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Techno-economics of biofertilizers for agriculture ad tree growing with Indian perspective

Techno-economics of biofertilizers for agriculture ad tree growing with Indian perspective

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  • Sir this presentation is highly descriptive & most informative useful to many students & learners of Biofertilizers.
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Supplement with- biofertilizr Supplement with- biofertilizr Presentation Transcript

  • BIOFERTILIZERS in India
  • BIOFERTILIZERS ARE MICROBIAL INOCULANTS SUPPORTED ON CARRIERS. Biofertilizers are costeffective, eco-friendlyand can be generatedat the farm itself. Theyincrease crop yieldupto 10-40% and fixnitrogen upto 40-50Kg.
  • BF: SOME IMPORTANT POINTS:-*Contain live or latent cells of microbes.*Ready to use formulations.*Efficient strains of microbes.*Applied to seed /seed material / seedling /soil /waste material /crop residue in order to increase their population.*Accelerate some biochemical processes.*Make more nutrient available to the crops. 3
  • What are biofertilizers ? (1)• Microbial inoculants (bacteria fungi and algae) that are carrier-based preparations containing beneficial microorganisms in a viable state.• Intended for seed or soil application.• Designed to improve soil fertility in N and P• Provide growth promoter substances. 4
  • What are biofertilizers? (2)• Artificially multiplied cultures of certain soil organisms that can improve soil fertility and crop productivity.• They fix atmospheric nitrogen, make insoluble phosphates soluble and decompose farm wastes releasing plant nutrients.• They are cost effective, eco-friendly and can be generated at the farm itself. 5
  • Biofertilizers contain 3.5% - 4% nitrogen, 2% -2.5% phosphorus and 1.5% potassium. Interms of N : P: K, it was found to be superior tofarmyard manure and other type of manure.They improve soil texture, pH, and otherproperties of soil. They produces plant growthpromoting substances IAA amino acids,vitamins etc. 6
  • Microbial inoculants• Rhizobia were discovered in 1895, followed by the Azotobacter and then the blue green algae and a host of other nitrogen fixing micro-organisms.• Azospirillum and Vesicular- Arbuscular Micorrhizae (VAM) are fairly recent discoveries.• The bacteria with phosphate solubilizing ability containing cells of Bacillus megatherium var. phosphaticum, were prepared firstly by USSR scientists. 7
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  • Active Microbes Crops/ trees/ plants Nature of interaction Associated with; mode (and other remarks) of application1 Rhizobium Legume; Soil & Symbiosis Seed2 Azotobacter Non- legume, crops Non-symbiotic arid zone plants; Soil treatment3 Azospirillum Cereals Symbiosis4 Cyanobacteria Rice; Soil With Azolla, anabaena5 Phosphate Soil application for solubilizing all crops bacteria6 VAM fungi 11
  • BIOFERTILIZERS: USE IN INDIA# First commercial production of legume Rhizobium symbiosis was done in 1956# Ninth Plan initiated National Project on Development and Use of Biofertilizers (NPDB).# To supplement chemical fertilizers that become expensive and deteriorate soil. 12
  • Factors affecting Performance of biofertilizers:• Host plant• Soil fertility• Cropping practices• Biological & environmental factors Survival and efficiency of BF are affected by the above factors 13
  • Rhizobium• Bacteria that grows in root nodules of legumes [soya bean, etc]• Rhizobium INOCULANTS: Use of Rhizobium culture in legumes is most promising. On average, its use can supply 15-20 kg N/ha to legumes: increase yield up to 20 per cent. 14
  • Rhizobium• Rhizobium bacteria in roots of legume plants fix atmospheric N2 in nodules formed on the roots of plants. A pure and efficient strain of Rhizobium multiplied in the lab on a suitable medium by using shake flask technology or fermentation technology and inoculated into seed or root. 15
  • Inoculum Application 16
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  • Non-legume INOCULANTS Azotobacter# These bacteria enhance the plant growth and finally yield. A highly efficient strain _ Azotobacter chrooccocum is grown in the lab either as shake culture or using fermenter. 19
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  • Azotobacter:• Free living micro-organisms, that grow in the rhizosphere and fix atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically• Makes it available to particularly cereals. Promotes seed germination, initial vigor of plants- by producing growth producing substances 21
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  • Azospirillum• Azospirillum, [ Azospirillum lipoferum, biological nitrogen fixing in grasses; enhance biomass-root system]• Associative endo - symbiotic on roots of grasses and similar types of plants. Also fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits host plants by supplying growth hormones and vitamins. 24
