Aog feb 06-03-2012 v.2.0

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  • Upper partA necessary (but not sufficient) condition for the take-off of an EC is the speed by which data can be interchanged. A speed of 15Mbps is a strict minimum. According to the IUT by 2015 entry-level broadband services should cost less than 5% of the average monthly income. In Europe 11 of 15 countries has already affordable broadband services with sometimes only 0,3% of the monthly income.Lower partNot only the speed matters but also the degree of mobility of the connection. Users do not access the Internet at a specific place (and time) but anywhere and at anytime, since they are highly mobile with their Smartphones.
  • The disruptive usage of Internet-related ICTs all have in common that the content is under control of the user. Even Mark Zuckerberg, founder and CEO of Facebook is now not in control of all the produced content on his platform. Although he stays in control of the whole Facebook platform; which is of course another issue to be concerned of. This makes the difference between an email system, which is merely an application and Facebook or Twitter which are social communities of people.
  • The spontaneous questions that comes up by most business managers is then: If we can’t control it will the absence of a centralized control mechanism than lead to anarchy and chaos? The answer is definitely no! Millions of people are using social media on a daily basis, in their job, at home and on the road. Although social media seems to have the power to change politics and government, as one could observe during the Arab spring last year, they do not aim at chaos. Chaos is merely a side-effect. And of course there are hackers who try to play their role in the piece, but their roles are extras.
  • This brings us to the next condition for an EC to become airborne: the customization and consumerization of IT and the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) to the company. Users today do not depend anymore on IT only available within the boundaries of a company, but can chose to use IT anywhere, at home, at the office and on the road. Tablets, BlackBerries, iPhones, and iPads are becoming commodities at an increasing speed and are capable to support almost every possible application (apps). Access to the Internet by these devices comes in a wide variety of protocols (3G, 4G, WIFI) and at high speeds. These powerful mobile stations drives the users out of the office and out of the organization.
  • Aog feb 06-03-2012 v.2.0

