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Module 4, ed 103

  1. 1. Module 4 [Year] Module 4 SCORING RUBRICS & PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENTS ED 103 Assessment of Student Learning 304M TFR (1:00-2:30) Group 4 Leader: Mary Jane P. Cordero Assistant Leader: Penn Paolo Necor Secretary: Arianne Grace Costales Members: Jeanen Claire Vera Wendy Joy Ambalgan Richard Abella Shela Mae Lansao Vivian Pana Camilo CesarSarda
  2. 2. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 22 Lesson 12 Meaning of Scoring Rubrics Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  To determine the meaning of scoring rubrics.  To determine the significance of using scoring rubrics. Introduction One of the alternative method of rating the performance of the students aside from paper and pencil test is the use of scoring rubrics. Scoring rubrics are used when judging the quality of the work of the learners on performance assessments. It is a form of scoring guide that is used in evaluating the performance of students or products resulting from the performance task. Scoring rubrics are very important in assessing the performance of students using performance-based assessment and portfolio assessment. In this chapter we shall discuss scoring rubrics, performance-based assessment and portfolio assessment. Scoring rubrics Scoring rubrics (Brookhart, 1999 as cited by Moskal, 2000) are descriptive scoring schemes that are developed by teachers or other evaluators to guide the analysis of the products or processes of students’ efforts.
  3. 3. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 23 Another definition of rubric is a rating system by which teachers can determine at what level of proficiency a student is able to perform task or display knowledge of a concept and you can define the different levels of proficiency for each criterion (Airasian, 2000). One common used of rubrics is when the teachers evaluate the quality of an essay. The judgment of one evaluator differs from others when there are no criteria to be followed. One evaluator might put much weight in the content of the topic or one evaluator might give high mark on the organization aspect of the paper. If we going to evaluate the quality of an essay, it must have a combination of these factors. In this case the evaluators judge the paper subjectively, to avoid such case the evaluator must develop a predetermined criterion for evaluation purposes so that the objectively of evaluating is lessened or it becomes more objective.
  4. 4. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Scoring Rubrics Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  Identify the different advantages and disadvantages of scoring rubrics.  Distinguish and comprehend the advantages and disadvantages of scoring rubrics In assessing the performance of the students using performance –based assessment, it’s very important to use scoring rubrics. The following are the different advantages of using rubrics in assessing student’s performance: rubrics allow assessment to become more objective and consistent; rubrics clarify the criteria in specific terms; rubrics clearly show the student how work will be evaluated and what is expected; rubrics promote students awareness of the criteria to use in assessing peer performance; rubrics provide useful feedback regarding the effectiveness of the instruction; and rubrics provide benchmarks against which to measure and document progress On the other hand, there are also disadvantages in using scoring rubrics and they are the following: Rubrics can also restrict the students mind power in that they will feel that they need to complete the assignment strictly to the rubric instead of taking the initiative to explore their learning. If the criteria that is in the rubric is too complex, students may feel overwhelmed with the assignment, and little success may be imminent. For the teacher creating the rubric, they may find the task of developing, testing, evaluating, and updating time consuming. Development of rubrics can be complex and time-consuming; Using the correct language to express performance expectation can be difficult; Defining the correct set of criteria to define performance can be complex;
  5. 5. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 5 The Two Types of Rubrics Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  Determine the two types of Rubrics  Learn the uses of types of rubrics. Introduction A rubric is a guideline for rating student performance. Most band, choir, or orchestra festivals have such guides for adjudicators when they rate ensemble performance. The guidelines specify what a performance is like at various levels (superior, excellent, good, poor) and, usually, on various musical attributes (tone, intonation, balance, technique, etc.). The key elements of a rubric are the descriptors for what a performance is like within the full range of possible performance levels. Holistic Rubrics A holistic rubric consists of a single scale with all criteria to be included in the evaluation being considered together (e.g., clarity, organization, and mechanics). With a holistic rubric the rater assigns a single score (usually on a 1 to 4 or 1 to 6 point scale) based on an overall judgment of the student work. The rater matches an entire piece of student work to a single description on the scale. Example Holistic Rubric: Articulating thoughts through written communication— final paper/project.