  • Azospirillum• Used for preparation of commercial inoculants on a large scale, for cereals and grasses as it produces growth promoters in addition to fixing N2.• It secretes vitamin-B complex, gibberellins, naphthalene, acetic acid and other substances that inhibit certain root pathogens and improves root growth and uptake of plant nutrients. Has good adaptability to temp, soil pH and wide host range. 25
  • In addition to N2 fixation, inoculation with Azospirillum results in thefollowing benefits1. Promotion of root hair development and branching;2. Increased uptake of N, P, K and microelements;3. Improved water status of plants and,4. Increased dry matter accumulation and grain yield.Azospirillum species are described as Gram negative, rod-shaped,1mm in diameter, very motile. Cells are about 1.0 um x 3.5 mm in sizesingle flagellum when grown in MPSS broth while lateral flagella whengrown on MPSS agar at 30 ºC. They also form wrinkled, dark pinkcolonies when grown on MPSS agar. 26
  • Cyanobacteria INOCULANTS::• Biological nitrogen fixing ; photosynthetic also; Some free living cyanobacteria like Nostoc, Tolypothirix etc and other symbiotic like - Anabaena-Azolle_ useful for rice 27
  • CyanobacteriaAn important group of micro-organisms,fix atmospheric nitrogen non-symbiotically mostly in rice fields in heterocysts cells_ specially known as sites of nitrogen fixation. 28
  • Azolla – Anabaena symbiosis• Azolla is a free floating, aquatic fern found on water surface having a cyanobacterial symbiont Anabaena azollae in their leaves.• It fixes atmospheric nitrogen in paddy field and excretes organic nitrogen in water during its growth.• Azolla contributes nitrogen, phosphorus (15- 20 Kg/ha/month), potassium (20-25 kg/ha/month) 29
  • Cyanobacteria: PreparationEfficient strains_ used for multiplication on a large scale in field. Production of inoculum in artificially controlled conditions is defined but more expensive. Open air soil culture_ most simple, less expensive_ easily adaptable by the farmers. 30
  • Cyanobacteria: Preparation– # Based on use of starter culture that is multi-strain inoculum of_ Aulosira, Tolypothrix, Scytonema, Nostoc and Anabaena.– # In rural areas, unskilled labour can undertake the multiplication of blue green algae as a paying industry. 31
  • Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) are agroup of microbes capable of solubilizinginorganic phosphorus from insoluble sources. Inalkaline and acidic soils, the availability to phosphorusis low. These microbes reverse this process. PSM whenused with rock phosphate save 50% of the croprequirement of phosphatic fertilizer. Inoculation ofseeds with PSM gives crop yield responses equivalentto 30 kg P2O5/ha of phosphatic fertilizers. 32
  • Phosphate SOLUBILIZING INOCULANTS• Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are bacteria: (Bacillus var. phosphaticum), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acrobacter acrogens, nitrobacter spp., Escherichia freundii, Serratia spp., Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus polymyxa that have phosphate solubilising ability. / or fungi (Aspergillus awamorii) - Secrete organic acids - dissolve bound phosphate in soil. 33
  • Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria / fungi:Phosphorus_ required for plant growth and water yield. It is also essential for nodulation by Rhizobium.– Phospho-micro organism are mostly bacteria and fungi. Mycorrhizae have high potential of phosphorus– accumulation in plants. 34
  • Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM) fungiare found to be associated with a majority ofagricultural crops. VAM have been associated withincreased plant growth and enhanced accumulation ofplant nutrients, mainly phosphorus, zinc, copper andsulphur through greater soil exploitation bymycorrhizal hyphae. Maximum root colonization andsporulation occurs in soils with low phosphorus. 35
  • VAM fungi [Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza]Intracellular, obligate, fungal endo- symbiont - glomus etc.- transfers phosphorus, zinc & sulfur from soil to root. 36
  • Mycorrhiza• Colonise 85% of land plants_ offers 50 % saving in chemical P fertilizer_ higher resistance to soil-and-root borne pathogens_ helps in wasteland reclamation by providing extended arm to plant root system. # A broad-spectrum mycorrhizal biofertilizer is available. 37
  • Mycorrhiza Produced by:# M/s Cadila PharamaceuticalLtd., Ahemdabad, and KCPSugar and Industries (Pvt.) Ltd.,Chennai [DBT-TERI, New Delhi’stechnology]. 38
  • Award for Producer of Mycorrhiza• KCP Sugar Industries received the All India Biotechnology Association Award for production and marketing of the mycorrhizal bio-fertilizer. 39
  • Estimated potential Demand for Biofertilisers by 2000-2001• Type of Biofertilizer • Demand (Tonnes)• Rhizobium • 34,999• Azotobacter • 145,953• Azospirillum • 74,342 • 251,738• Blue green Algae• Phosphate solublising • 255,340 microorganism 762,372• Total: 40