    1. 1. Using Bricolage to FacilitateEmergent Collectives in anEntrepreneurial Setting(work in progress)Jan DevosECIME 2012 Conference Cork Irl.AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 1Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    2. 2. Outline of the presentation- Emergent Collectives- Bricolage- Research Question- Research Methodology- Findings- ConclusionAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 2Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    3. 3. Emergent CollectivePetrie (2010) introduced the concept of “Emergent Collectives”- A network of information/function nodes that has minimal central control, and that‟s largely controlled by a protocol specification.- In which it‟s easy for people to add nodes to the network- And where there are social incentives that motivate people to act collectively.www.emergent-collectives.beAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 3Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    4. 4. Capacity to scale thenetwork Value for the user
    5. 5. Broadband access to the networkAccess to the network
    6. 6. The user is in control of the content
    7. 7. No single controlling entity
    8. 8. Consumerization of IT and BYOD
    9. 9. Emergent Collectives• FLOSS (OpenERP and Magento)• Twitter• Cloud Computing• On-line repositories (Wiki‟s)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 9Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    10. 10. Trinidadian Steel drums (pans)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 10Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    11. 11. Bricolage - French anthropologist Lévi-Strauss, „La pensée sauvage‟ (1962)“doing things with whatever is at hand”Bricolage relates with (Duymedjian & Rüling, 2010) organizational resilience improvisation sensemaking entrepreneurship utilization of technical systems and artefactsthe bricoleur versus the engineerAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 11Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    12. 12. Bricoleur EngineerEverything matters A priori hierarchical orderComplex, interconnected system Reduction/decompositionClosed universe Openness, transcending boundariesCyclical time Linear timeIntimate knowledge, familiarity Distant knowledge, representationKnowledge about relationships implying a low Knowledge about structural characteristic entitiesfunctional fixedness biasVersatility implying resilience SpecializationCollection through unplanned encounters Search for the adequate, project-oriented meansUnclear outcomes Projects and designsDialogue with elements in stock (resources) Respect of prior specificationsAssemblage, substitution, …‟it‟s working‟ Evaluation through expected level of performance and qualityCreation and use cannot be dissociated Separation of creation and useOutcomes look unlike anything else Outcomes respond to field norms AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    13. 13. Literature on Bricolage- Seminal work in anthropology (Strauss-Levi 1962)- Entrepreneurship (Baker et al. 2003; Garud et al. 2003; Phillips et al. 2007)- Innovation research (Banerjee et al. 2009; Essen 2009; Fuglsang et al. 2011)- Organization theory (Duymedjian et al. 2010; Weick 1998)- Information Technology (Ciborra 2002; DesAutels 2011; Ferneley et al. 2006; Johri 2011)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 13Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    14. 14. Research QuestionHow can the use of Bricolage facilitatethe adoption of Emergent Collectives inan Entrepreneurial Setting?AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 14Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    15. 15. Research Methodology- Action Research (Design Science)- Case Endoxa (drop shipping)- Interpretive epistemology (Walsham, 2004)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 15Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    16. 16. Interpretive epistemology - Our knowledge of reality is a social construction by human actors - Growing body of research stream in IS research - Fundamental basis of an interpretive study is fieldwork - Involved (participant, action) researcher versus outside researcher - Neutral observer (not necessarily unbiased) - No consultancy - Data collection: interviews and participant notes and reportsAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 16Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    17. 17. Interpretive epistemology - Role of theory - Choice of theory = subjective ! - Use of theory as a final product of the research or as a guide for design and data collection - Contribution and how to generalize from interpretive studies? (Klein & Myers, 1999) - Ways of reflecting on the existing literature and identifying gaps - Framing material for particular audiencesAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 17Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    18. 18. Action Research (Design Science)(Baskerville 1999, Baskerville et al 2004)- Two cycles of five phases (baseline, implementation) (Street et al. 2004)- Axial coding (Corbin et al 2008)- Pattern mapping (Yin, 2004)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 18Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    19. 19. AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    20. 20. Client-System InfrastructureCase Endoxa E-business / Drop shipping / E-Supply chainMinimal organization (Weick, 1993) 1) direct supervision, 2) strategy planned at the top, 3) little formalized behavior, 4) organic structure and 5) CEO tending to formulate plans intuitively (plans are an direct extensions of his own personality)Research team (PWO-project)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 20Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    21. 21. EndoxaAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 21Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    22. 22. Is Bricolage a theory?• Levi-Strauss 1962 Bricolage is an analogy to shed light on the processes underlying mythical thinking• Constructs of Bricolage (Duymedjian & Rüling 2010) Repertoire (stock) = material and immaterial resources that are collected independently of any particular project or utilization. Dialogue = the activity of assembling objects Outcome = refers both to the process and its results (circular dynamic)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 22Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    23. 23. Is Bricolage a theory?Seven oxymoron‟s as propositions (Ciborra, 2002)• Value bricolage strategically (VBS)• Design tinkering (DT)• Establish systematic serendipity (ESS)• Thrive on gradual breakthroughs (TGB)• Unskilled Learning (UL)• Strive for failure (SFF)• Achieve collaborative inimitability (ACI)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 23Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    24. 24. Diagnosing Action Planning Action Taking Evaluating Specifying LearningVBS Mission BRIDEE Negative Too complex statementDTESS Twitter Hashtags Hashtags PositiveTGB Web servicesPUL Wiki‟sSFFACI Open „model‟ Diagnosing Action Planning Action Taking Evaluating Specifying Learning VBS Mission Network statement Orchestrator DT ESS TGB E-commerce Magento Modules Front-end Apps ERP Back-end OpenERP PUL Lynda.com SFF ACI AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    25. 25. Findings• Bricolage repertoire does exist • OpenERP • Magento • Remark: no limits on repertoire• Dialogue (action research / design science)• Outcome: serving customers (making money)AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 25Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    26. 26. Findings• Value bricolage strategically (VBS) CEO sees drop shipping as an E-Supply Ecosystem mission statement of Endoxa - “Alignment clicks with bricks & mortar” - “Network Orchestrator of the complete cross e-supply chain”• Establish systematic serendipity (ESS) • IceCat • Magento • e-Air Waybill (e-AWB) • Keep on TweetingAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 26Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    27. 27. Findings• Thrive on gradual breakthroughs (TGB) Magento• Unskilled Learning (UL) Training modules with Lynda.com• Strive for failure (SFF)• Achieve collaborative inimitability (ACI) The process of bricolage leads to an inimitable outcome, although the model is open Drop shipping ecosystemAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 27Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    28. 28. Conclusions- RQ: Yes - OpenERP & Magento is bricolage - Twitter „faster than e-mail‟ - Cloud Computing: no real impact - Wiki‟s: repertoire is not limited- Bricolage as a theory is more developed- The „alternative‟ way of thinking of IS in organizations iso control thinking is gaining more validityAOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 28Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West
    29. 29. Questions?AOG FEB – Jan Devos - 06/03/2012 pag. 29Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen en Architectuur – Campus West

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