  6. 6. Assessment of students Learning 2 6 Module 4 4. Above Average: The audience is able to easily identify the focus of the work and is engaged by its clear focus and relevant details. Information is presented logically and naturally. There are no more than two mechanical errors or misspelled words to distract the reader. 3. Sufficient: The audience is easily able to identify the focus of the student work which is supported by relevant ideas and supporting details. Information is presented in a logical manner that is easily followed. There is minimal interruption to the work due to misspellings and/or mechanical errors. 2. Developing: The audience can identify the central purpose of the student work without little difficulty and supporting ideas are present and clear. The information is presented in an orderly fashion that can be followed with little difficulty. There are some misspellings and/or mechanical errors, but they do not seriously distract from the work. 1. Needs Improvement: The audience cannot clearly or easily identify the central ideas or purpose of the student work. Information is presented in a disorganized fashion causing the audience to have difficulty following the author's ideas. There are many misspellings and/or mechanical errors that negatively affect the audience's ability to read the work. Analytic Rubric An analytic rubric resembles a grid with the criteria for a student product listed in the leftmost column and with levels of performance listed across the top row often using numbers and/or descriptive tags. The cells within the center of the rubric may be left blank or may contain
  7. 7. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 6 2 descriptions of what the specified criteria look like for each level of performance. When scoring with an analytic rubric each of the criteria is scored individually. NEEDS IMPROVEMENT (1) DEVELOPING (2) SUFFICIENT (3) ABOVE AVERAGE (4) The central purpose of the student work is The purpose of the clear and ideas are The central purpose student work is not The central purpose almost always of the student work is Clarity (Thesis well-defined. Central of the student work is focused in a way that clear and supporting supported by ideas are not focused identified. Ideas are supports the thesis. ideas always are relevant to support the thesis. generally focused in Relevant details always well-focused. information Thoughts appear a way that supports illustrate the author’s Details are relevant, and ideas.) disconnected. the thesis. ideas. enrich the work. are poorly sequenced Information and ideas Information and ideas Information and ideas (the author jumps are presented in an are presented in a are presented in a Information and ideas around). The order that the logical sequence logical sequence Organization audience has audience can follow which is followed by which flows naturally (Sequencing of difficulty following the with minimum the reader with little and is engaging to elements/ideas) thread of thought. difficulty. or no difficulty. the audience. There are five or There are no more There are no more more misspellings than four than three and/or systematic misspellings and/or misspellings and/or grammatical errors systematic grammatical errors per page or 8 or grammatical errors per page and no more in the entire per page or six or more than five in the There are no more Mechanics document. The more in the entire entire document. The than two misspelled (Correctness of readability of the document. Errors readability of the words or grammatical grammar and work is seriously distract from the work is minimally errors in the spelling) hampered by errors. work. interrupted by errors. document.
  8. 8. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 27 Advantages and Disadvantages of Analytic and Holistic Rubric Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  Know the steps of analytic and holistic scoring  Know the advantages and disadvantages of analytic and holistic rubric. Holistic Scoring Methods To provide consistency in scoring, use anchor sets and scorer training that require all scorers to come to a consensus about the qualities required for a score point. Scoring guides, or rubrics are mn also developed. The rubric matches the chosen type of holistic scoring. Scoring of student work follows a series of steps, whether the type of subjective scoring is focused holistic scoring, analytic holistic scoring, scoring by major and minor errors, or some variation of these methods. The Steps To Holistic Scoring Scoring of student work should be meaningful to students, efficient in terms of time, and provide consistent results. Holistic scoring can meet these requirements, but it does require some preparation prior to scoring. The following steps outline the general process used for many formal holistic scoring programs. The exact sequence of these steps varies to meet the needs of the program.
  9. 9. Assessment of students Learning 2 8 Module 4 Define the main goals and supporting specific objectives of the course. Very specific detailed objectives can usually be measured efficiently in machinescoreable formats. Tasks that require students to meet more global goals and therefore many objectives must usually be scored subjectively. Design a task that cannot be completed without meeting the main goals and the supporting objectives of the course. Since holistic scoring takes time, it is often prudent to utilize one task that covers many objectives or a main goal rather than developing many smaller tasks that address each objective specifically. Define the essential factors of the work that students are expected to produce. These factors might include accuracy, completeness, thoroughness, clarity, synthesis of concepts, supported inferences, or any other factor that is an essential part of the highest quality work. Develop a rubric based on the essential factors of the work and the general value of each score point. Each score point of the rubric should address each of the factors that should be included in the work. After the work is examined or the task is defined, the rubric may need to be modified. Internalize what the rubric means in terms of student products.
  10. 10. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 29 For example, if you were scoring a diving competition you would have to thoroughly understand the rubric before you saw the dive because you only get to see the dive once. The same holds true for student products. Rare is the teacher who will have time to reread every paper many times, judging it one time for grammar and another for accuracy, etc. You have to be able to form an overall impression of the quality of the work by quickly determining the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the work. Prepare the students and parents. Share the rubric with your students. Explain how the rubric is used. Show some work from past students. Allow students to score this work using the rubric. The more accurate students become in evaluating others work, the more accurate their self-evaluations become. Define an anchor set. The number of groups in the anchor set depends on the number of score points used. For a four point scale the separation would occur as follows: High, medium, and low groups would be determined by comparing papers. Separate the medium group into high medium and low medium. This will provide a four point range—high, high medium, low medium, and low. Write brief annotations describing each set according to the rubric with some specific details. These papers with their annotations become your anchor sets. These sets help you maintain consistency from year to year. If you are working with another teacher, a teacher's aide, parent, or even a large group of scorers the set provides anchors.
