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PG M Tech BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PG M Tech BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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Proposed d ch-e_ pg-BIOCHEMICAL ENGG Proposed d ch-e_ pg-BIOCHEMICAL ENGG Document Transcript

  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, 620 015 PROPOSAL FOR CONDUCTING NEW M.TECH. DEGREEP COURSE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2004 - 2005 (JANUARY, 2004) SUBMITTED TOMINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA NEW DELHI- 110 001
  • 3.8 ACTIVITY : INTRODUCTION OF NEW COURSES UNDER TEQIP-2003 PROPOSAL FOR STARTING A NEW P.G. COURSE IN EMERGING AREA OF BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGGINEERING, N.I.T.TProposed By: Dept. of Chemical EngineeringJustification for the coursea) Biochemical engineering is the process engineering component of biotechnology and is an emerging area of importance .It contributes significantly to many economic activities of our country such as agricultural productivity, production of biologicals, antibiotics, bioenergy and environmental protection through biological waste water treatment and bioremediation of contaminated solids or land. Training of engineers in this interdisciplinary area would benefit many fields of human endeavor. There is a good demand for highly qualified and trained engineers in this field. Additional Level ProposedName of the Year of Technical Justification U.G. / annual program starting staff P.G. intake requiredM. Tech Emerging Prof:1 ,A.P:(Chemical Area of 2 P.G. 25 2004Engineering) biotechnology Lect.:4 Technical 4 Table ggg Name of the Total Details Name of theS.No Department / central requirements laboratory faculty (Rs. Lakhs) Annexure no Page No 1 Bioscience Chemical 2 Bioprocess 1 Engineering 3 CRE Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 2
  • ANNEXURE -1 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - M. Tech- Biochemical Eng. Equipments Required in the Bioscience and Bio Process Laboratories Name of the Present quantity Name of the Unit Price QuantityS.No equipment with brief available in the Laboratory (Rs.in Lakhs) required specification Institution 1 Bio science Spectro colorimeter 0.50 1 N/A Bioprocess Electronic digital 3.75 5 N/A 2 balance 3 Air oven 0.50 2 N/A 4 Muffle furnace 0.50 2 N/A 5 Soxhlet‟s appartus 0.15 N/A 6 Turbidometer 0.15 1 N/A 7 Flame photometer 1.0 1 N/A Constant temperature 0.25 2 2 8 bath 9 Ultra centrifuge 5.00 N/A 11 COD apparatus 0.10 1 N/A 12 BOD incubator 0.50 1 N/A 13 Ultrasonicator 0.10 1 N/A Microfiltration 4.00 1 N/A 14 Membrane device 15 Densitometer 2.00 1 N/A 16 Vortex mixer 0.20 1 N/A 17 Vacuum oven 0.30 1 N/A 18 Air curtains 0.10 10 N/A 19 Blender 0.20 1 N/A 20 Homogenizer 3.00 1 1 21 Colony counter 0.10 1 N/A 22 De humidifier 0.20 2 N/A 23 Polarimeter 0.5 2 1 Water and soil 0.5 1 N/A 24 analyser 25 Vacuum pumps 0.15 3 1 26 Glasswares 1.00 27 Chemicals 2.00 28 Deep Freezer 1.00 1 Total 27.75 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 3
  • List of equipments coating above Rs. 5 lakhs Present Utilization Name of the Unit quantity in Name of the equipment with price QuantityS.No available hours/week Department brief (Rs. required in the of present specification lakhs) institution equipment 1 Chemical UV- visible 20.00 1 N/A Engg. spectrophotometer with CRT screen 2 Inoculation 10.00 1 N/A chamber 3 Autoclave 5.00 N/A 4 Ion 15.00 1 N/A chromatography 5 Differential 25.00 1 N/A Scanning Calorimeter (Fourier Analysis) 6 Digital 5 1 N/A Polarimeter 7 Four- plate Hot 6.5 3 N/A plate / Strirrer 8 Fat Determination 8 1 N/A System (Non gravimetric) 9 Modular 7.5 1 N/A Rheometer 10 Near IR Liquid 6 1 N/A Fuel Analyser 11 Thin layer 10.00 1 N/A chromatography 12 pH meter 10.0 2 N/A Total 128. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 4
  • 3.5 Modernization and Strengthening of Departmental Laboratories andWorkshops. Project Oriented Laboratory for Bio-catalytic Reaction Engineering and Environmental Water Pollution Control: Enhancing facilities for projects on Immobilized Bio-catalytic Systems and Enzyme Engineering Studies Studies on industrial wastewater treatment methods including biological wastewater treatment. Design and Modeling and simulation of Bioreactors.The modernization of Bio – catalytic Reaction Engineering Laboratory is required fortraining the U.G. and P.G. students to advanced and industry oriented problems asproject works and will also enhance the R & D activity leading to Doctoralprogrammes and increase research work in this area among the faculty Present Utilization Name of the Unit quantity in Name of the equipment price QuantityS.No available hours/week Department with brief (Rs. required in the of present specification lakhs) institution equipment 1 Chemical Supercritical 20.00 1 1 N/A Engg. fluid extraction & chromatography systems 2 Lab. Scale 25.00 1 1 N/A Fluidized bed reactor with internal circulation loop 3 Inoculation 10.00 1 N/A chamber 4 Autoclave 5.00 1 N/A 5 Ion 25.00 1 1 N/A chromatography 6 Total Sulphur 6.00 1 1 N/A Analyser 7 Metering 7.00 5 1 N/A pumps Total 98.00 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 5
  • Category of Items : Text and Reference Books for Bio Chemical Engineering No of Name of the Author Unit Cost Title copies (Publishers) Rs. requiredRobert H.Perry and Perry‟s Chemical Engineer, PlatinumDon. W.Green, 2600 1 Edition, The Reference CollectionMcgraw-HillJohan Stichlmair et al, Bio Technology : Principles andJohn Wiley & sons, 6296.5 1 Practice1998W.R.Vieth,Wiley- Membrane Systems: Analysis &Interscience reissue Design: Applications in 5750.0 1edition,1993 biotechnologyA.S. Grandison & M.J. Separation Process in the food and 7000 1 Lewis Biotechnology IndustriesT.K.Ghose (Ed.) Process Computations in(1994) Tata McGraw 450 1 BiotechnologyHill Publ.Co Handbook of Chemical and Joseph P. Reynolds Environmental Engineering 750 1(Author), et al Calculations David T. Allen Green Engineering: Environmentally(Author), David R. Conscious Design of Chemical 2000 1Shonnard Processes Scale-Up and Optimization in Preparative Chromatography:Anurag S. Rathore Principles and Biopharmaceutical 2500 1(Editor), et al (2003) Applications (Chromatographic Science, Vol 88)Stuttgart Biochemical engineering 7200 1T. K. Ghose (Editor), Biotechnology in India (Advances inP. Ghosh (Editor) Biochemical Engineering/ 2460 2 Biotechnology), vol 84 and 85 New Trends and Development in 1300T. H. Scheper 1 Biochemical Engineering Relation Between Morphology andK. Schugerl (Editor) Process Performances (Advances in 7250 1 Biochemical Engineering /Biotechnology), Vol 60 . Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 6
