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CONTACT                     dr.ir. Jan Devos, MBA                                   ELIT Lab                              ...
Emerge of the Engineering Model
Emerge of the Engineering Model
Emerge of the Engineering Model                                                             Tot 19de eeuw waren er uitslui...
Successes of the Engineering Model                         Good logistics alone cant win a war.                         Ba...
Successes of the Engineering Model
Successes of the Engineering Model
Ideal type of an Engineer…BusinessesGovernments… andEducation
The illusion of modeling …Ever seen a pure geometric figure in nature?
The illusion of modeling …… is that we tend to forget that the real world has vague and murky contours… (Ciborra, 2002)E. ...
Separation of Creation and Use
Amoral theories ? • The MacDonaldization • Of Society   …is the process by which the principles of the fast-   food restau...
MacDonaldization of society                © Jan Devos   -   14
MacDonaldization of society• Efficiency• Calculability• Predictability• Increased Control• Replacement of Human by Non-hum...
Foundations for the EngineerNatural Sciences (positivistic perspective)Control Theory (Coase, 1937, Eisenhardt, 1989)     ...
Ideal type of an Engineer…EngineerA priori hierarchical order: top down approachReduction/decomposition (analysis – synthe...
Collapse of an Engineering Model
Collapse of an Engineering Model
Research on IS failures Resistance against change 1983 Power, Politics and MIS implementation (Markus) 20 years later: - 2...
Organizational ChangeNov. 2010
Organizational Change
Alternative approaches to PM • PM does not guaranteed success nor eliminates failures • PM too much focused on ‗how-to-do‘...
PLC and the „Political‟ PLC         Inception      PLC                 Wild enthusiasm     Design & Dev.                  ...
Organizational Change  ―(Computer-based) Information    Systems defeat their own purpose    because they create complexity...
Emergent Collectives
Emergent CollectivesAnt Colony
The Ant ColonyScalability              Value for everyone
The Ant Colony          Limited Durability
The Ant ColonyNo central control
The Ant Colony        High Degree of Informality
The Ant ColonyThe user defines the contentanywhere&any time
The Ant ColonyControl is in the protocol of the collective                           © Jan Devos   -   33
Examples• Wikipedia• Sharing of pictures van foto‘s (Flickr),             music (iTunes)             film (YouTube)•   Any...
An EC is hard to predict…Charlie bit my finger – again!                                             Charlie movie         ...
Why do EC‟s occur ? Digitalization of society  Broadband  access
2011 The Arab Spring and Twitter
Most compelling example of ECArpanet (70s)A story of ‗bricolage‘, improvisation, and serendipityBuild to allow scientists ...
Most compelling example of ECArpanet becomes the Internet (90s) and now….• 2 billion Internet users in the world• 2 billio...
Why do EC‟s occur ?• Social Motivation: People want to contribute to  something bigger than themselves• Personal Motivatio...
Why do EC‟s occur ?            The Flatteners …            • Collapse of the Berlin Wall            • Internet (Netscape) ...
Again Central Control ?
The Walled Gardens
Predicting EC‟s• Computer models of the human mind• Explaining attention and the lack of it• Subjective Time• Simulations ...
Subjective Time (Gruber et al. 2000) The age-related decline in human information-  processing rate is party responsible ...
HRO conceptOrganizing for High Reliability:Processes of Collective Mindfulness (Weick, 1999) • Preoccupation with failure ...
Facilitating ECsPush vs Pull model van Hagel & Seely BrownHow can we bring the resources together to do something?Engineer...
Facilitating ECsPull model van Hagel & Seely Brown- Opportuniteiten zien als gevolg van onzekerheid- Mensen samenbrengen o...
Facilitating ECsEngineering Model is dominating in almost everythingbusiness, governments, education, but…Most interesting...
Facilitating ECsPush                                         PullAnticiperen op de vraag                      De vraag is ...
Facilitating ECs                                     Creativiteitslagen (nieuwe middelen scheppen)                        ...
BricolageConcept of ‗Bricolage‘ (Lévi-Strauss)                                     Trinidad Steel drums (pans)            ...
Bricolage• Bricolage - French anthropologist Lévi-Strauss,• ‗La pensée sauvage‘ (1962) (Vrij vertaalt: het wilde denken)• ...