  11. 11. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 210 The best anchor sets for this example will have the lowest of the high papers (4-) so the scorer will say anything better than this must be a 4. The set will also contain the best (3+) and the worst (3-) of the 3's. This pattern is followed for the rest of the anchor sets. Students, parents, or any interested party can take any paper and say this is most like these papers. The score that they arrive at should be the same or adjacent to the teacher's score. Any discrepancies should be discussed. Annotations serve as a reminder of how anchor set scores were derived and are usually representative of the types of strengths and weaknesses found at that score point. If there are many assignments that produce the same type of product, one anchor set will usually suffice for classroom assessment. District or state level assessments generally require an anchor set for every prompt. Score student work. Keep the rubric and anchor set close by. There may be an occasional student product that requires a second reading or viewing. You may want to annotate these "line calls" to help you explain to score to the student. When two scorers are scoring the same work, which is usually the case in large scale assessment systems, averages, and third readers are employed to resolve differences. After long breaks from scoring it is best to carefully review the rubric and the anchor set. Train students to score papers using the anchor sets. Allow them to score some unmarked papers. Compare their scores to the scores you have previously assigned. Discuss the reasons for your scores.
  12. 12. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 211 Analytic Holistic Scoring Analytic holistic scoring can be used as a means of informing both the scorer and students of general areas of high and low quality. Analytic holistic scoring follows the same procedures as focused holistic scoring, but. the rubrics are more specific. The information provided by the rubrics in analytic holistic scoring is generally more useful to students, especially for beginners. Analytic holistic scoring rubrics can be used when only part of an entire paper is to be scored. Several analytic scores can be given to one paper. With a little practice a teacher will be able to read a paper one time and assign several analytic scores. Analytic rubrics are often used with short answer essays. Discussion of the analytic rubrics before and after the task can provide a vehicle of instruction. Analytic holistic scoring produces several numeric scores, each associated with a different aspect of the student's work. Focused holistic scoring produces only one number that is assigned to represent the student's work as a whole. It is focused because it focuses on the total product, not on separate aspects of the student's work. Focused holistic scoring is appropriately used when a relatively quick and superficial, yet consistent, assessment technique is needed. This method can be used as a precursor to or as a follow-up to other assessment techniques aimed at identifying students' strengths and weaknesses. Analytic holistic scoring provides students and teachers with diagnostic information about students' particular strengths and weaknesses and is desirable when students need feedback about their performance in key areas of their learning products. 6. The scoring system should be objective and consistent. The tasks should be appropriate to students' abilities to avoid or minimize scoring error. Be practical when designing the scoring system. No more than six dimensions should be used for a single final product. For rubrics that
  13. 13. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 212 define a "set of tasks" to be performed, there should be no more than ten dimensions. Descriptions within each dimension should also be clear enough for students to focus on what is expected. Fewer dimensions are better than more in most cases when developing rubrics. "Holistic scoring" is a technique of evaluating a paper quickly and accurately using an objective system and a simplified evaluate scale. The word holistic impliesan almost gestalt-like look or glance at a paper and a "whole" or overall decision about its score that is reached in an instant or brief minute, as it were, a decision that avoids breaking down the qualities of the paper into separate units, giving each a separate score, and then adding the results-as often happens in determining a paper's grade. Scoring is, of course, another word for grading. Typically in U.S. composition practice and theory, ―scoring‖ also implies a ―fast‖ grading: a quick reading of an essay, test, little or no instructor-written comments, and a simplified final score. The underlying practice of holistic scoring is that a reader reads an essay once, carefully but quickly, and then decides on its score. Holistic scoring uses two intertwined systems: a simple yes-no or pass-fail grade and a rubric.