  • Category of Items : Text and Reference Books No of Name of the Author Unit Cost Title copies (Publishers) Rs. required Metabolic Engineering (Advances in Jens Nielsen, et al Biochemical Engineering/ 5000 1 Biotechnology, 73) History and Trends in Bioprocessing and Biotransformation (Advances inT. Scheper (Editor), et 5000 1 Biochemical Engineering /al Biotechnology, 75 Tools and Applications of K. Schugerl (Editor), Biochemical Engineering Science A. -P. Zeng (Editor) (Advances in Biochemical 4680 1 Engineering/Biotechnology, 74) Biopolyesters. With contributions by numerous experts (Advances inWolfgang Babel , Biochemical Engineering 8000 1Alexander Steinbüchel Biotechnology Vol. 71 Biotransformations (Advances inK. Faber (Editor), T. Biochemical E ngg /Biotechnology , 5400 1Scheper (Editor) Vol 63 New Products and New Areas ofT. Scheper (Editor) Bioprocess Engineering (Advances 4264 1 in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, 68Harvey W. Blanch, Biochemical Engineering 2502 1Douglas S. ClarkA. Constantinides, Biochemical Engineering II 2750 1W.R. Vieth (Editor) Modern Biochemical EngineeringA. Fiechter (Editor), T. (Advances in Biochemical 5000 1Scheper Engineering/Biotechnology, Vol 46) Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 7
  • Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 8
  • Category of Items : Text and Reference Books 1 No ofName of the Author Unit Cost Title copies (Publishers) Rs. required Fermentation and Biochemical H. C. Vogel (Editor) Engineering Handbook: Principles, 3150 1 Process Design, and Equipment Henry R. Bungay (Editor), Georges Advanced Biochemical Engineering 1900 1 Belfort (Editor) Total . Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 9
  • M. Tech. DEGREE (BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING) SYLLABUS FOR CREDIT BASED CURRICULUM (24 months duration) 2004 - 2005 Department of Chemical EngineeringNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI - 620 015. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 10
  • M. Tech. (Bio-chemical Engineering) COURSE CURRICULUM Code & Name of the subject Hours per week Credits Evaluation (Marks)Semester - 1 L T P C.A. S.E. Lab. TotalMBC 101Microbiology 3 3 50 50 100MBC 102 Biochemistry 3 3 50 50 100MBC 103 Biochemical Eng. 3 3 50 50 100MBC 104 Bio reaction Eng. 3 3 50 50 100Elective - I 3 3 50 50 100MBC 108 Bioscience Lab 9 3 50 50 100 100 Total Credits in Semester 1 = 18 Name of the subject Hours per week Credits Evaluation (marks)Semester - 2 L T P C.A. S.E. Lab. TotalMBC 201 Bioprocess Equip- 3 3 50 50 100DesignMBC 202 Bioprocess - 3 3 50 50 100Instrumen- ControlMBC 203 Bioprocess Model - 3 3 50 50 100simulationElective - II 3 3 50 50 100Elective - III 3 3 50 50 100MBC 208 Bioprocess 9 3 50 50 100 100Laboratory Total Credits in Semester 2 = 18Semesters- 3 Hours per week Credits Evaluation (marks)Name of the subject L T P C.A. S.E. Lab. TotalElective IV 3 3 50 50 100Elective V 3 3 50 50 100Elective VI 3 3 50 50 100Project Work 6 50 50 100 Total Credits in Semester 3 = 15Semesters -4Project Work 12 50 50 100 Total Credits in Semester 4 = 12 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 11
  • Total Credits in the Course = 63 CODE NO: M. Tech: Biochemical Engineering Page Number TITLES OF CORE SUBJECTSMBC 101 Microbiology 4MBC 102 Applied biochemistry 5MBC 103 Bioprocess Engineering 6MBC 104 Bio reaction Engineering 7MBC108 Bioscience Laboratory 8-9MBC 201 Bioprocess equipment Design 10MBC 202 Bioprocess Instrumentation and Control 11MBC 203 Bioprocess Modeling and Simulation 12MBC 208 Bioprocess Laboratory 13CODE NO: TITLES OF ELECTIVE SUBJECTS MBC E 01 Separation & Analytical Techniques 14 MBC E 02 Recombinant DNA Technology 15 MBC E 03 Food Processing Technology 16 MBC E 04 Enzyme Engineering 17 MBC E 05 Plant Cell Culture 18 MBC E 06 Environmental Biotechnology 19 MBC E 07 Pharmaceutical Technology 20 MBC E 08 Applied Bio-informatics 21 MBC E 09 Animal Cell Technology 22 MBC E 10 Bioenergy 23 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 12
  • MBC 101 INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY1. WORLD OF MICROORGANISMS Characteristics of microorganisms. Historical review of the Foundation of Microbiology. Taxonomy methods of studying microorganisms. Microscopy, Light and Laser optic systems. General structural organisation of bacterial, viral, bacilli, Actinomycetes, Differentiation and development.2. REPLICATION OF MICROORGANISMS & MICROBIAL NUTRITION Multiplication of bacteriophages, bacteria and differentiating organisms such as yeast, fungi and actinomycetes. Growth of microorganisms in different media. Growth curve of microbes and different methods of enumeration of multiplying microorganisms.3. MICROBIAL METABOLISM Metabolic pathways and bioenergetics. Aerobic and Anaerobic growth. Production of primary and secondary metabolites and their application in Industry. Beneficial Microorganisms and products .4. PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CONTROL OF MICROORGANISMS Chemotherapy -Antimicrobial agents and disinfectants - Diseases caused by microorganisms and control.5. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF MICROBIOLOGY Ecology - Re-cycling of Biomaterials. Production of Biogas - Leaching of ores by microorganisms - Application of Biofertilizers and Bio pesticides - Pollution control through use of consortium of microorganisms.TEXT BOOKS :1. Pelczar M.J., Chan E.C.S., Krieg, N.R. “Microbiology”, 5 th Edition, 1986,Tata McGraw-Hill Book Co., New Delhi.2. Schlegel H .G., General Microbiology, 7th Edition, 1994. C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U.K.3. Introductory Microbiology, J. Heritage, E. G. V. Evans and R. A. Killington, 1996, C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U.K.4. Microbiology: A text book for University Students by P.D. Sharma, Rastogi Publications ”Gangotri”, Shivaji Road, Meerut 250 002 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 13
  • MBC 102 APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMOLECULES Structure and properties of Mono, Di, oligo and polysaccharides; Complex carbohydrates; Structure and properties of Fatty acids; Structure and properties of amino acids, peptides, proteins and conjugated proteins:2. NUCLEIC ACIDS Structure and properties of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides; Ribonucleic acids, and deoxyribonucleic acids.3. METABOLISM Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids and cholesterol; amino acids and proteins; Purines, pyrimidines and nucleic acids.4. INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM TCA cycle, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, Pentose phosphate shunt; EMP, Urea cycle, Interconnection of pathways; Metabolic regulation; Bioenergetics; Respiratory chain, ATP cycle, energy rich compounds.5. STRUCTURE FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP Complex carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acidsText Books :1. A. L. Lehninger, D.L.Nelson and M .M. Cox; “Principles of Biochemistry” CBS Publications, 1993.2. L. Stryer; “Biochemistry” W. H. Freeman (IV Ed.) 1995.3. E .E. Conn and P.K. Stumpf and others. Outlines of Biochemistry, (V Ed.), 1987, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore.4. Sawhney. S. K. and Randhir Singh (Editors), Introductory Practical Biochemistry, Narosa publishing House, New. Delhi. 2000, ”Gangotri”, Shivaji Road, Meerut 250 002 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 14