  • Biofertilizer Production Support: GOI- 1999-2000• National Biofertilizer Development Centre was established at Ghaziabad.• Six other regional BF development centres are located at Jabalpur, Hissar, Nagpur, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar and Imphal.• Under this scheme 74 BF-production units were established with central assistance having annual production capacity of 8475 tonnes. 41
  • Promoting Bio-fertilizers: Current Situation• A limited extent of success till date (2000).• There has been no accelerated growth in distribution with time.• Inadequate spatial diffusion.• Despite entry of small private units into the industry there is no clear indication of the success of privatization. 42
  • Progress of the bio-fertilizer Industry• Based on the data for 1995, 1997 and 1999, the industry witnessed a steady increase in the number of units producing the BF ;• the bulk of the growth took place by 1992-95 of the sample period and stagnated thereafter. 43
  • Changes in the share by type of BF• moderate success in AZT and by far the best performance by PSB• decline in RHZ indicated success in groundnut and pulses was below expectation. 44
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  • Main constraints in spread of BF as an Industry:1. Inadequate production and supplyof efficient cultures of micro-organisms to farmers well beforesowing.2. Quality control aspect3. Lack of publicity, communication. 47
  • Marketing: Host, soil & climate specific BF: Receive user feedback• To cover the vast areas of legumes, pulses and oil seeds cereals and horticultural crops- to train users to apply and to receive feedback info. from them.• More manufacturer-distributors needed_ to prepare the bio-fertilizers in particular locality and supply to farmers as per farmer’s need, while earning profit. 48
  • Marketing of BF: Logistics• # Prepared bio-fertilizers should reach farmers prior to sowing. # If given free of cost, that lowers down the importance of product and farmers don’t use them carefully. # If bio-fertilizers are supplied after expiry date_expected results are not obtained. 49
  • Steps in biofertilizer production Strain selection, Mass Culture, Carrier preparation and Inoculation Quality testing. Packaging Distribution 50
  • NATURE OF BF INDUSTRY:• Indigenous technology• Scientific aspects: Standardized by Agricultural Universities and Research Labs.• Machineries and laboratory equipments are of BIS standards. 51
  • Manufacturing equipments:• Laboratory equipments,• Autoclaves,• Fermenter assembly,• Boiler,• Broth dispensers,• Plant for sterlisation, deminralising• Air compressor 52
  • The size of a Biofertiliser unit:• Capacity of production of various types / strains of bio-fertilizers per annum.• The projects so far set up in our county vary from 75 TPA to 300 TPA.• Expandable by adding a few additional equipment like a fermenter and / or adding another shift. 53
  • Requirements of BF Projects1 Land2 Layout and buildings3 Plant and Machinery4 Manufacturing process and Source of technology5 Infrastructural Facilities for raw material, carrier materialand utilities (Power, Water, Compressed air, Vehicles)6 Manpower Unit Size7 Business Prospects And Marketing and Selling 54Arrangements
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  • Examples of biofertilizers available in Indian market Excel Industries Ltd., KolkataProduct Price Crops1. Celrich Rs 200 per 50 kg Orchards, field crops, Bicco Agro Products Pvt plantation crops Ltd., Kolkata2. Biofert Rs 5,000 per tonne All crops Bicco Agro Products Pvt Ltd., Kolkata3. Biccosulph Rs 190 per litre All crops Bicco Agro Products Pvt Ltd., Kolkata4. Tea tonic Rs 750 per kg Mainly for tea Bicco Agro Products Pvt Ltd., Kolkata5.-Chelated Rs 240 per kg All crops (Zn Biotech Intern Ltd., Newzinc deficiency) Delhi6. Bioboost Rs 225 per 8 kg All crops 56
  • Dr Bhabani Dikshit 57
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  • • To promote the production and use of bio- fertilizer, Government has initiated a project “National Project on Development and Use of Bio fertilizers”. Main objectives of this project are as following:• Production and distribution of Bio fertilizers (BFs)• Developing Standards for different BFs and Quality control• Releasing of grants for setting up BF units 61• Training and Publicity
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  • New Units sanctioned during 9th Plan 64
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  • Location of National /Regional Biofertilizer Productionand Development Centres (After DGTD, 1989) 66
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  • Extension work needed for popularizing BF• Visits to areas of Puri district comprising of Pipli, Khurda and Nayagarh belt, showed that a large number of farmer of Chandanpur area applied biofertilizer in their betel vine crops by using Azatobacter and PSB (Phosphates soluble bacteria) and yielded good results. A senior Government agronomist of the Fertilizer Promotion and Agricultural Research Division (FP & ARD) based in Puri, Simanchala Panigrahi, said that as biofertilizer was a new concept to the farmers of Orissa, it needed further extension work for popularizing its use. 69