  14. 14. Assessment of students Learning 2 13 Module 4 Steps In Developing Rubrics Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  To determine the steps of developing rubrics. E. Steps in Developing Rubrics Rubrics are developed to assist faculty in rating qualities of learning outcomes. When provided to students before and during learning, rubrics also assist students to more successfully interpret and anticipate expected levels of performance. It is an appropriate method to use to assess students if your learning outcomes involve the synthesizing information, learning of new techniques or methods, analyzing problems, writing papers, or giving oral presentations. Therefore, rubrics effectively help teachers to specifically and consistently assess and evaluate qualities of learning and communicate expected standards of learning, and help students interpret their own level of performance, learn what must be done to improve performance and achieve higher standards of performance. The steps that follow are provided as a guide to develop rubrics. 1. Identify your standards for your students  Students should able to know or perform the task properly 2. Establish Standards for Each Performance Area  Determine what are the different levels of performance look like within each criteria  Give examples of high, mid and low performers 3. Develop scoring scale  Score levels should be based on the performance standards that you set up in step two and your grading philosophy for the assignment  Clearly define the difference between the score levels 4. Adjust the Rubric as Needed  After each use of the rubric, evaluate whether it needs adjustment in the key components, standards for performance, or the scoring scale
  15. 15. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 14 Developing Scoring Rubrics Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  To learn how to develop scoring rubrics.  To develop a type of rubric that is best suited for a teacher. Developing Scoring Rubrics for your Classroom Rubrics are rating scales-as opposed to checklists-that are used with performance assessments. They are formally defined as scoring guides, consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria, used in evaluating student work on performance assessments. Rubrics are typically the specific form of scoring instrument used when evaluating student performances or products resulting from a performance task. There are two types of rubrics: holistic and analytic (see Figure 1). A holistic rubric requires the teacher to score the overall process or product as a whole, without judging the component parts separately (Nitko, 2001). In contrast, with an analytic rubric, the teacher scores separate, individual parts of the product or performance first, then sums the individual scores to obtain a total score (Moskal, 2000; Nitko, 2001). Figure 1. Types of scoring instruments for performance assessments Scoring instruments for performance assessments checklist Rating scales Rubrics Analytic rubrics Holistic rubrics
  16. 16. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 15 2 Holistic rubrics are customarily utilized when errors in some part of the process can be tolerated provided the overall quality is high (Chase, 1999). Nitko (2001) further states that use of holistic rubrics is probably more appropriate when performance tasks require students to create some sort of response and where there is no definitive correct answer. The focus of a score reported using a holistic rubric is on the overall quality, proficiency, or understanding of the specific content and skills-it involves assessment on a unidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). Use of holistic rubrics can result in a somewhat quicker scoring process than use of analytic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). This is basically due to the fact that the teacher is required to read through or otherwise examine the student product or performance only once, in order to get an "overall" sense of what the student was able to accomplish (Mertler, 2001). Since assessment of the overall performance is the key, holistic rubrics are also typically, though not exclusively, used when the purpose of the performance assessment is summative in nature. At most, only limited feedback is provided to the student as a result of scoring performance tasks in this manner. A template for holistic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 1. Table 1: Template for Holistic Rubrics score Description 5 Demonstrates complete understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included in response. 4 Demonstrates considerable understanding of the problem. All requirements of task are included. Demonstrates partial understanding of the problem. Most requirements of task are included. Demonstrates little understanding of the problem. Many requirements of task are 3 2 missing. 1 Demonstrates no understanding of the problem. 0 No response/task not attempted. Analytic rubrics are usually preferred when a fairly focused type of response is required (Nitko, 2001); that is, for performance tasks in which there may be one or two acceptable
  17. 17. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 216 responses and creativity is not an essential feature of the students' responses. Furthermore, analytic rubrics result initially in several scores, followed by a summed total score-their use represents assessment on a multidimensional level (Mertler, 2001). As previously mentioned, the use of analytic rubrics can cause the scoring process to be substantially slower, mainly because assessing several different skills or characteristics individually requires a teacher to examine the product several times. Both their construction and use can be quite time-consuming. A general rule of thumb is that an individual's work should be examined a separate time for each of the specific performance tasks or scoring criteria (Mertler, 2001). However, the advantage to the use of analytic rubrics is quite substantial. The degree of feedback offered to students-and to teachers-is significant. Students receive specific feedback on their performance with respect to each of the individual scoring criteria-something that does not happen when using holistic rubrics (Nitko, 2001). It is possible to then create a "profile" of specific student strengths and weaknesses (Mertler, 2001). A template for analytic scoring rubrics is presented in Table 2. Table 2: Template for analytic rubrics Beginning Developing Accomplished Exemplary Criteria #1 Description reflecting beginning level of performance Description reflecting beginning level of performance Criteria #3 Description reflecting beginning level of performance Criteria #4 Description reflecting beginning level of performance Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance Description reflecting achievement of mastery level of performance Description reflecting highest level of performance Criteria #2 Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance Description reflecting movement toward mastery level of performance Score Description reflecting highest level of performance Description reflecting highest level of performance Description reflecting highest level of performance Prior to designing a specific rubric, a teacher must decide whether the performance or product will be scored holistically or analytically (Airasian, 2000 & 2001). Regardless of which type of rubric is selected, specific performance criteria and observable indicators must be identified as an initial step to development. The decision regarding the use of a holistic or analytic approach to scoring has several possible implications. The most important of these is that teachers must consider first how they intend