  • MBC 103 BIOPROCESS ENGINEERIN1. INTRODUCTION: FERMENTATION PROCESSES General requirements of fermentation processes - An overview of aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes and their application in industry - Medium requirements for fermentation processes - examples of simple and complex media - Design and usage of commercial media for industrial fermentation - Sterilization :Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms - Batch and Continuous Heat-Sterilization of liquid Media - Filter Sterilization of Liquid Media and Air. 8Hours2. ENZYME TECHNOLOGY, MICROBIAL METABOLISM: Enzymes: Classification and properties-Applied enzyme catalysis - Kinetics of enzyme catalytic reactions - Metabolic pathways - Protein synthesis in cells. 8 Hours3. STOICHIOMETRY AND KINETICS OF SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION AND BIOMASS AND PRODUCT FORMATION: Stoichiometry of microbial growth, Substrate utilization and product formation-Batch and Continuous culture, Fed batch culture 8 Hours4. BIOREACTOR AND PRODUCT RECOVERY OPERATIONS: Operating considerations for bioreactors for suspension and immobilised cultures, Selection, scale-up, operation of bioreactors-Mass Transfer in heterogeneous biochemical reaction systems; Oxygen transfer in submerged fermentation processes; oxygen uptake rates and determination of oxygen transfer rates and coefficients; role of aeration and agitation in oxygen transfer. Heat transfer processes in Biological systems. Recovery and purification of products. 8 Hours5. INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENATION AND PROCESS CONTROL IN BIOPROCESSES: Measurement of physical and chemical parameters in bioreactors- Monitoring and control of dissolved oxygen, pH, impeller speed and temperature in a stirred tank fermentor. 8 HoursTEXT BOOKS.1. M.L. Shuler and F. Kargi," Bio-process Engineering", Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey. 1992.2 J.E. Bailey and D.F. Ollis," Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals", 2nd Edn., McGraw Hill,Publishing Co. New York., 1985.REFERENCES:1. P.Stanbury, A. Whitakar and S. J. Hall "Principles of Fermentation Technology" 2 nd Edn., Elsevier-Pergamon Press, 1995. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 15
  • MBC 104 BIOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING 1. STOICHIOMETRIC OF A BIOPROCESS: Elemental analysis and empirical formula for cells- Substrate consumption for biomass formation, energy and product formation- Yield coefficients for biomass and product formation- Uses of material and energy balances. 2. IDEALIZED REACTOR TYPES: Basic types of bioreactors - Reactor circuits - Dispersion models- Reactor Combinations - Partial Cell recycle 3. KINETICS OF CELL GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATION IN IDEALIZED BIOREACTORS: Qualitative description of growth and product formation. Growth models. Product formation. Growth in idealized bioreactors. Non-limited and substrate limited growth. Oxygen limited growth Model extension by death and maintenance term. Air lift reactor. 4. KINETICS OF IMMOBILIZED IOCATALYSTS AND REACTOR CONFIGURATIONS: Effect of external diffusion limitation in attached film particle- Effect of Internal diffusion limitation in gels and Pores - Configurations for Immobilized Enzyme Reactors: Batch stirred – continuous stirred tank-plug flow- packed beads- liquid-solid and three phase expanded / fluidised bed reactors-membrane bioreactor 5. BIOREACTOR DESIGN & PRODUCT YIELD: Strategies for Scale up for CSTR, Batch reactor, Plug flow reactor, Packed bed reactor and fluidised bed reactor, Strategies for sterilizationText books: 1. Karl Schugerl, “Bioreaction Engineering” Volume I, (1985), John Wiley, New York. 2. Biochemical Reaction Engineering, R. Lovitt and M. Jones, Chapter 5 in Chemical Engineering Vol 3, (third Edition), Richardson and Peacock, 1994, Asian Books (pvt) Ltd, N. Delhi. 3. Scragg, “Bioreactors in Biotechnology - A Practical Approach” (1991), Ellis Horwood Ltd., U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 16
  • MBC 108 BIOSCIENCE LABORATORY PART A1. Centrifugation: Differential and gradient centrifugation. Isolation of sub- cellular organelles and particles2. Chromatography: Use of paper chromatography in separation of amino acids. Gel filtration chromatography, Gas-liquid chromatography3. Adsorption & Ion-exchange: Separation of amino acids by ion exchange chromatography, Separation of leaf pigments by adsorption chromatography4. Electrophoresis in Agarose and SDS gels:5. Membrane separation of Proteins6. Estimation of Carbohydrates7. Estimation of VitaminsReference books:1. Plummer. D. T., “An introduction to Practical Biochemistry” 3rd Edn, (1987), Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, N. Delhi.2. Jayaraman.J, Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry, (1992), New Age International (P), Ltd., New Delhi.3. Sawhney. S. K. and Randhir Singh (Editors), Introductory Practical Biochemistry, Narosa publishing House, New. Delhi. 2000, ”Gangotri”, Shivaji Road, Meerut 250 002 Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 17
  • MBC 108 BIOSCIENCE LABORATORY PART B 1. Maintenance and Identification of microorganisms 2. Biochemical Characterisation. 3. Methods of quantification of microorganisms from soil, air and water. 4. Fermentation: Growth curve in Shake flask and Bioreactors,Reference Books :1.Collins and Lyne, “Microbiological Methods” 5th Edn. (1986), Butterworths, Singapore2.Laboratory Manual in Microbiology. P. Gunasekaran (1995), New Age International (P) Ltd., N. Delhi.3. Microbiology:A textbook for University Students, P. D. Sharma, Rastogi Publications, Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 18
  • MBC 201 BIOPROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN Faculty Member: Dr. P. Sivashanmugam OBJECTIVE: The course will equip the students to design bioprocess systems1. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF BIOREACTORS: Basic design and construction of a fermenter and its ancillaries, Vessel geometry. Materials of construction.2. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT: Bearing assemblies, Motor Drives; Aseptic Seals; Flow Measuring devices; Agitator and Sparger design; Piping and Valves for Biotechnology Plants.3. SUPPORT AND UTILITY SYSTEMS: Pumps; Cartridge filtration and Pressure Relief; Sterilization of process equipment; Utilities for biotechnology Plants: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning.4. PROCESS DESIGN AND OPERATION OF BIOREACTORS: Operational Modes of Reactors - Batch, Continuous, Fed-batch, Repetitive Batch, Recycle and Continuous cultivation; Novel Bioreactors; Stirred Tank, Air lift and Loop reactors, Packed bed and Hollow fibre Membrane Bioreactors; Scale-up criteria for bioreactors.5. BIOPROCESS ECONOMICS: Bio-product regulation; General fermentation process economics; Examples - Fine chemicals, Bulk oxygenates, Single-cell protein, Anaerobic Methane production.TEXT BOOKS :1. Bioprocess Engineering: Systems Equipment and Facilities, Edited by B.K.Lederson, N.A.D‟elia and K.L.Nelson (1994), John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.2. Process Equipment Series, No5: Transfer Operations in Process Industries- Design and Equipment, Edited by M .V. Bhatia, (1994), Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA.REFERENCES:1. Atkinson, B. & Mavituna, F. “Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology Handbook”, (2 nd Edn.), 1993, McGraw Hill, N.York.2. H.J. Rehm and G, Reed (ED.) Biotechnology-. Volume 3, (2nd Ed), 1993, VCH, Berlin.3. McNeil and Harvey, “Fermentation - A Practical Approach” (1990), IRL Press, U.K.4. Scragg, “Bioreactors in Biotechnology - A Practical Approach” (1991). Ellis Horwood Ltd , U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 19
