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Rural biodiesel
 

Rural biodiesel

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To supplement engine fuel has the time for rural biofuels come?

To supplement engine fuel has the time for rural biofuels come?

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    Rural biodiesel Rural biodiesel Document Transcript

    • ROLE OF BIOFUELS IN RURAL ELECTRIFICATION Dr. H.J. Prabhu, Dept. of Chemical Eng., N.I.T., Trichy. One of the renewable energy technology options for electrification of rural area is biodiesel based distributed power generation. Along with Small hydro, Solar PV, Community Biomethanation plant and Biomass gasifier, it is an option that is being developed and evaluated. As diesel engine generator set is already a large base for backup power, supplementing the grid supply, substituting with biodiesel as fuel and engine fine tuning can give this renewable alternative an advantage among these options. Distributed generation in rural areas based on both nonrenewable and renewable energy sources and comparison of present options have been studied recently by TERI and Energy Systems Engineering Group of I. I. T., Bombay (Mumbai).1-2 The first paper discusses the experience in renewable energy rural projects and the second paper reviews the different technological options available for DG, their current status, evaluation based on cost of generation and future potential in India. Biodiesel based distributed power generation is useful in providing power for rural domestic and irrigation needs. It will substitute diesel and create local employment in villages. Tree growing, oil extraction and biodiesel production: The feasibility of using tree borne nonedible oil crops as a renewable source of liquid fuel is being established under a National 1
    • Biodiesel Mission in 2004-07. Scope of biofuel plantations as a rural livelihood option has been studied and Case Studies for Biodiesel, Producer gas from Gasifier and Biogas from Biomethanation Plant as engine fuels to run generators have been made,.3-5 to examine possibilities of sustainable power for rural areas where these biofuels can be produced. Oil from the seeds is collected by use of expellers and through the chemical process of transesterification, these nonedible oils (e.g., Pongamia, Jatropha) are converted to biodiesel. These technologies can be made accessible to the villages. No major engine modifications are needed for diesel engine though modification of injector system may be developed to enable use of duel fuel / multifuel of gaseous or liquid state. The cost of micro-grid electricity production from renewable biofuels for a typical rural scale can be made competitive when all the steps are stabilized with actual operational experience. Rural electrical power needs for domestic, village industry and irrigation purposes constitutes the demand side. For local production of biodiesel, opportunity cost of required land, silvicultural expenses, and processing costs should be met within the price that can be charged for the biodiesel. Electricity Generation: With the new Electricity Act (2003) eliminating the earlier licensing requirements on generation and distribution, decentralized schemes 2
    • have far more scope. Assessment of local demand and the cost per unit of generation for this scale are to be carefully made. Consider a group of villages that have shortage of power supply but have some basic infrastructure of the existing state EB grid. The village consumers, local NGO, the Electricity Regulatory Commission and experienced IPP company managers may come together to plan a strategy for rural electrification. An Electric Utility Company for small scale production and distribution of power may be planned and promoted 6. Power to meet the demand (e.g., 500kW) is to be generated by ‘Gensets’ that may use economical fuel using the engine tuned to it. The fuel could be biodiesel, biogas, producer gas, or even petrol, kerosene and diesel. Besides the utilization of Solar PV, Wind energy may also be made if suitable. The idea is to produce reasonably priced electricity from any fuel but preferably from renewable energy sources. The State Electricity Distribution Company that owns the infrastructure of electric lines, poles, transformers and so on may be a partner in the scheme. Policy Issues: To foster corporate, NGO and government cooperation and partnership, many issues have to be addressed: a) Efforts should be made to meet the capital costs of the plant through subsidy, loan on soft terms etc, that are granted by the Government of India under its Rural development through electrification Schemes. For villages that are not electrified, Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidutikaran Yojana (RGGGVY) provides 3
    • 90% subsidy. Similar subsidies may be provided to villages that get less than eight hours of electricity but have potential for development if the power shortage is overcome and this capital subsidy can really help the government’s effort in rural development b) Depending upon the fuel used, the cost of power to the Company may vary. For fixing tariffs, utility company may approach Electricity Regulatory Commission for a suitable structure, after discussion with the stakeholders. If the company use only renewable energy for power generation, then they are eligible for further soft credit for leasing infrastructure c) A study has indicated that significant land requirement would be needed for biodiesel provision in a Indian village if biodiesel alone has to meet the electricity demand 7. For local production of biodiesel, in the initial stages, provision of low cost waste land, NOVOD Board subsidy and advice for tree selection, silviculture practices, would help. Infrastructure creation for expelling oil and establishment of chemical process plant and help with know-how and training are also needed.. References: 1. ‘Enhancing electricity access in rural areas through distributed generation based on renewable energy’, TERI-Policy Discussion Forum (PDF) Base Paper, based on that authored by Akanksha Chaurey, Malini Ranganathan and Parimitha 4
    • Mohanty, submitted to and under review with Energy Policy (2002) 2. ‘Comparison of Options for Distributed electricity Generation in India’, Rangan Banergi, Energy Policy,34,(2006),101-111 3. ‘Scope for biofuel plantation as a livelihood option, Case study from Jharkand and Orissa, Resources, Energy and Development, 2 (1), 65-82. 4. ‘Sustainable biomass power for rural India: Case study of biomass gasifier for village electrification’, N. H. Ravindranath, H. l. Somashekar, S. Dasappa and C.N. Jayasheela Reddy,Current Science,87,(2004), 932-941 5. ‘Decentralized electricity generation and management- Experience of BAIF’, G.N.S. Reddy, G.V. Hegde, and C. Doreswamy, BAIF, Pune. 6. Anil. K .Rajavanshi, Director, Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute, Phaltan, Maharashtra,[9, January 2006], anilrajvanshi@gmail.com 7. ‘Feasibility of biodiesel for rural electrification in India’, [DRAFT, June 2000], Jeffrey L. Rosenblum, Carnegy Mellon University, (now at Tellus Institute, jrosenblum@tellus.org ) 5