  18. 18. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 217 18 to use the results. If an overall, summative score is desired, a holistic scoring approach would be more desirable. In contrast, if formative feedback is the goal, an analytic scoring rubric should be used. It is important to note that one type of rubric is not inherently better than the other-you must find a format that works best for your purposes (Montgomery, 2001). Other implications include the time requirements, the nature of the task itself, and the specific performance criteria being observed. As you saw demonstrated in the templates (Tables 1 and 2), the various levels of student performance can be defined using either quantitative (i.e., numerical) or qualitative (i.e., descriptive) labels. In some instances, teachers might want to utilize both quantitative and qualitative labels. If a rubric contains four levels of proficiency or understanding on a continuum, quantitative labels would typically range from "1" to "4." When using qualitative labels, teachers have much more flexibility, and can be more creative. A common type of qualitative scale might include the following labels: master, expert, apprentice, and novice. Nearly any type of qualitative scale will suffice, provided it "fits" with the task. One potentially frustrating aspect of scoring student work with rubrics is the issue of somehow converting them to "grades." It is not a good idea to think of rubrics in terms of percentages (Trice, 2000). For example, if a rubric has six levels (or "points"), a score of 3 should not be equated to 50% (an "F" in most letter grading systems). The process of converting rubric scores to grades or categories is more a process of logic than it is a mathematical one. Trice (2000) suggests that in a rubric scoring system, there are typically more scores at the average and above average categories (i.e., equating to grades of "C" or better) than there are below average categories. For instance, if a rubric consisted of nine score categories, the equivalent grades and categories might look like this: Table 3: Sample grades and categories Rubrics score Grade category 8 A+ Excellent 7 A Excellent
  19. 19. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 6 B+ Good 5 B Good 4 C+ Fair 3 C Fair 2 U Unsatisfactory 1 U Unsatisfactory 0 U 2 19 Unsatisfactory When converting rubric scores to grades (typical at the secondary level) or descriptive feedback (typical at the elementary level), it is important to remember that there is not necessarily one correct way to accomplish this. The bottom line for classroom teachers is that they must find a system of conversion that works for them and fits comfortably into their individual system of reporting student performance. Steps in the Design of Scoring Rubrics A step-by-step process for designing scoring rubrics for classroom use is presented below. Information for these procedures was compiled from various sources (Airasian, 2000 & 2001; Mertler, 2001; Montgomery, 2001; Nitko, 2001; Tombari&Borich, 1999). The steps will be summarized and discussed, followed by presentations of two sample scoring rubrics. Step 1: Re-examine the learning objectives to be addressed by the task. This allows you to match your scoring guide with your objectives and actual instruction. Step 2: Identify specific observable attributes that you want to see (as well as those you don’t want to see) your students demonstrate in their product, process, or performance . Specify the characteristics, skills, or behaviors that you will be looking for, as well as common mistakes you do not want to see.
  20. 20. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 220 Step 3: Brainstorm characteristics that describe each attribute. Identify ways to describe above average, average, and below average performance for each observable attribute identified in Step 2. Step 4a: For holistic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work incorporating each attribute into the description. Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance combining the descriptors for all attributes. Step 4b: For analytic rubrics, write thorough narrative descriptions for excellent work and poor work for each individual attribute . Describe the highest and lowest levels of performance using the descriptors for each attribute separately. Step 5a: For holistic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for the collective attributes. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance. Step 5b: For analytic rubrics, complete the rubric by describing other levels on the continuum that ranges from excellent to poor work for each attribute. Write descriptions for all intermediate levels of performance for each attribute separately. Step 6: Collect samples of student work that exemplify each level. These will help you score in the future by serving as benchmarks. Step 7: Revise the rubric, as necessary. Be prepared to reflect on the effectiveness of the rubric and revise it prior to its next implementation.
  21. 21. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 21 Lesson 13 Meaning, Types and Uses of Portfolio Learning Objectives: Upon the successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to:  Define Portfolio assessment.  Identify three types of portfolio.  Explain and compare portfolio from traditional forms of assessment.  Enumerate and explain the uses and guidelines of portfolios. Portfolio Assessment Portfolio assessment is a comprehensive purposeful collection of student’s performance that ranges from most significant achievement or best work to expanded work record in academic performance and extracurricular activities wherein he excels. Advantages of Portfolio Assessment • Promoting student self-evaluation, reflection, and critical thinking. • Measuring performance based on genuine samples of student work. • Providing flexibility in measuring how students accomplish their learning goals. • Giving students the opportunity to have extensive input into the learning process. • Providing a process for structuring learning in stages. • Providing opportunities for students and teachers to discuss learning goals and the progress toward those goals in structured and unstructured conferences.
