the end of a hard day there is nothing better than slipping on pajamas, grabbing a bag of chips, and clicking on the television. For over eighty years, television has played many important roles in society since its inception from the Beatles appearing on the Ed Sullivan Show to the Survivor finale. However, some people say that television is a colossal waste of time. Even at it’s most mundane, television serves as an important and inexpensive form of escapism because people can relax, eat, and talk while the TV is on. Opening Detail and Context Refutation Thesis Statement
  • 26. 1. Sample Childhood is a stage that we all pass through. It’s an important time where children develop their social skills. Children interact with parents, siblings, and other children. Some of these children are at their preschool. Although some television shows may allow children to see other children interacting, this is not the same as real interaction. It’s totally different. Television should not be watched by children during these important early years. Opening Detail and Context Refutation Thesis Statement
  • 27. 2. Thesis: Concession-Refutation
      • Recognizing arguments on the other side
      • Assures your reader you are aware of the other side/you have explored the ongoing critical conversation.
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8
  • 28. 3. Thesis: Persuasive
    • Strong other side
    • Not just an opinion
    • Not a fact
    • Non-polarizing
    • Original/fresh
  • 29. 4. No Logical Fallacies
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PikszBkfTHM
  • 30. 5. MLA Format
    • Top Left Corner
    • Double-spaced
    • Tabbed paragraphs
  • 31. 6. Level of Persuasion
    • Understand point of view
    • Change habits
    • Change actions
    • Logos
    • Pathos
    • Ethos
  • 32. 7. Tone
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Qfgf4j1M-o
  • 33. 8. Ideas and Details
    • Informative Sample
  • 34. Midterm
    • Take entire class (next class)
    • Read the broad prompt
    • Think of a problem
    • Write an essay based on the concession-refutation model
    • No logical fallacies
    • Edit for grammar/punctuation
    • No low-content spots (especially introduction/conclusion)
  • 35. In-class Essay
    • Create an outline
    • Do not create multiple drafts
    • Paper dictionaries only
    • Read chapter 13
    • Grammar matters
    • Structure and argument are most important
    • Ideas and details