  • The Integrated Plant Nutrition System is a keycomponent of agricultural production in order to meetgrowing demand of food and fiber by the size of farm thatis decreasing.System property is chalked out and tailored to the needsof the farmers; it will empower small-scale farmers toincrease their technical know-how and have decision-making capacities to make adequate changes in plantnutrition systems.This will support agricultural intensification. The use oforganic fertilizer and bio-fertilizer has increased cropproductivity. Therefore the farm practices are to bechanged in this direction. 70
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  • In 2009-10, Tamil Nadu produced 3733 tonnes ofbio-fertilizers followed by Karnataka at 3696 tonnes.The other major producers of bio-fertilizers areKerala (1937 tonnes), Maharashtra (1861 tonnes)and Madhya Pradesh (1588 tonnes).Studies on benefits and usefulness of bio-fertilizerson agriculture production reveal that on an average10-20% increase in production can be realized byuse of bio-fertilizers. In terms of nutrients, bio-fertilizers can provide 10-20 kg Nitrogen and cansolubilize 10-12 kg of P2 O5 per hectare percropping season. Use of bio-fertilizers also improvessoil health by helping other beneficial micro-organisms to grow. 72
  • Use of bio-fertilizers is being promoted throughIntegrated Nutrient Management, enhancingawareness and field demonstration.Financial Support for establishment of bio-fertilizerproduction units is also provided under the NationalProject on Organic Farming as back-ended subsidyof 25%, restricted to Rs. 40 lakh, through NABARD.Bio-fertilizers are products containing living micro-organisms which are agriculturally useful. Mostcommonly produced and marketed bio-fertilizers areRhizobium, Azotobacter and Azospirillum and onesuch bio-fertilizer is phosphate solubilizer, calledPhosphate Solubilising Bacteria (PSB). 73
  • BOOKS ABOUTBIOFERTILIZERS CONTINUED
  • Indian Books on Biofertilizers-1• Biofertilizer - Technology, Marketing and usage, a source book-cum- Glossary by Dr. M R Motsara et al (1995) - Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization publishers, New Delhi 110048 (India) 75
  • Indian Books on Biofertilizers-2• Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Forestry by N S Subba Rao, Third Ed. 1993 Oxford & IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd 66, Janpath, New Delhi-110 001.• Biotechnology of Biofertilizers Edited by S. Kannaiyan, 2002 Narosa Publishing House, N. Delhi. 76
  • Indian Books on Biofertilizers -3• Recent Advances in Biofertilizer Technology/ Edited by A.K. Yadav, S. Ray Chaudhuri and M.R. Motsara, 2001, Society for Promotion and Utilisation of Resources and Technology, New Delhi. [Vedam Books]• Phosphatic Biofertilizers / Laxmi Lal. Udaipur, Agrotech Pub., 2002. 77
  • Handbook of Biofertilizers• Handbook of microbial biofertilizers, M. K. Rai, Routledge, 2006 - 579 pages,• Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial biofertilizers--including emerging options such as "Piriformospora indica" and "Matsutake" The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacterias well as new and emerging growth promoters (endophytes). 78
  • It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion,bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocolsand practical strategies for using microbes in sustainableagriculture.An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figuresmake complex information easy to access andunderstand.In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11countries and several continents address importantissues surrounding microbial biofertilizers, 79
  • … including: the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal"tripartite relationship, mycorrhiza as a disease suppresserand stress reducer mycorrhiza helping bacteria theimpact of functional groups of soil microorganisms onnutrient turnover PBPRs as biofertilizers andbiopesticides the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for useas a biofertilizers, the expanding role of blue-green algaein sustainable agriculture, the role of microbial fertilizersin sustainable plant production new and emergingendophytes the commercial potential of biofertilizers 80
  • In this young century, the use of biofertilizers is alreadygrowing rapidly. It has been recognized that theseenvironment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, andremediators are essential for soil / plant health. TheHandbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit theexpanding information needs of current and futurebiotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists,environmentalists, and others whose work involvessustained agriculture. Handbook of Biofertilizers 81