  • MBC 202 BIOPROCESS INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL1. SENSORS: Physical and chemical sensors; Biosensors; On-line sensors for cell properties; off-line Analytical methods.2. MEASUREMENT OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS: Agitation and capacity coefficient in fermenters; Control of pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, temperature of fermenters; Rheological measurement and control application of microcomputers in the study of microbial process.3. COMPUTERS AND INTERFACES: Elements of Digital computers; Computer Interfaces and peripheral devices; Fermentation software systems4. DATA ANALYSIS & PROCESS CONTROL: Data smoothing and interpolation; State and parameter estimation; Direct regulatory control; cascade control of metabolism.5. ADVANCED CONTROL STRATEGIES: Programmed batch bio-rection; Design and operation strategies for batch plants; Continuous process control.TEXT BOOKS:1. Bailey J.E. and Ollis,D.F. “ Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals” 2 nd Edition, (1986), McGraw Hill Book CO.,Singapore.2. T.K.Ghose (Ed.) “Process Computations in Biotechnology” (1994) ,Tata McGraw Hill Publ.Co.,N.Delhi.3. A.Fischer (Ed.), “Advances in Bio Chemical Engineering ” Vol. 13, 1973, Springer Verlag, GermanyREFERENCES:1. Aiba, Humphry and Millis, “ Bio Chemical Engineering ”, 2 nd Ed., (1973), Academic press2. McNeil and Harvey, “Fermentation - A Practical Approach” (1990). IRL Press , U.K.3. Scragg, “Bioreactors in Biotechnology - A Practical Approach” (1991),Ellis Horwood Ltd.,U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 20
  • MBC 203 MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF BIOPROCESSES1. MODELING PRINCIPLES Basic modelling principles; Mathematical models for chemical engineering systems. Analog simulation; Digital simulation; Time-domain dynamics; Laplace-domain dynamics; Frequency- domain dynamics; Process identification.2. MODELLING AND DESIGN OF BIORECATORS Modelling of Non-Ideal Behaviour in Bioreactors - Tanks -in-series and Dispersion Models - application to design of Continuous sterilizers and other first order processes; Design and analysis of packed bed and membrane biorectors; Recombinant Cell culture processes.3. MONITORING OF BIOPROCESSES On-line data analysis for measurement of important physico-chemical and biochemical parameters; State and parameter estimation techniques for biochemical processes.4. SIMULATION OF BIOPROCESSES Software packages for simulation of Bioprocesses - MATLAB-SIMULINK,SIMNON, ISIM; Simulation of Bioprocesses using models from literature sources .5. SIMULATION OF PLANTS Simulation techniques in process design and integrated chemical plants and processes. Application of simulation packages.TEXT BOOKS:1. Modelling and Control of Fermentation Processes, Edited by J.R. Leigh, (1987), Peter Peregrinus, London.2. Luyben W.L., “Process Modelling, Simulation And Control For Chemical Engineers” 2/e,McGraw Hill International edition, 1990.3. Process Computations in Bio-technology, T. K. Ghose (Editior), Tata Mcgraw Hill publ. Co., N. Delhi.REFERENCES:1. Modelling and Optimisation of Fermentation Processes, Edited by B. Volesky and J. Votruba, (1992) , Elsevier, Amsterdam2. Smith C.A. and Corripio A.B., “Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control “, 1985, John Wiley & and Sons.3. Morton M. Denn, “Process Modelling” , 1986, Longman Scientific & Technical, England.4. McNeil and Harvey, “Fermentation - A Practical Approach” (1990), IRL Press., U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 21
  • MBC 208 BIO-PROCESS LABORATORY PART A1. Growth kinetics of bacteria, fungi.2. Fermentation studies - Batch, fed-batch and Continuous cultivation3. Solid state fermentation Techniques4. Centrifugation,5. Spray Drying6. Freeze DryingREFERENCE BOOKS : 1. Laboratory Manual in Microbiology, P.Gunasekaran, 1995, New Age International (P) ,Ltd .N. Delhi.2. Experiments in Microbiology ,Plant Pathology and Tissue Culture., K .R. Aneja, 1993, New Age International (P), Ltd ,N Delhi. PART B1. Gas analysis calculations and interpretations2. Analytical techniques for estimation of glucose, ethanol, glutamate, acetate and other metabolites3. Modelling and Simulation of fermentation Process (Computer Lab)Reference book: 1. McNeil and Harvey, “Fermentation - A Practical Approach” (1990), IRL Press., U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 22
  • LIST OF ELECTIVES MBCE 01 SEPARATION AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOSEPARATION Characterisation of Biomolecules and fermentation broths; Role of downstream processing in biotechnology; Broad strategies for design of bio-separation processes.2. CELL DISRUPTION, SOLID-LIQUID AND MOLECULAR SIZE-BASED SEPARATIONS Cell disruption - Mechanical and Chemical methods; Cake filtration and micro-filtration; Centrifugation and sedimentation. Membrane processes - Dialysis, Ultra-filtration, Reverse osmosis and Electro-dialysis.3. LIQUID-LIQUID SEPARATIONS AND PROTIEN SEPARATIONS Solvent extraction of small molecules; Aqueous two-phase extraction of proteins; Precipitation of proteins with salts and with organic solvents4. ADSORBPTION AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATIONS Adsorption processes - Principles of chromatographic separation - gel filtration, reversed-phase, hydrophobic interaction, ion-exchange, IMAC and bio-affinity chromatography - Design and selection of chromatographic matrices - Modes of operation; Design of Large-scale chromatographic separation processes - Electrophoretic Separation processes.5. FINAL PRODUCT PURIFICATION AND PREPARATION Crystallization - Drying and Lyophilization - Formulation Strategies.TEXT BOOKS:1. J .Asenjo (Ed.) “Separation Processes in Biotechnology” (1993), Marcel-Dekker .2. Verrall, M.S. and Hudson, M.J. “Separations for Biotechnology” (1990) Ellis Horwood.3. Paul A Belter, E. L .Cussler and Wei Shan Hu “Bioseparation - Downstream Processing for Biotechnology” (1988). Wiley Inter Science, N.York.4. “Product Recovery in Bioprocess Technology” BIOTOL Series, (1992) , Butterworth Heinemann .U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 23
