Making of a nation:AustraliaA changing world: 1750–1914
Today‘s lessonNew unit ―Making of a Nation‖ explore meaning.DefinitionsChanging in world populations (data and graphMovement of world population (map exploration)Australian changes in population (data andcomprehension task)Homework
DefinitionsImperialism• The policy of seeking to extend the power and the territories of aparticular, dominant nation to create an empire.• The territories of the dominant power are called colonies.Frontier violence (in Australian context)• Termed the ‘frontier wars’.• A 150 year series of conflicts fought between Aboriginal peoples andEuropean settlers.• Began several months after the First Fleet arrived in Sydney in January1788• Last clashes occurred as late as the 1930s.• Fighting broke out when the settlements expanded• Disrupted traditional Indigenous food-gathering activities.Pastoralists• Farmers or agriculturalists engaged in raising animals for food or otherresources such as woollen fibre.• In Australia, sheep (wool) and beef cattle were the mainstays of the
Indentured labour• a system of hiring labour for a period of time• often providing the worker food and staples• Payment is usually made at the end of the contract period.• Australian eg South Sea Islanders between 1863 and 1904.Working class• Social group of people employed for wages especially in manual orindustrial work.• Australian term is ‘blue collar’ workers (compared with office ‘white collar’or workers).Nationalism• feeling of belonging to a nation• Belief that territory (their own land) and a common culture are part of anation.• Gives rise to movements seeking national independence and a desire for ahomeland.Constitutional Convention• conference or formal meeting of delegates whose aim is to draft or revise aconstitution.• A constitution is a set of laws used to control how a government operates.
A changing world: 1750–1914From the middle of the 18th century to thebeginning of the 20th century the population ofthe world was moving.Certain regions of the world experienceddramatic technological and social changes whileother regions remained relatively the same.A snapshot of this period can be seen throughthe analysis of population statistics over theperiod.
Task 1: TableComplete your table by marking the statementseither:1. TRUE or2. FALSEThen provide evidence from the table to eithersupport or refute the statement.
Between 1750 and 1900 the world’s population slightly more thandoubled. TrueIt grew from791 000 000 (double= 1 592 000) to 1 650000* Over the period Asia’s percentage of world population continued togrow. FalseIt grows between1750-1850, butdeclines from 1850-1900Asia remained the most populous region of the world over the period.TrueTotal populationremained higher thanany other region.Europe saw the most significant percentage growth in populationthroughout the world over the period. FalseNo, North Americadid.The population of Oceania (which includes Australia) remainedconstant for 100 years and then dramatically increased over a span of50 years. TrueIt stayed on 2 000 000between 1750-1850then trebled by 1900.There was nowhere in the world where population did not grow. True All regions’populations increasedRegions of the world which show a decline in the percentage of worldpopulation over the period are Latin America and Northern America.FalseBoth increase:Latin America 2.0%-4.5%,North America 0.3%-5.0%
Question?What factors might account for the significant percentagegrowth in population in Europe and North America?Watch the following short video and learning object andsee if you can think of any reasons why.http://www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/tome05/index.phphttp://clewett.net.au/history/learningobject/interactiveMap/index.html
Task: History of movementof people 1754-1914Examine the following maps which show themovement of people in the world from 1754 –1914.Complete the tables for this task which arelocated in your workbook.
AnswersTime 1754 1800 1914Who is moving?(Slaves, settlers orconvicts?)Slaves, settlers Slaves, convicts, settlers SettlersWhere are theymoving from?Settlers from Europe,slaves from Africa(particularly WesternAfrica)Settlers and convictsfrom Europe, slavesfrom Africa (particularlyWestern Africa)Settlers from Europe,China, India and thePacificWhere are they goingto?New world (North &South America and theCaribbean)New world (North &South America and theCaribbean)Some to South AfricaAustraliaNew world (North &South America)Some to South Africaand East AfricaAustralia and ThePacific
AnswersTime 1754 1800 1914The dominantEuropean countrieswith imperialpossessions (top twoor three)Spain, England (Britain),France, PortugalSpain, England (Britain),NetherlandsEngland (Britain),France, RussiaContinents whereEuropean countriescontrol more than50% of land areaSouth America, maybeNorth America (butprobably not)South AmericaNorth America (USindependence warsoccurring)AustraliaAsia (with Russiandominance in the north)Africa, North America(US independent andnow an imperial power inits own right)What factors might account for why Europe was able to dominatethe world at this time?Industrial power and might (plus military advantages with navalpower and cannons etc.) — the Industrial Revolution gave themtechnological advantages.
The Australian experience:What was the nature of the movement of people to Australia from British‗settlement‘ in 1788 to federation in 1901? (Note the different ‗waves‘ ofmigration.) It began with convicts but soon free settlement dominated,particularly after the discovery of gold in 1851.What nations of the world have been the sources of Australia‘s migrationhistory? Britain and Ireland, Continental Europe, the USA, South PacificIslands and China.What national development saw the nature of migration to Australia change?Gold discoveryHow was this change evident? Through a massive increase in migration —with population soaring by over 600 000 in just ten or so years.What does this source imply about the impact of Australia‘s migration on thenation‘s development?The implication is that migration created the modern Australian nation — notethe line ‗Migration has been the main driver of this change‘.
The Australian experience(cont)Australia‘s immigrant population (those not born in Australia but who were inthe country in 1901) is dominantly European — what percentage of the totalpopulation are British or other European? 20%Is the Asian-born component of the population significant? Statistically no — at1.3% — but this small but visible Chinese population (combined withAustralia‘s geographic position) had quite a significant social and psychologicalimpact.Why might Aboriginal people not be counted in the cencus? Some mightargue that it was an embodiment of the terra nullius principle — the landwas empty of people. In fact, Australia’s Indigenous population wasdeemed to be part of the flora and fauna (i.e. wild animals and plants)until the 1967 referendum. In the lead up to federation, Queensland andWestern Australia were prevented from using their large Aboriginalpopulation to gain extra seats in the House of Representatives and extrafunding by not counting Aboriginal peoples in the Census.What does it suggest about the attitude of the Australian government and thenon-Indigenous public to Aboriginal peoples? That the attitude wasdismissive, contemptuous, racist or simply indifferent. It also shows thatpolitics is ultimately reduced to numbers and the mighty dollar.
Review today‘s lessonNew unit ―Making of a Nation‖ explore meaning.DefinitionsChanging in world populations (data and graphMovement of world population (map exploration)Australian changes in population (data andcomprehension task)Homework