Introduction to Project Management


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Introduction to Project Management

  1. 1. CONTACT Jan Devos, MBA Electronics and IT Lab University College West-Flanders Ghent University Association Graaf Karel De Goedelaan 5 BE-8500 KORTRIJK - BELGIUM T: +32 56 24 12 72 F: +32 56 24 12 24 e-mail: e-mail: jgdvos.devos@ugent.belinkedIn: website: Twitter: @jangdevos
  2. 2. Project ManagementThere are three rules for conducting a project.Unfortunately, nobody knows what they are… © Jan Devos - 2
  3. 3. What is a project ?
  4. 4. What is a project? The tunnel boring machines were specially designed for excavating the chalk marl rock which geological surveys had shown to lie beneath the seabed along the proposed tunnel route. However, several factors combined to make this a unique challenge for the machines: •The length of the tunnel to be excavated undersea ( in excess of 20 km ). •The high rate of advance required to meet the construction programme requirements. •The possibility of unexpected ground conditions - such as an unsurveyed borehole.At completion, it was estimated that the whole projectcost around £10 billion.Work stated on both sides in 1987, and the fixed link was opened in 1994 -nearly 2 years late, and way over budget.
  5. 5. What is a project? Program Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1972. It was devoted to the goal of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth within the decade of the 1960s. This goal was achieved with the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969. The program continued into the early 1970s to carry out the initial hands-on scientific exploration of the Moon, with a total of six successful landings Apollo Program insigne The cost of the entire Apollo program: USD $25.4 billion -1969 Dollars ($135- billion in 2005 Dollars).
  6. 6. What is a project? a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. (Project Management Institute) a temporary organization that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to a specified Business Case (Prince2)• Temporary organization• Limited in time• Goal centric• Impact on the existing organization
  7. 7. Temporary organizationExamples:• Building a house• Building / installing a machine• Developing a new product• Launching a new product, concept, …• Masterthesis• PhD…• … © Jan Devos - 7
  8. 8. Temporary organizationA project team: temporary organization (Hackman, 2009, Harvard University) © Jan Devos - 8
  9. 9. Temporary organization - a project teamProject Management Team• Project Board (Steering Committee) Executives (bestuurders)• Project Manager: day-to-day basis• Different „roles‟: Team Members Project Assurance Project Quality Reviewers / Testers © Jan Devos - 9
  10. 10. Limited in time Clear starting point • Clear finishing point • Milestones and milestone products (deliverables) • Wanted, Planned and Realized (Earned Value Analysis) • Baseline, Stages, Critical path
  11. 11. A Project is goal centric• Business Case (Why are we doing this?)• Feasibility Study• Requirements (user needs)• Deliverables• Acceptance Criteria• OutcomeBeware of:• Scope (creep)• Runaway projecten © Jan Devos - 11
  12. 12. Why working with projects?
  13. 13. Project centric Improvising Task centric Project centric Assurance of the outcome
  14. 14. Project centricImprovising Project Centric Task CentricFlexibility Goal oriented EfficientNo procedures Processes ProceduresCreative/ Innovative Planning / Analyzing ControlNo structure Change management Hierarchy
  15. 15. Which model is the best ? Depends on the situation • What results do we need ? • Control in time and budget • Bringing disciplines together • Type of organization • Type of product/service
  16. 16. What is project management?
  17. 17. Project ManagementThe planning, monitoring and control of all aspects ofa project and the motivation of all those involved in itto achieve the project objectives on time and to thespecified cost, quality and performance. (Prince2) PM-triangle © Jan Devos - 17
  18. 18. Project Management (Tom Cross, HBR) © Jan Devos - 18
  19. 19. Project Management PM PhilosophyPM is not easy most projects do not succeed…Control ?
  20. 20. Project Management Philosophy PLANNING MONITORING ORGANIZING
  21. 21. Project Management Philosophy Inception PLC Design & Dev.
  22. 22. Project Management Philosophy Wild enthusiasm “P”PLC Search for the guilty
  23. 23. Project Management Failures
  24. 24. Project Management • Clear roles and responsibilities • Management capabilities and techniques
  25. 25. Project ManagementWhat is succes in project management?Answer: do not fail !But failure is the outcome of a human processAll failures are “expectation failures” = thefailure to meet the expectations of the stakeholders
  26. 26. What are the successfactors?