  • MBCE 02 RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY1. BASICS OF RECOMBINANT DNA: Role of genes within cells; elucidation of the genetic code; genetic elements that control gene expression.2. VECTORS FOR RECOMBINANT CELLS: Plasmids, Cosmids, Phage vectors. Plasmids for production of bio-products3. PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULES: Methods of creating recombinant DNA molecules; restriction enzymes and mapping of DNA; Plasmid and phage vectors.4. APPLICATIONS OF RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY: Production of products from recombinant cells; Cloning in plants - Ti plasmid of Agrobacteria; Transgenic animals.5. ETHICAL ASPECTS ON USE RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY: Recombinant products - a bane or boon to society; safety guidelines of recombinant DNA research and production; Successful recombinant DNA processes for production of high-value metabolites.TEXT BOOKS:1. Old R.W. and Primrose, S .B., “Principles of Gene Manipulation” Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1983.2. Milestones in Biotechnology, Edited by J .Davies and W .S. Reznikoff (1992), Butterworth Heinemann, U.K3. Desmond. S.T .Niccholl, ” An Introduction to Genetic Engineering “,1994,C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 24
  • MBCE 03 FOODPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY1. INTRODUCTION: Biotechnology in relation to the food industry; Nutritive value of food; types of microorganisms associated with food, its sources, types and behavior in foods.2. FOOD PRESERVATION: Preservation of meat, Fisheries, Vegetables, dairy products; Enzymes and Chemicals used in food processing,. Thermal inactivation of micro-organisms; Thermal process evaluations; Freezing and thawing of foods.3. FERMENTED FOOD PRODUCTS: Dairy products, meat, fishery, non beverage plant products, Beverages and related products of baking.4. FOOD SPOILAGE: Food borne illness, quality control. Case studies on Biotechnology in the evolution of food quality, HFCS (High fructose corn syrup) and Myco-proteins.5. FOOD PROCESSING OPERATIONS: Rheology and Fluid flow; Calculation of power requirements for pumping of food materials; Material and energy balances in Food processing; Thermal processing of food; Microwave heating; Biochemical engineering for flavor and food productionREFERENCES:1. George J Banward, “Basic Food Microbiology” (1987), CBS Publishers , N.Delhi.2. R .Angold, G .Beech and J. Taggart," Food Biotechnology", 1989, Cambridge University Press, U.K.,3. Lindsay, “Biotechnology challenges for the flavour and food industry” (1988), Elsevier Applied Science4. H.G.Muller,” An Introduction to Tropical Food Science”,1989,C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 25
  • MBCE 04 ENZYME ENGINEERING1. APPLICATION OF ENZYMES: Classification of Enzymes, Commercial applications of enzymes in food, pharmaceutical and other industries; enzymes for diagnostic applications.2. IMMOBILIZATION TECHNIQUES: Merits and demerits; Carrier types; Techniques of Immobilization; Fields of Application - Immobilized enzymes as process aids and as analytical tools; Immobilization of co-enzymes- Interaction - Chemical synthesis-Characterisation of coenzyme- analogues exploitation of binding properties of coenzyme. Metal based Enzyme Crosslinking and Stabilization. Analysis of Film and Pore Diffusion Effects on Kinetics of Immoblilized Enzyme Reactions; calculation of Effectiveness Factors of IME systems3. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION: Kinetic Models; Types of Inhibitions; Inhibition kinetics; Modeling of rate equations for single and multiple substrate reactions.4. DESIGN OF ENZYME REACTORS: Design and Operation of Ideal reactors - CSTR and PFR; Design of Packed-bed and Fluidised bed Immobilised Enzyme Reactors; Membrane Reactors for immobilised enzyme systems.5. DESIGN OF BIOSENSORS: Use of enzymes in analysis - Types of sensing -gadgetry and methods; use of unnatural substrates - artificial enzymes - enzyme mimicking. Enzyme Engineering in non-aqueous solvents. Case of Subtlisin in Polar media. Extemozymes and AbzymesTEXT BOOKS:1. “Technological applications of Biocatalysts” BIOTOL Series, 1995, Butterworth Heinemann,U.K.2 A. Cornish- Bowden, “Analysis of Enzyme Kinetic data” , 1996, Oxford Univ. Press, U.K.REFERENCES:1. Wiseman A (Ed) “Topics in Enzyme and Fermentation Biotechnology” Volume 5, (1991), Ellis and Harwood , U.K. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 26
  • MBC E 05 PLANT CELL CULTURE1. AN OUTLINE ON MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DNA Replication, translation, transcription. Fundamentals of recombinant DNA technology, Gene regulation2. AGROBACTERIUM & PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING: Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer and cloning. Types of plant vectors and their use in gene manipulation.3. PLANT VIRUSES: Classification - diagnosis - remedy - viruses as a tool to deliver foreign DNA.4. MOLECULAR BASIS OF DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY & RESISTANCE: Transposable elements, Factors influencing disease resistance and susceptibility RFLP.5. TRANSGENICS: Herbicide tolerance - insect resistance - viral resistance - stress tolerance - Development of disease resistant plants by introducing B.t genes.TEXT BOOKS & REFERENCES:1. S. H. Mantell, J. A. Mathews, R.A. Mckee., “ Principles of Plant Biotechnology - An Introduction to Genetic Engineering in Plants” Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1985.2. Dodds, J. H. “ Plant Genetic Engineering ” 1985, Cambridge University Press, U.K.3. J. Holden, J. Peacock, T. Williams, (Ed.), Genes, Crops and the Environment, 1993, C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U.K.4. J.G .Manners,” Principles of Plant Pathology”, 2nd Ed., 1993, C L P Edition, Cambridge University Press, U. K.5. Dodds, J.H., and L.W. Roberts, (1985), Experiments in Plant Cell Culture (2nd Ed.), Cambridge University Press., U.K.6. Advances in Biochemical Engg./Biotechnology, Vol. 31,(1985), Plant Cell Culture., Springer Verlag, Germany. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 27
  • MBCE 06 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 1.WATER POLLUTANTS: SOURCES, EFFECTS, MONITORING AND QUALITY STANDARDS:Water Pollution Sources and Classification of water pollutants - Water pollution lawsand standards - Water pollution and health - Wastewater sampling and analysis. -BOD, COD of wastewater - monitoring - Compliance with Standards. 8 hours2.ANAEROBIC PROCESSES FOR B O D REDUCTION:Anaerobic Digestion: Microbial And Biochemistry Aspects. High Rate AttachedFilm Digesters. Sludge Disposal 8 hours3.AEROBIC PROCESSES FOR B O D REDUCTION: Aeration requirements - Microbial factors -Activated sludge and Attached filmprocesses. 8 hours4.ADVANCED WASTEWATER AND WATERTREATMENT: Carbon Adsorption - Ion Exchange - Membrane Processes - Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus)removal- Design of plant for treatment and disposal of sludge 8 hours5. SOLIDS WASTE AND LANDFILL MANAGEMENT:Sources and classification - methods of solid waste disposal - Composting (natural) -Accelerated composting with industrial sludge - Landfill Technology -Methodsadopted for municipal solid waste-Toxic-waste management, Incineration ofindustrial waste, Design aspects, economics. 8 hoursText books: 1. Rittman, B. E. and McCarty, P., Environmental Biotechnology: Principles and Applications,) McGraw-Hill International Edition, Singapore. (2000) 2. G. Tchbanoglous and F.L. Burton, Metcalf and Eddy‟s Wastewater Treatment, Disposal And Reuse (Third Edition), Tata McGraw-Hill publishing Co Ltd, N. Delhi. (1996) 3. A. P. Sincero and G.A. Sincero, Environmental Engineering: A Design Approach, Prentice Hall of India pvt Ltd, N. Delhi. (1996)Reference Books: 1. Microbiology for Environmental Scientists and Engineers, A.Gaudy and E. Gaudy, McGraw Hill International Book Co, N.Y. (1981) 2. D. Barnes and P. J. Bliss , Biological Control of Nitrogen in Wastewater Treatment, E & F N Spon, London.(1983) 4. Industrial Water Pollution Control, Third Edition, W. W. Eckenfelder Jr, McGraw-Hill International Edition, Singapore. (2000) Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 28
