A small group working together in a
common venture for a given period of
The members grow socially in the group
process and are able to accomplish
cognitive tasks apart from close teacher
A committee representative may be
chosen to report to the entire class.
A technique to elicit large numbers of
imaginative ideas or solutions to open-
Group members are encouraged to
expand their thinking beyond the routine
sort of suggestions.
Provides an open environment in which
group members can discuss their
opinions without fear of being “wrong”
or being ridicules for holding an
It can also serve to clarify a position or
bring new information before the group
to correct misconceptions.
Two positions on a controversial issue are
Each debate is given a certain amount
of time to state a position, to respond to
questions from others in the group, and
to pose questions.
It is used to present information on an
issue and, if possible, to arrive at group
Several students (3-8) may sit on a panel.
Each panel member may make an
opening statement, but there are no
debates among panel members.
- not as structured as a debate and not
as relaxed as the give-and-take
exchange of the panel.
- appropriate for airing topics that divide
into clear-cut categories or view points.
Participants are expected to represent a
particular position and try to convince
others, but the method of interaction is
more spontaneous and no one is timed
as in a debate.
-are techniques for stepping outside of
ones own role and feelings and placing
oneself in others situation.
- also serves as a technique for exploring
intergroup attitudes and values.
- is a technique in which group members
give their full attention to what one
individual wants to express.
The whole group sits in a circle. Two chairs
are placed in the center of the circle.
A member who wants to express a point of
view does so while sitting in one of the
chairs. Any other member who wants to
discuss the view takes the other chairs, and
the two converse while the others listen. To
get into the discussion, students must wait
for one chair to be vacated.
- is the examination of members work by
The group offers constructive comments
and suggestions about ways to improve
- is a quite, informal group, usually four or
five students, who sit around a table
conversing either among themselves
(similar to a buzz session) or with an
audience (similar to a forum).
- is a panel approach in which members
interact with an audience