BricolageFrom the seminal work of Lévi-Strauss, three constructscan be inferred to characterize bricolage:1) 1) repertoire...
Bricoleur vs EngineerBricoleur                                      EngineerEverything matters                            ...
Bricolage• Is Bricolage a theory?•   Seven oxymoron‟s as propositions (Ciborra, 2002)•   Value bricolage strategically (VB...
Oxy-1 Value bricolage strategically                   © Jan Devos   -   57
Oxy-2 Design tinkering                © Jan Devos   -   58
Oxy-3 Establish systematic serendipity                     © Jan Devos   -   59
Oxy-4 Thrive on gradual breakthroughs                    © Jan Devos   -   60
Oxy-5 Unskilled Learning                     © Jan Devos   -   61
Oxy-6 Strive for failure                    © Jan Devos   -   62
Oxy-7 Achieve collaborative inimitability                      © Jan Devos   -   63
Best tweets of 2012           Example
Assignment• Create a Twitteraccount ▫ voorbeeld: @jangdevos• Announce it to all your fellow students of the group• Follow ...
Best tweets of 2012
References • blogs.hbr.org/bigshift/ • www.johnhagel.com/index.shtml (From Push to  Pull- Emerging Models For Mobilizing R...
Engineer or Bricoleur ?
Engineer or Bricoleur ?
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Engineer or Bricoleur ?

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Emergent Collectives.
Engineer or Bricoleur?

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  • Petrie (2011) refers to this as an ant colony in which her behavior, and intelligence is the result of the rather mindless interactions of individual ants following simple protocols of interaction that result in qualitatively different global behavior. To explain this phenomenon, Petrie introduced to concept of “Emergent Collectives” (EC) as the combination of emergent control networks, tools, and incentives that motivate people to act collectively. The motivation for collectively acting lays within the capacity of the networks to scale and to increase value for the user.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • This all can largely be summarized as the digitalization of society and the broadband access to the Internet. This is of course nothing new for you all.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • But who’s in charge of this all? And where is this behavior leading to? The control lays in the protocol of the movement or the emergence.
  • But who’s in charge of this all? And where is this behavior leading to? The control lays in the protocol of the movement or the emergence.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • Petrie (2011) refers to this as an ant colony in which her behavior, and intelligence is the result of the rather mindless interactions of individual ants following simple protocols of interaction that result in qualitatively different global behavior. To explain this phenomenon, Petrie introduced to concept of “Emergent Collectives” (EC) as the combination of emergent control networks, tools, and incentives that motivate people to act collectively. The motivation for collectively acting lays within the capacity of the networks to scale and to increase value for the user.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • EmergentCollectives? Wat zijn in godsnaam emergentcollectives? Vertaal betekent dit ‘emergente collectieven’ of spontaan aan de dag tredende groep. Beter is de analogie te gebruiken van een mierenkolonie.
  • Transcript of "Engineer or Bricoleur ? "

    1. 1. CONTACT dr.ir. Jan Devos, MBA ELIT Lab Howest Graaf Karel De Goedelaan 5 BE-8500 KORTRIJK - BELGIUM T: +32 56 24 12 72 F: +32 56 24 12 24 e-mail: jan.devos@howest.be e-mail: jgdvos.devos@ugent.belinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/in/jangdevos Blog: jangdevos.wordpress.org twiiter: @jangdevos
    2. 2. Emerge of the Engineering Model
    3. 3. Emerge of the Engineering Model
    4. 4. Emerge of the Engineering Model Tot 19de eeuw waren er uitsluitend militaire ingenieurs. De ingenieursuitvindingen zoals (heer)wegen, bruggen, forten, have ns, kanonnen, enz. hadden een strategische bestemming. Archimedes, Leonardo da Vinci en de Vlaamse Simon Stevin waren beroemde militaire ingenieurs. James Watt (1736-1819): de eerste burgerlijk ingenieur. Zijn stoommachine luidde de eerste industriële revolutie in. Die ging gepaard met een groeiende(K.U.Leuven, http://eng.kuleuven.be/algemeen/geschiedenis) behoefte aan hooggeschoolde technici.
