Battling the Little Ice AgeA look at how battles were effected by the Little Ice Age Stephanie Kastner History 141 (71154) September 2011
1588 - Defeating the Spanish Armada The Spanish Armada battled British troops off England’s coast for 5 days before declaring a stalemate. Two days after the stalemate, Britain sent five flaming ships towards the Armada, blocking off their retreat to Spain. The Armada was forced to travel north, toward Scotland and into more freezing temperatures. When the Armada returned to Spain, they had lost 56 ships and 21,000 troops. Route of the Spanish Armada’s Retreat
1776 - Washington’s Victory in TrentonAfter losing New York to the British during the Revolutionary War, future first PresidentGeorge Washington was forced to cross the Delaware River. The weather was so cold,chucks of ice had clogged the river. It took Washington’s troops 9 hours to cross the water.After crossing the river, he marched on to Trenton, New Jersey. Washington lost two on themarch to Trenton and is credited with the victory in Trenton because he and his troops wereable to battle the cold weather better than the British. The painting below, by EmanuelGottlieb Luetze, is often critized because of the depiction of the ice chunks in the river.Most critics claim that the Delaware River has never had ice in it.
1812 - Napoleons Horrific Retreat • After his defeat in Russia, Napoleon decided to retreat. • It was reported that it was so cold, ice crystals would float in the air; this was because the air was so dense, the crystals would not fall. • His men either died in their sleep as they froze or died of starvation. • To avoid starvation, men would slice the skin off their horses; the horses showed little response because their skin too had froze and gone numb. • Of the original 40,000 men only 4,000 – 5,000 survived the trip.
1815 - Battle of New Orleans• Final battle in the Battle of 1812.• Indiana was about to become another state in the Union.• This year was a year without a summer. – This is reportedly due to the eruption of Mt. Tambora on April 11 (which killed about 90,000 people during its initial eruption).
Sources• Cosmeo. 2006. Discovery Communications. 23 September 2011. http://www.cosmeo.com/viewPicture.cfm?guidImageId=DAB7591E -2035-4F40-9BD5-F416DE0A678A&&nodeid=• Emerson Kent. 2011. 23 September 2011. http://www.emersonkent.com/history_notes/elizabeth_i.htm• Little Ice Age: The Big Chill. 2005. History Channel. 21 September 2011.• Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. 23 September 2011. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/blast.html• The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2000-2011. 23 September 2011. http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/gw/el_gw.htm