  22. 22. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 • 222 Enabling measurement of multiple dimensions of student progress by including different types of data and materials. Contents of Portfolio 1) Best work of students. The best work of the students must be stated in the portfolio. His achievements in every field he has participated must be recorded. 2) Individual student’s work. The individual student’s work both in school and at home must be stated in the portfolio. For instance, in school, the student is elected president in the class and Supreme Student Council. At home, during weekend, he helps his mother with washing clothes, cooking, and deboning of milkfish. 3) Group work activities. Group work activities of the students must be included in the portfolio. For instance, a group activity is to present a dialogue in English class related to the theme and he is always assigned as a leader. 4) Extracurricular activities. The extracurricular activities of the student must be recorded in the portfolio. These serve as bases for the future teachers of the learner to identify the specific extracurricular activities he participated in and excelled. By so doing, the future teachers will find it easy to identify the students who can participate in the extracurricular activities if they are recorded in the portfolio. 5) Religious activities. It is important that religious activities of the students must be recorded. Though these activities are optional, these activities must be recorded in the portfolio especially if the student enrolls in religious institutions. These serve as bases for being active spiritually.
  23. 23. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 23 PORTFOLIO PROCESS Objectives: 7 STEPS OF PORTFOLIO PROCESS Goal Setting- Goal setting must be vivid and clear to be able to determine the purpose and direction. Selecting - Entry must be relevant to the goal of instruction being set. Performing - Perform activities based on the goal instruction. Data Gathering- Gather the data on the acceptability of the product. (Scaling the acceptability of the product and determining whether profitable or not and whether salable or not) NOTE! The result must be presented and recorded in the portfolio of the student. The write-up must contain the following: 1. Short Abstract 2. RRL(Review of Related Literature) 3. Materials 4. Methodology 5. Results and Discussions 6. Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations/implications Reflecting-In relation to the goal set, the following domains of behavior must be stated: 1. Cognitive 2. Psychomotor 3. Affective Exhibiting-Samples of the products must be displayed and exhibited in public yet conducive places. -Students are given the chance to interact with the viewers. Evaluating-in evaluating there 2 works have to be evaluated 1. The write-up of the research project 2. The portfolio
  24. 24. Assessment of students Learning 2 Module 4 24 The write-up of the research project must be evaluated by the teachers through the following criteria: A. Originality………………………………………………………………………. .(15%) B. Uniqueness ………………………………………………………………….…………………..(15%) C. Socio-ecomic impact……………………………………………………………..………………..(30%) D. Significance of the study………………………………………………………………….……………..(15%) E. Relevance to the government’s thrust…………………………………………………………….……………….…(25%) TOTAL…………………………………………………………………………………….100% The portfolio The has to be evaluated by self, peer, subject teachers, and teacher adviser. Distribution of their evaluation is as follows: a. Self…………………………………………….……………………………………..(5%) b. Peer……………………………………………..…………………………………….(5%) c. Subject Teachers…………………………………………………….………………………(50%) d. TeacherAdviser………………………………………………..……….…………………….(40%) TOTAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………..100% Sample of giving criteria in evaluating portfolio is as follows: a. Content ……………………………………………………………………………..………(50%)
  25. 25. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 25 b. Format/Style …………………………………………………................................…………….…(15%) c. Originality ………………………………………………………………………………..……..(15%) d. Reflection ………………………………………………………………………………………(10%) e. Punctuality ……………………………………………………………..………………………..(10%) TOTAL …………………………………………………………………..………………………..(100%) Kinds of Portfolio 1) Working portfolio. A working portfolio is so named because it is a project ―in the works,‖ containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. It serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more permanent assessment or display portfolio. 2) Developmental portfolio. This approach documents all facets or phases of the learning process. They are particularly useful in documenting students' overall learning process. 3) Documentary portfolio. This type involves a collection of work over time showing growth and improvement reflecting students' learning of identified outcomes. 4) Showcase portfolio. This type of portfolio is best used for summative evaluation of students' mastery of key curriculum outcomes. It should include students' very best work,
  26. 26. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 226 determined through a combination of student and teacher selection. Only completed work should be included. 5) Evaluation portfolio. In evaluation portfolio, the best work or any task/activity of the student with progress or development must be recorded in the portfolio for grading purposes.