    5. 5. Successes of the Engineering Model Good logistics alone cant win a war. Bad logistics alone can lose it. —General Brehon B. Somervell Commanding General Army Services Forces, 1942
    6. 6. Successes of the Engineering Model
    7. 7. Successes of the Engineering Model
    8. 8. Ideal type of an Engineer…BusinessesGovernments… andEducation
    9. 9. The illusion of modeling …Ever seen a pure geometric figure in nature?
    10. 10. The illusion of modeling …… is that we tend to forget that the real world has vague and murky contours… (Ciborra, 2002)E. Husserl (Phenomenology) and Galileo Galilei• Galileo introduces geometry as a sort of generalization• The gap between scientific objectivity and the everyday life world (everyday reality is real, outcomes of abstractions and models are ideal)• Lack of ‗spiritual‘ dimension in technological advancement• Problems are solved by reduction• (practical) Relevance versus (academic) Rigor ?
    11. 11. Separation of Creation and Use
    12. 12. Amoral theories ? • The MacDonaldization • Of Society …is the process by which the principles of the fast- food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as of the rest of the world. (Ritzer, 1993:1)
    13. 13. MacDonaldization of society © Jan Devos - 14
    14. 14. MacDonaldization of society• Efficiency• Calculability• Predictability• Increased Control• Replacement of Human by Non-human Technology © Jan Devos - 15
    15. 15. Foundations for the EngineerNatural Sciences (positivistic perspective)Control Theory (Coase, 1937, Eisenhardt, 1989) Alignment of interestsAgency Theory (Jensen & Meckling, 1976) Contracts (Incomplete Contract Theory) Moral Hazard / Adverse SelectionMistrust in human behavior (Ghoshal, 2005)Amoral theories ?
    16. 16. Ideal type of an Engineer…EngineerA priori hierarchical order: top down approachReduction/decomposition (analysis – synthesis – model)Openness, transcending boundariesLinear time – CartesiansDistant knowledge, representationKnowledge about structural characteristic entitiesSpecializationSearch for the adequate, project-oriented meansProjects and designsRespect of prior specifications: exact design requirementsEvaluation through expected level of performance and qualitySeparation of creation and useOutcomes respond to field norms
    17. 17. Collapse of an Engineering Model
    18. 18. Collapse of an Engineering Model
    19. 19. Research on IS failures Resistance against change 1983 Power, Politics and MIS implementation (Markus) 20 years later: - 2003, "Computers can land people on Mars, why cant they get them to work in a hospital?" - Implementation of an Electronic Patient Record System in a UK Hospital (Jones) - 2004, Informating the Clan: Controlling Physicians Costs and Outcomes (Kohli & Kettinger)
    20. 20. Organizational ChangeNov. 2010
    21. 21. Organizational Change
    22. 22. Alternative approaches to PM • PM does not guaranteed success nor eliminates failures • PM too much focused on ‗how-to-do‘ • Management of meaning iso management of control ? • Critical perspective on projects: focus on values (technology is not neutral), ethics and morality equally important than efficiency & effectiveness ? • Trust vs Control ? (Devos, 2009) • ―Political‖ PLC 2003, The chimpanzees‟ tea party: a new metaphor for project manager (Drummond & Hodgson) 2006, New Possibilities for Project Management Theory: A Critical Engagement (Cicmil & Hodgson)
    23. 23. PLC and the „Political‟ PLC Inception PLC Wild enthusiasm Design & Dev. “P”PLC Search for the guilty
    24. 24. Organizational Change ―(Computer-based) Information Systems defeat their own purpose because they create complexity.‖ (Weick 1985)
    25. 25. Emergent Collectives
    26. 26. Emergent CollectivesAnt Colony
    27. 27. The Ant ColonyScalability Value for everyone
    28. 28. The Ant Colony Limited Durability
    29. 29. The Ant ColonyNo central control
    30. 30. The Ant Colony High Degree of Informality
    31. 31. The Ant ColonyThe user defines the contentanywhere&any time
    32. 32. The Ant ColonyControl is in the protocol of the collective © Jan Devos - 33
    33. 33. Examples• Wikipedia• Sharing of pictures van foto‘s (Flickr), music (iTunes) film (YouTube)• Anytime – Anywhere WIFI• Open Source Software communities• Edushock• TED• ……………………………Behavior and outcome of an EC is hard topredict © Jan Devos - 34
    34. 34. An EC is hard to predict…Charlie bit my finger – again! Charlie movie © Jan Devos - 35
    35. 35. Why do EC‟s occur ? Digitalization of society Broadband access
    36. 36. 2011 The Arab Spring and Twitter
    37. 37. Most compelling example of ECArpanet (70s)A story of ‗bricolage‘, improvisation, and serendipityBuild to allow scientists to share computer resources ata distanceNot about e-mail, personal communications, …Not really a very large success….