  • MBCE 07 PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY1. INTRODUCTION Development of Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industry - Organic therapeutic agents - uses and economics2. DRUG METABOLISM AND PHARMACO-KINETICS Drug metabolism – Physico-chemical principles - Pharma Kinetics - Action of drugs on human bodies3. IMPORTANT UNIT PROCESSES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Chemical conversion processes - Alkylation - Carboxylation - Condensation and Cyclisation - Dehydration, Esterification (Alcoholysis) - Halogenation - Oxidation Sulfonation - Complex Chemical Conversions - Fermentation4. MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES Compressed tablets - Wet granulation - Dry granulation or slugging - Direct compression - Tablet presses Formulation - Coating - Pills - Capsules sustained action dosage forms - Parental solutions - Oral Liquids - Injections - Ointments - Standard hygiene and Good Manufacturing practice.5. PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS, ANALYSIS AND CONTROL Vitamins - Cold remedies - Laxatives - Analgesics - External Antiseptics - Antibiotics - Biologicals - Hormones - Preservation. Analytical methods and tests for various drugs and pharmaceuticals. Packing Techniques - Quality control.REFERENCES BOOKS :1. Remington‟s Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co, N.Y.2. Medicinal Chemistry: Principles and Practice, Edited by F.D.King, (1994), The Royal Society of Chemistry. U.K.3. The Organic Chemistry of Drug Synthesis,D.Lednicer and L.A.Mitscher (1977),John Wiley and Sons,N.Y.4. The Discovery of Natural Products with Therapeutic potential, V.P .Gullo, Butterworth Heinemann, U.K.5. Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry , A .Korolkovas and J. H. Burckhalter (1976), John Wiley and Sons, N .Y. Chemical Engineering - Biochemical Engineering 29
  • MBCE 08 APPLIED BIOINFORMATICS1. INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Computers and microprocessors, Storage devices, analysis and information handling capacity. Informatics applied to Biotechnology: Data acquistion and storage; data analysis; pattern matching, primary, secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids and protein sequences.2. NETWORKS AND DATA EXCHANGE Process of MODEM, PAD, GPSS, networking modes for global data exchange; local area wide area networks.3. APPLICATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Sources of nucleic acid and protein sequences - organization of information and properties in the different data banks.4. SEQUENCE DATABASE EMBL, GENBANK, SWISS-PROT, etc., sequence databases5. ALIGNMENTS Global Vs Local alignments - Needleman and Wunsch global alignment algorithm - use of scoring matrices - Use of PAM matrices for allowable amino acid susbstitutions and detecting evolutionary relationships.REFERENCES:1. EMBL, GENBANK, SWISS-PROT Database Sequences. MBC E 09 ANIMAL CELL TECHNOLOGY1. INTRODUCTION What is Biotechnology?; Scope of Biotechnology; Animal Biotechnology2. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Nucleic acids - DNA, RNA, replication, transcription, translation genetic code, gene regulation, genetic engineering, Plasmid isolation and gene cloning, Identification of transformants.3. CELL CULTURE TECHNOLOGY Culturing of cells, Primary and secondary cell lines and the effect of growth factors, High technology vaccines, Hybridoma technology.4. GENETIC ENGINEERING Enzyme technology, Somatic manipulation of DNA; Nucleic acid hybridisation and probes in diagnosis; preparation of probes, evaluation and applications
  • 5. APPLICATIONS Rumen manipulation - probiotics - Embryo transfer technology - Invitro fertilization - Transgenic animals.REFERENCES:1. C. A. Babiuk, J.P.Philips and Moo Young,M. “Animal Biotechnology”, Pergamon Press, New York, 1989 MBCE 10 BIOENERGYFaculty Member : Dr. H.J.Prabhu.OBJECTIVE: To Learn about Biomass Conversion methods for energy production bythermochemical and biochemical techniques and understand the design of gasifiers, combustors and biogasgenerators.1. BIOMASS CHARACTERISTICS & PREPARATION:Biomass sources and classification. Chemical composition and properties of biomass. Energy plantations.Preparation of biomass: Size reduction, Briquetting of loose biomass, Drying, Storage and handling of biomass.2. BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY:Feedstock for producing biogas. Aqueous wastes containing biodegradable organic matter, animal residues-sugar rich materials. Microbial and biochemical aspects and operating parameters for biogas production.Kinetics and mechanism. Dry and wet fermentation. Digestors for rural application-High rate digestors forindustrial waste water treatment.3. PYROLYSIS AND THERMO CHEMICAL CONVERSION:Thermo-chemical conversion of ligno-cellulose biomas. Incineration for safe disposal of hazardous waste.Biomass processing for liquid fuel production. Pyrolysis of biomass-pyrolysis regime, effect of particle size,temperature, and products obtained.4. GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS:Thermochemical principles: Effect of pressure, temperature and of introducing steam and oxygen. Design andoperation of Fixed and Fluidised Bed Gasifiers. Safety aspects.5. COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND COGENERATION SYSTEMS:Combustion of woody biomass-theory, calculations and design of equipments. Cogeneration in biomassprocessing industries. Case studies: Combustion of rice husk, Use of bagasse for cogeneration.TEXT BOOKS:1. A.Chakraverthy, “Biotechnology and Alternative Technologies for Utilisation of Biomass or Agricultural Wastes”, Oxford & IBH publishing Co., New Delhi, 1989.2. K.M.Mital, “ Biogas Systems: Principles and Applications”, New Age International Publishers (p) Ltd., 1996.3. P.Venkata Ramana and S.N.Srinivas, “Biomass Energy Systems”, Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, 1996.4. D.L. Klass and G.M. Emert, “Fuels from Biomass and Wastes”, Ann Arbor Science publ. Inc. Michigan, 1985.REFERENCES:1. Khandelwal K.C. and Mahdi, “Bio-gas Technology”, Tata McGraw-Hill pub. Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 1986.2. O.P. Chawla, “Advances in bio-gas Technology”. I.C.A.R., New Delhi. 1970.