  27. 27. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 27 Rubric Portfolio Evaluation The criteria in evaluating portfolio such as content (50%), format/style (15%), originality (15%), reflection (10%)< and punctuality (10%) are evaluated through Rubric Criteria 5 4 3 2 1 Outstanding Very Good Good Fair Poor Content Well organized Organized Explained the Fairly Poor (50)% explanation of explanation of contents explanation of explanation of contents contents contents contents Format/style Correct Correct Correct Incorrect Incorrect (15%) format/style format/style format/style format/style format/style and orderly and not but dirty but neat and dirty Not new Not new and Copied orderly Originality Novel and (15%) creative Reflection Well explained (10%) 3 domains of behavior (cognitive, psychomoor, and affective) Creative has duplicate 2 domains are 3 domains of Only cognitive No reflection reflected is reflected of the 3 behavior domains (cognitive, psychomoor, and affective) Punctuality Five days Two days Submission on Two days Five days (10%) submission submission deadline submission submission before the before the after the after the deadline deadline deadline deadline
  28. 28. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 28 Uses of Portfolio 1.) It can provide both formative and summative opportunities for monitoring progress toward reaching identified outcomes. 2.) A portfolio allows students to document the aspects of learning that do not show up well in traditional assessments. 3.) Portfolios may also be used to facilitate communication between teachers and parents regarding their child’s achievement and progress in a certain period of time. 4.) Portfolios may be assembled for combination of purposes such as instructional enhancement and progress documentation. A teacher reviews students’ portfolios periodically and make notes for revising instruction for next year’s used. Guidelines for Assessing Portfolios 1.) include enough documents on which to base judgement. 2.) Structure the contents to provide scorable information. 3.) Develop judging criteria and a scoring scheme for rates to use in assessing the portfolios. 4.) Use observation instruments such as checklist and rating scales when possible to facilitate scoring. 5.) Used trained evaluators or assessors. Advantages of Portfolio 1.) Portfolio provides legal basis of learning of the student to the teacher-adviser, subject-teacher and parents. 2.) It presents student’s best work. 3.) It compares a student’s previous best work to his parents.
  29. 29. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 229 4.) It promotes the relationship between teacher-student as well as parent-child in the teaching learning process. It widens reflective learning. Disadvantage of Portfolios 1.) Logistics involved in designing and maintain a portfolio system may be overwhelming with little or no support. 2.) Portfolio is a new assessment strategy for most teachers, relative to previous approaches, with many unresolved issues. 3.) It requires extra time to plan an assessment system and conduct the assessment. 4.) Developing a systematic and deliberate management system is difficult, but this step is necessary in order to make portfolios more than a random collection of student work. Limitations of Portfolio 1.) It is burdensome to keep portfolio of individual student. 2.) It is difficult to use portfolio as tool for students to enter a college or job placement. 3.) It also time consuming to evaluate portfolio on the part of subject-teachers and teacheradviser. Implications of Portfolio to Education 1.) Curriculum A portfolio can be used as tool to improve the curriculum. It enables teachers determine if the curriculum is still relevant, realistic and responsive to the needs of the students in particular and to the society in general. It determines whether students can meet the needs if the industry and the country.
  30. 30. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 230 2.) instruction Portfolio assessments are harmoniously matched on individualized instruction coupled with applying strategies and techniques to the different learning styles. 3.) Assessment Teachers can make use of portfolio as assessment tool for student’s performance. Students and peers can also use portfolio for self-and-peer assessment and reflection. Portfolio Assessment Portfolio assessment is the systematic, longitudinal collection of student work created in response to specific, known instructional objectives and evaluated in relation to the same criteria. Student portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work the exhibits the student’s efforts, progress and achievements in one or more areas. The collection must include student participation in selecting contents, the criteria for selection, being assessed, and documents according to growth and development criteria for judging merit and evidence of student selfreflection. The portfolio should represent a collection of students’ best work or best efforts, students-selected samples of work experiences related to outcomes. 3 types of Portfolio 1.) Working Portfolio The first type of portfolio is working portfolio also known as ― teacher-student portfolio.‖ As the name implies that it is a project ―in the work,‖ in contains the work in progress as well as