    38. 38. Most compelling example of ECArpanet becomes the Internet (90s) and now….• 2 billion Internet users in the world• 2 billion more waiting to get online• Policy makers: UN-UGF, ICANN, ISOC, supra-national governments• Movement from IPv4 to IPv6 350 trillion trillion DNS numbers available
    39. 39. Why do EC‟s occur ?• Social Motivation: People want to contribute to something bigger than themselves• Personal Motivation: e.g. ‗self-advertising‘, blogging• The Homo Ludens• Globalizing World• Increasing Uncertainty• Growing Abundance• Increasing ComplexityThe ‗social fabric‘ is no more virtual © Jan Devos - 40
    40. 40. Why do EC‟s occur ? The Flatteners … • Collapse of the Berlin Wall • Internet (Netscape) • Workflow Software ▫ Uploading, Sharing, Down loading • Outsourcing • Off-shoring • ‗Steriods‘ iPhone, PDA, iPad, … (BYOD) 2005 •… © Jan Devos - 41
    41. 41. Again Central Control ?
    42. 42. The Walled Gardens
    43. 43. Predicting EC‟s• Computer models of the human mind• Explaining attention and the lack of it• Subjective Time• Simulations (role-based): e.g. Second Life• Focus on learning and improvising• Design Science Research? © Jan Devos - 44
    44. 44. Subjective Time (Gruber et al. 2000) The age-related decline in human information- processing rate is party responsible for the ―quick passage of time‘‘ Life‘s duration (and longevity) can be measured by:  Chronological age  Total amount of Information one has processed Human longevity can be increased by increasing chronological age and by increasing the information-processing rate © Jan Devos - 45
    45. 45. HRO conceptOrganizing for High Reliability:Processes of Collective Mindfulness (Weick, 1999) • Preoccupation with failure (―Failure is not an option‖) • Reluctance to simplify interpretation (beware of ‗frameworks‘, ‗models‘, ‗mindsets‘, …) • Sensitivity to operations (―situational awareness‖) • Commitment to resilience (―continuous management of fluctuations‖) © Jan Devos - 1
    46. 46. Facilitating ECsPush vs Pull model van Hagel & Seely BrownHow can we bring the resources together to do something?Engineering model: analyse → synthese → modelEducation is organized in an Engineering ModelStandard curricula Codified Information Pre-determined (linear) sequence of experience © Jan Devos - 47
    47. 47. Facilitating ECsPull model van Hagel & Seely Brown- Opportuniteiten zien als gevolg van onzekerheid- Mensen samenbrengen om een antwoord te geven op gebeurtenissen die niet beantwoord worden- Steunen op een steeds groter wordende groep van hoog gespecialiseerde, maar verspreide middelen- Geen dictaat van te nemen acties- Netwerking aanmoedigen als een manier om middelen samen te brengen- Helpen te leren en te innoveren bij de participanten om de bekwaamheden te verhogen, om volgens hun behoeftesVinden → Verbinden → Innoveren → Reflecteren © Jan Devos - 48
    48. 48. Facilitating ECsEngineering Model is dominating in almost everythingbusiness, governments, education, but…Most interesting innovations come from outside thetraditional educational institutesExamples - Demand for certification can not be fulfilled by traditional educational institutes - University of Phoenix - Cisco‘s e-learning platform - Learning through apprenticeship (Open Source Software) © Jan Devos - 49
    49. 49. Facilitating ECsPush PullAnticiperen op de vraag De vraag is onzekerTop down ontwerp Emergent ontwerpCentrale controle Decentraal initiatiefProcedureel ModulairSterke koppelingen Losse koppelingenParticipatie gelimiteerd Participatie openBeperkt aantal participanten Veel (diverse) participantenFocus op efficiëntie Focus op innovatieBeperkt aantal grote inspanningen Snelle stapgewijze innovatiesExterne beloningen domineren Intrinsieke beloningen domineren © Jan Devos - 50