  • CONTENTSProposal and Introduction 2Self assessment 3Staff of Department of Chemical Engineering 4Profile of Department of Chemical Engineering 5Research Publications 6Present Laboratory Facilities 8Computer Networking and facilities 8Fund Required to upgrade facilities 9Staff required 9Information on the Course 10Annexure1: Copy of AICTE approval letter 14Annexure 2: Central Grants Utilized for Facilities 19Annexure 3: Library Facilities Enhanced 20Annexure 4: Summary of Syllabus 21
  • PROPOSAL FOR SANCTION FOR CONDUCTING P.G. PROGRAMME OF M.TECH.DEGREE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICALENGINEERING, REGIONAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, 620015, SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT,DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA NEW DELHI- 110 001.MARCH 2002. REF: AICTE APPROVAL TO REGIONAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING , TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, 620 015, FOR CONDUCT OF P.G. COURSE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR THE ACADEMIC SESSION 2002-2003 FOR THREE YEARS PERIOD.(VIDE: AICTE LETTER, F.NO.: XVII-AIBPG/APP-1601/ET/2001 DATED FEBRUARY,12, 2002)1. Name and Full Address of the Institution: Regional Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli, 620 015 Tamil Nadu Phone: 0431 - 500 061 extn. 2001 Fax: 0431 – 500 133 Cable : TREC e-mail: prl@rect.ernet.in2. Name of the Department: Department of Chemical Engineering Phone: 0431 – 500 061 extn. 2901 e-mail: ssundar@rect.ernet.in3. Conditions and Specific conditions for the AICTE approval of the Project: [Copy enclosed; see Annexure 1.]Degree: M.TechCourse (specialization) : Chemical Engineering (Biochemical Engineering)Annual Intake: 16Duration(Full Time): 24 monthsAdditional 5 (Five) sponsored + 4(four) SC/ST candidates shall be admitted for the abovefull time P G Programme. INTRODUCTION Bioprocess engineering contributes to many economic activities in our country suchas agricultural productivity, production of biologicals and antibiotics, biological wastewatertreatment, bioremediation for removal of contamination of land etc. Training of engineers inthis area at postgraduate level is necessary and would benefit many fields of humanendeavor. There is a good demand for highly qualified and trained engineers in this field.
  • SELFASSESSMENT REFLECTING COMPETENCE AND LEVEL OF INFRASTRUCTURE AVAILABLE: Department of Chemical Engineering has carried out several project works in thisfield. The department is equipped with a biochemical engineering laboratory, one stirredtank bioreactor (BIOSTAT-E) and a fluidized bed bioreactor with instrumentation. It hassome analytical facilities also. The department created the facilities by participating in theMHRD sponsored schemes like I.I.T. (Madras) – R.E.C.(TRICHY) institutional networkscheme and Central Assistance Programme for Thrust Areas in Technical Education Scheme(1988-1992), and subsequent projects granted by the AICTE.[See Annexure 2 for fundsutilized for biochemical and other facilities during 1988-2002] Several projects have been carried out in this department in bioprocess engineeringamong which some are applied to environmental pollution problems. Bio-desulfurisation ofdi-benzothiophene found in diesel by bacteria was experimentally investigated to confirm thecapacity of this method to remove sulfur from this recalcitrant compound. Other projectsinclude three phase fluidized bed bioreactor for aerobic effluent treatment, bio-denitrificationof effluent and biodegradation of animal glue. A study on production of an important aminoacid has been carried out using a fluidized bed bioreactor for bacteria immobilized on beads.Similar work on production of enzymes has been carried out. A good number of reference volumes on Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineeringwere added to our library. Back volumes of one journal were procured and three journalswere subscribed to from the funds provided. [See Annexure 3] Currently one semester theory course on biochemical engineering are being taught toU.G./ P.G. students of chemical engineering degree courses. Project works are carried out bythe U.G./ P.G students of chemical engineering, under guidance of the staff. A. An M. Tech. Program in Biochemical Engg. has been approved in Febuary2002, by the AICTE after an inspection visit of experts to the Dept. in Nov.2001 B. Expertise: The chemical engineering and chemistry faculty of this institution are well qualified and competent, but complement of faculty is not adequate to run a full fledged P G program.