  31. 31. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 231 the finished samples of work to use reflect on process by the students and teachers. It documents te stages of learning and provides a progressive record of student growth. 2.) Showcase Portfolio The second type of portfolio is also known as best works portfolio or display portfolio. In this kind of portfolio it focuses on the student’s best and most creative work, it exhibits the performance of the student. Best works portfolio may document student efforts with respect to the curriculum objectives. It may also include evidence of student activities beyond school for example a story written at home. 3.) Progress Portfolio The third type of portfolio is progress portfolio and it is also known as Teacher Alternative Assessment Portfolio. It contains example of student’s work with the same type done over a period of time and they are utilized to assess their progress. All the works of the students in this type of portfolio are scored, rated, ranked, or evaluated. FORMAT AND STYLE OF A PORTFOLIO 1. Title page. The title page is first page of a portfolio but the page number is not indicated. It presents the title, portfolio, faculty to be submitted, name and place of the school, the submission statement, the grade/year granted, full name of student, month and year the grade/year to be granted. See sample illustration of title page. 2. Acknowledgements. This is a section of the portfolio that the students express his gratitude to different persons who assisted, facilitated, and guided him to make the
  32. 32. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 232 portfolio a reality. The student must recognize and appreciate the assistance, guidance, selfless effort, and wise counsel of his adviser/teacher. 3. Contents. Many portfolios used ―Table of /contents‖ for ―Contents.‖ The latter is preferable because it is self-explanatory that contents of a portfolio contain the preliminaries such as title page, acknowledgements, contents, tables, and figures, the part titles, page numbers, the main heading, the subheadings in the text including the recommendations/implications, bibliography, appendix and curriculum vitae. 4. Tables. The list of tables must follow the ―CONTENTS.‖ There are several portfolios using the title of ―TABLES‖ to ―LIST OF TABLES‖ in the front matter. The former is preferable because it its understood that ―TABLES‖ in the front matter contains the Table numbers, table captions, and page numbers from the text. If there are only two or three tables in the text of a portfolio, they must be omitted in the front matter. However, if there are four or more tables in the text, they are placed in the front matter. All captions of tables in the text must be exactly the same in the listing of tables in the front matter. 5. Figures. The list of figures follows the list of tables. The title is encoded as ―FIGURES‖ and not List of Figures. If there are two or three figures in the text, they are omitted in the front matter. However, if there are four or more figures in the text, they are placed in the front matter. Paradigms, chart, graphs, and flow sheets are grouped into Figures. 6. Parts. The portfolio is divided into parts. For instance, Part 1 presents Introduction, Part 2, Mathematics, Part 3, Science, Part 4, English, Part 5, Filipino, Part 6, Computer and Part 7, Extracurricular Activities. They are encoded in all capital letters. The second level is left-side heading and the third level, paragraph heading. For instance, Part 2 in
  33. 33. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 33 Mathematics, is divided into Problem Solving from simple to complex in Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. 7. Recommendations/Implications. In each part of the portfolio, there is at least one recommendation/implication. The recommendation/implication must jive with the parts and the last recommendation is for further activity. 8. Bibliography. It is a concluding statement of a portfolio wherein the surname of principal author of the source materials in is one listing in alphabeticalorder even if books, journals, memoranda, constitution and unpublished works. The most recent listing of the works cited in the endnotes or footnotes within the text of portfolio is bibliography in one listing. Segregation of different source materials of bibliography is obsolete. 9. Appendix. This consists of the formative and summative tests per subject area in every quarter or grading period. The scores of the student in formative and summative evaluation and computation of grades. These are subdivided into APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, APPENDIX C, APPENDIX D and so on. 10. Curriculum vitae. The student is honest to state about himself. This contains the personal data, educational background, works published, membership in organizations, scholarship grant received, award/honors received, seminars/training attended.
  34. 34. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 234 REFERENCES Books: Calmorin, Laurentina (20011). Assessment of Student Learning 1. Rex Book store Publishing, Manila Arter, J. (2000). Rubrics, scoring guides, and performance criteria: Classroom tools for assessing and improving student learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans. Nitko, A. J. (1996). Educational Assessment of Students, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall. Taggart, G. L., Phifer, S. J., Nixon, J. A., and Wood, M. (Eds.) Rubrics: Handbook for Construction and Use. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co. Wiggins, G. (1998). Educative Assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Schreyer Conception, Benjamin et al., (2012).LET Reviewer, MET Review center, Manila. Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary. New York: Penguin, 1990 Macrorie, Ken. Telling Writing. Rochelle Park, NJ: Hayden, 1976. Lane, Jill L. Schreyer Institute for Teaching Excellence � enn State � 01 Rider Building P 3 University Park, PA 16802 retrieved on Nov. 27, 2013 from Moskal, Barbara M. (2000). Scoring rubrics: what, when and how? Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(3) on Nov. 29, 2013 from Mertler, C.A. (2001). Using performance assessment in your classroom. Unpublished manuscript, Bowling Green State University. Airasian, P.W. (2000). Assessment in the classroom: A concise approach (2nd Ed.). Boston: Mcgraw-Hill. Airasian, P. W. (2001). Classroom assessment: Concepts and applications (4thed.). Boston: Mcgraw-Hill. Caufman, Heather (2003- 2013).The Power of Rubrics. Gabuyo (2011). Met Review LET Specialist. Ritasingharath (2007) Rubrics in Authentic Assessment.
  35. 35. Assessment of students Learning Module 4 2 35 Websites: < php?sectiondetailid=5128>. < ric>.