    50. 50. Facilitating ECs Creativiteitslagen (nieuwe middelen scheppen) Netwerken van creativiteit Creatieve focus Procesnetwerken (Nike, Cisco) Aggregatienetwerken (Ebay, Netflix, Amazon, …) Technisch focus Faciliteitslagen (bestaande middelen meer beschikbaar maken) Technologie (Wiki‘s, web services) Sociale netwerken (Facebook, Twitter, …) Infrastructuurlagen (verbindingen leggen) Service netwerken (email) Logistiek en communicatienetwerken (bv. internet) © Jan Devos - 51
    51. 51. BricolageConcept of ‗Bricolage‘ (Lévi-Strauss) Trinidad Steel drums (pans) © Jan Devos - 52
    52. 52. Bricolage• Bricolage - French anthropologist Lévi-Strauss,• ‗La pensée sauvage‘ (1962) (Vrij vertaalt: het wilde denken)• ―doe iets met wat je liggen hebt‖• Bricolage is related to (Duymedjian & Rüling, 2010)• organizational resilience• improvisation• sense making (management of sense making)• enterpreneurship• use of technical artefacts © Jan Devos - 53
    53. 53. BricolageFrom the seminal work of Lévi-Strauss, three constructscan be inferred to characterize bricolage:1) 1) repertoire or the material and immaterial resources that are collected independently of any particular project or utilization,2) 2) dialogue or the activity of assembling objects and3) 3) outcome, which‘s refers both to the process and its results (Duymedjian and Ruling 2010). © Jan Devos - 54
    54. 54. Bricoleur vs EngineerBricoleur EngineerEverything matters A priori hierarchical orderComplex, interconnected system Reduction/decompositionClosed universe Openness, transcending boundariesCyclical time Linear timeIntimate knowledge, familiarity Distant knowledge, representationKnowledge about relationships implying a low Knowledge about structural characteristic entitiesfunctional fixedness biasVersatility implying resilience SpecializationCollection through unplanned encounters Search for the adequate, project-oriented meansUnclear outcomes Projects and designsDialogue with elements in stock (resources) Respect of prior specificationsAssemblage, substitution, …‘it‘s working‘ Evaluation through expected level of performance and qualityCreation and use cannot be dissociated Separation of creation and useOutcomes look unlike anything else Outcomes respond to field norms
    55. 55. Bricolage• Is Bricolage a theory?• Seven oxymoron‟s as propositions (Ciborra, 2002)• Value bricolage strategically (VBS)• Design tinkering (DT)• Establish systematic serendipity (ESS)• Thrive on gradual breakthroughs (TGB)• Unskilled Learning (UL)• Strive for failure (SFF)• Achieve collaborative inimitability (ACI)(Devos et al. 2012) © Jan Devos - 56
    56. 56. Oxy-1 Value bricolage strategically © Jan Devos - 57
    57. 57. Oxy-2 Design tinkering © Jan Devos - 58
    58. 58. Oxy-3 Establish systematic serendipity © Jan Devos - 59
    59. 59. Oxy-4 Thrive on gradual breakthroughs © Jan Devos - 60
    60. 60. Oxy-5 Unskilled Learning © Jan Devos - 61
    61. 61. Oxy-6 Strive for failure © Jan Devos - 62
    62. 62. Oxy-7 Achieve collaborative inimitability © Jan Devos - 63
    63. 63. Best tweets of 2012 Example
    64. 64. Assignment• Create a Twitteraccount ▫ voorbeeld: @jangdevos• Announce it to all your fellow students of the group• Follow each other• Send at least 20 tweets during the semester about course topics. © Jan Devos - 65
    65. 65. Best tweets of 2012
    66. 66. References • blogs.hbr.org/bigshift/ • www.johnhagel.com/index.shtml (From Push to Pull- Emerging Models For Mobilizing Resources) • www-cdr.stanford.edu/~petrie/ • www.emergent-collectives.be • www.cosmicplay.net (K. Pohn) • … and the full Web-of-Science !
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