  27. 27. Project Management PracticesWork Breakdown Structure (WBS) • Break your assignment down in manageable tasks • Assign a deliverable to each task • Define each task with clear objectives • Assign a execution time to each task • Assign a cost to each task • Assign resources to each task • Tasks who are not in the WBS are out-of-scope Do a stepwise refinement of some tasks in the WBS
  28. 28. Project Management PracticesDefine the goals according to the SMART principleS Specific / Significant / SimpleM Measurable / ManageableA Achievable / Appropriate / AttainableR Realistic / RelevantT Timely / Trackable
  29. 29. Project Management PracticesPresentation of WBS PERT planning GANTT chart
  30. 30. Project Management PracticesPresentation of WBS PERT planning GANTT chart
  31. 31. GANTT diagram
  32. 32. GANTT diagramH.L. Gantt (1861-1919) – assistant of F. Taylor• WBS = set of all tasks• Presentation of all tasks on a time line• Beginning and Ending time• Linking of tasks (concurrent tasks are possible)
  33. 33. PERT planning
  34. 34. PERT diagramPERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique•Origin: US DoD (1958)•WBS•Extra: TOTAL time needed to finished the project•Critical path = the longest path of planned tasks to theend of the project, and the earliest and latest that eachtask can start and finish without making the projectlonger
  35. 35. Project ManagementSome the PM processes:• Project Scope Management• Project Time Management• Project Cost Management• Project Quality Management• Project HR Management• Project Risk Management• Project Communication Management• Project Procurement Management• … © Jan Devos - 35
  36. 36. Project ManagementScopePoor scope definition is themajor contributing factor tocost overruns in theengineering and constructionindustry.The effect of “creeping scope” isa major cause of cost overruns
  37. 37. PRINCE2, Projects IN Controlled Environments,Project management method covering the organisation, management andcontrol of projects.Process Based & Product BasedImproved responsibility, authority and accountability reducing confusionDivide the project into manageable stages for more accurate planning
  38. 38. PMBOK® GuideProject Management Body of Knowledge
  39. 39. Project Management Institute Non-profit organization PMBOK® PRINCE2-website Office of Government PRINCE2-website Free downloads
  40. 40. Project Management: critics
  41. 41. Project Management: critics• Research consistently shows that teams underperform, despite extra resources (Hackman, 2009, Harvard University)Reasons:- Problems with coordination and motivation- Fuzziness of team boundaries- Putting people in a team for purely political reasons © Jan Devos - 42
  42. 42. Alternative approaches to PM • PM does not guaranteed success nor eliminates failures (example: IS success models) • PM too much focused on „how-to-do‟ • Management of meaning iso management of control ? • Critical perspective on projects: focus on values (technology is not neutral), ethics and morality equally important than efficiency & effectiveness ? • Research on SMEs: Trust vs Control ? (Devos, 2009) • “Political” PLC 2003, The chimpanzees’ tea party: a new metaphor for project manager (Drummond & Hodgson) 2006, New Possibilities for Project Management Theory: A Critical Engagement (Cicmil & Hodgson) © Jan Devos - 1
  43. 43. HRO concept • High Reliability Organizations © Jan Devos - 1
  44. 44. HRO concept • Organizing for High Reliability: Processes of Collective Mindfulness (Weick, 1999) • Preoccupation with failure (“Failure is not an option”) • Reluctance to simplify interpretation (beware of „frameworks‟, „models‟, „mindsets‟, …) • Sensitivity to operations (“situational awareness”) • Commitment to resilience (“continuous management of fluctuations”) © Jan Devos - 1
  45. 45. Exercise MASTERTHESISAssumption: the research question is definedWBS:• Literature analysis ▫ Annotated literature overviews ▫ Writing Literature Analysis chapter• Technology ▫ Overview of the technology ▫ Writing Technology chapter• Proof of Concept ▫ Building the test case ▫ Testing ▫ Measuring (1, 2 , or more runs) ▫ Reporting: writing the Results chapter• Discussions ▫ Review each component of the previous stage ▫ Writing the Discussion chapter• Conclusion: write the Conclusion chapter• Combining: bring all chapters in one scription• Miscellaneous ▫ Reserve time and place in the lab ▫ Order goods and materials for the PoC ▫ Write the abstract of the masterproof (NL) ▫ Write the abstract of the masterproof (EN) ▫ Review the text of the masterproof © Jan Devos - 46
  46. 46. Exercise IP / MD PROJECTAssumption: the business case is definedWBS:-?- © Jan Devos - 47
  47. 47. Excercise• Free download: OpenProj (Open Software)•• OpenProj Setup (msi)• Install © Jan Devos - 48