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  2. 2. Leader’s StyleTask-oriented Leadership is a behavioral approach in whichthe leader focuses on the tasks that need to be performed inorder to meet certain goals, or to achieve a certainperformance standard.Relationship-oriented Leadership is a behavioral approach inwhich the leader focuses on the satisfaction, motivation andthe general well-being of the team members.Contingency Leadership Model2.
  3. 3. Situational FactorsLeader-member relations factor- refers to the degree ofconfidence, trust, and respect that followers have in the leader.Task structure factor- refers specifically to the characteristicsof the work to be done with regard to requirements, problemsolving alternatives, and feedback on job successPosition power-The degree of influence a leader has overpower variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions,and salary increases.3.
  4. 4. This theory states thatleaders are effective becauseof their positive impact onfollower’s motivation, ability toperform, and satisfaction.Path Goal Model4.
  5. 5. Leadership BehaviorDirective leader the leader provides guidelines and letsubordinates know what’s expected of them.Supportive leader treats subordinates as equals.Participative leader consults with subordinates andconsiders their suggestions and ideas before reachingDecision.Achievement–oriented leader sets challenging goals,expects subordinates to perform at the highest level, andcontinually seeks improvement in performance5.
  6. 6. SLT’s emphasis is on the followers and theirlevel of maturity. The leader must properly judge or intuitivelyknow followers’ maturity level and then use a leadership style thatfits the level.Readiness is defined as the ability and willingness of people(followers) to take responsibility for directing their own behavior.6Hersey-Blanchard SituationalLeadership Theory (SLT)6.
  7. 7. A person high in job readiness has the knowledge andabilities to perform the job without a managerstructuring or directing the work.A person high in psychological readiness has the selfmotivation and desire to do high-quality work.7Two types of Readiness7.
  8. 8. Telling- The leader defines theroles needed to do the job and tellsfollowers what, where, how, andwhen to do the tasks.Selling-The leader providesfollowers with structuredinstructions, but is also supportive.Participating-The leader andfollowers share the decisions abouthow best to complete a high-qualityjob.Delegating- The leader providesless specific, close direction orpersonal support to the followers.Leadership Behavior8.
  9. 9. Personal-behavioral explanations of leadershipsuggest that the leader’s behavior is the same acrossall followers. This thinking is similar to assuming that aparent treats or interacts with each of her childrenthe same.The LMX approach suggests that leaders classifysubordinates into in-group members and out-groupmembers.Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory9.
  10. 10. In-Group - if team members prove themselvesloyal, trustworthy and skilled, theyre put into the In-Group. This group is made up of the team members thatthe manager trusts the most.Out-Group - if team members betray the trust of themanager, or prove that theyre unmotivated orincompetent, theyre put into the Out-Group.10.
  11. 11. In developing their model, Vroom-Yetton made these assumptions:1. The model should be of value to leaders ormanagers in determining which leadership stylesthey should use in various situations.2. No single leadership style is applicable to allsituations. occurs.Vroom-Jago-Yetton RevisedLeadership Model11.
  12. 12. 3. The main focus should be the problem to be solvedand the situation in which the problem occurs.4. The leadership style used in one situation shouldnot constrain the styles used in other situations.5. Several processes influence the amount ofparticipation by subordinates in problem solving.12 12.
  13. 13. Transactional LeadershipThe leader helps the follower identify what must be done toaccomplish the desired results: better quality output,more sales or services or reduced cost of production.Transformational LeadershipMotivates followers to work for transcendental goalsinstead of short-term self-interest and for achievement andself-actualization instead of security.13Transactional and TransformationalLeadership13.