  • Staff of Chemical Engineering: Name and Designation of faculty Areas of Research 1. Dr. S. Sundaram Professor Process control, Biotechnology 2. Dr.(Ms) S. K. Pandey Professor Heat transfer with suspensions, Nucleate Boiling 3. Dr. V. Venkata Ramani Professor Heat transfer with phase change and Instrumentation 4. Dr. H.J.Prabhu Asst. Professor Biochemical engineering 5. Dr. P. Shanmugha Sundaram Asst. Professor Bio-process technology 6. Dr. N. Anantharaman Asst. Professor Fluidization, Downstream processes 7. Dr. T. K. Radhakrishnan Asst. Professor Bio-process control, Modeling 8. Dr. P. Siva Shanmugham Asst. Professor Bio-reaction engineering, Equipment Design 9. Dr. J. Sarat Chandra Babu Lecturer (senior) Modeling & Simulation of bio-processes 10. Dr.(Ms) Meera S. Begam Lecturer Novel separation techniques 11. Mr. M. Arivazhaghan Lecturer Environmental biotechnology 12. Dr. (Ms).P. Kalaichelvi Lecturer Equipment design, Process Engineering
  • Profile of the Department: 1 a) Name of the Institution REGIONAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE, TIRUCHIRAPPPALLI 2 b) Name of the Department & year of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: 1967 Establishment c) Address for correspondence Dr. S. Sundaram, Professor & Head, Department of Chemical Eng., R. E.C., Tiruchirappalli – 620 015 Phone (0431) 500181 Ext 2901 (O) (0431) 500295® email: ssundar@rect.ernet,in 3 Number of faculty members: Professors: 3 i) Professors; ii) Readers; iii) Asst. Professors: 5 Lecturers Lecturers: 4 4 Distinction earned by faculty members Dr.T. K. Radhakrishnan like National and International Young scientist fellowship awarded Awards, Professional Societies. & Dr.(Mrs) S.K.Pandey awarded Tamil Nadu Scientist Award both by Tamil Nadu State Council for Scientific Research 5 Student Strength at: a) PG level – M. Tech. 48 b) Ph. D. in each sub-discipline i) Plant Design Two ii) Instrumentation and Control Two iii) Energy Engineering One 6 Indicate the development grant received from UGC/ AICTE Seventh Plan Eight Plan Building 14.0 lac Equipment - - 7 Annual grant to the department from your Institution during last two years Year For Research For Teaching 1998-99 - Rs. 20 000/- 1999-2000 - Rs. 20 000/- 8 Details of research grant from different agencies during the last five years: MHRD – R & D 2000 8.0 lakhs AICTE-modernization 1999 6.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1997 5.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1995 5.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1995 8.0 lakhs
  • Research publications:List of Research publications, including patents, coming out of your department during the last five years in therefereed journals 1. Sundaram, S. (1995) “ Modeling and optimizing dextrose fermentation using a fluorosensor, vol.31, page 251, 32nd Annual MBS, Colorado. 2. Sundaram, S. (1996) “Modeling and optimizing citric acid production using a fluorosensor, 15 th Biomedical Engineering Conference, University of Dayton, OHIO, March 29-31 (1996) 3. Sundaram, S., Saileja, D., Kalpana, N. (1998) Modeling and optimizing alcohol production by fermentation of dectrose-xylose mixed feed using a fluorosensor, vol. 34, 35 th Annual RMBS, Colorado (1998) 4. Saravanan, V, Hemachandran, Eugene Raj and Sundaram, S (2000) Liquid Phase Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient “ Bio Process Eng. Accepted for publication 5. Prabhu H.J. (1991) ‟Studies on effect of additives on bio-methanation ‟ in Research and Industry, vol 36,March 1991 6. Prabhu H.J. (1991) „Studies on biomethanation of water hyacinth‟, in Research & Industry, vol 36, June 1991. 7. P. Sivashanmugam and S. Sundaram (1998) “Hydrodynamics of Annular Circulating Fluidised Bed Drier”, Powder Technology, July, 1999 p. 196-198 8. P. Sivashanmugam and S. Sundaram “Hydrodynamics of Annular Circulating Fluidised Bed Drier with Sand particles” accepted for publication in the Journal of Bioprocess Engineering 9. P. Sivashanmugam and S. Sundaram “Residence Time Distribution studies in Annular Circulating Fluidised Bed Drier” accepted for publication in Powder Technology 10. P. Sivashanmugam and S. Sundaram “Studies on Improvement in Performance of Heat Exchanger fitted with Twisted Tape” ASCE Journal 1999, 92-96.
  • 11. Sarat babu and B. Pitchumani (1997) “Performance studies on uniflow cyclone” paper presented at Filtech International Conference, DECHEMA, organized at Disseldoff, Germany Sept. 14-16, 1997.12. Ramanan, P, P. Srinivasa Rao, Sarat chandra babu,J, and Pitchumani, B (1997) “Effect of fine particles on flow properties” Bulk Solids Handling, vol.4, 1997.13. Karthik Narayanan and N. Anantharaman (1999) “ RED studies on Semi-fluidization” presented at CHEMCON-99, held at Punjab University, Chandigarh, from 20 Dec. to 23 Dec. 1999.14. Balasubramanian, N. and Anantharaman, N (1995) Fluidized bed drying of Granular materials”, paper presented at the IIChE‟95, Annual Session at Kalpak am, India, 1995.15. Sivashanmugam, P and Prabhu H.J. (1998) „Production of citric acid from commercial sugar by Aspergillus niger‟ , presented in t CHEMCON,199816. Sivashanmugam, P and Prabhu H.J. (1999) „Production of citric acid using a mixed culture of yeast and Aspergillus niger‟ , presented in CHEMCON 199917. Sivashanmugam, P and Prabhu H.J.(2000) „Production of Alpha Amylase „, presented in CHEMCON 200018. Prabhu H.J. and Sivashanmugam. P.(2001) „Fluidized bed Biomethanation of wastewater‟, presented at International Workshop on Environment and Energy, Periyar Maniammai College of Technology for Women (PMCTW), Periyarnagar,Nov 2001
  • Present Laboratory Facilities:A biochemical engineering laboratory of about Rs. 80 lakhs is already established in thedepartment The equipments available are a. Braun make BIOSTAT-E laboratory fermenter with instrumentation b. Fluidised bed fermenter -BIOENGINEERING make. c. Anaerobic Chamber and BOD incubater d. Freeze Drier and Deep Freezer e. Laminar flow chamber f. HPLC – Hitachi (Isocratic) g. Gas chromatograph – Nucon h. Porosimeter – Carlo Erba i. Fluorosensor j. UV-VIS spectrophotometer-JASCO k. Orbital shaker l. CentrifugesComputer networking in the Institute: Computer center has local area network (LAN) of 250 terminals at the center in addition to 4 terminals to each department. CAD laboratory has three workstations loaded with UNIX based software packages. Computing facilities in the Department: Department has recently procured 6 stand alone systems out of AICTE Modernization / R&D projects. Software packages are needed.Fund required to upgrade existing facilities: Rs.lakhsNew fluidized bed fermentors -Two 16.00Coreco Image analyzer for cell counting 4.00
  • Accessories for Biochemistry analyzer 5.00Accessories for Lyophilizer 1.00Accessories for HPLC (Hitachi) 3.00Upgradation of GC:(New columns + standard gas samples+ computer interfacing) 3.00Accessories for Mercury porosimeter 2.00Subscription to biotechnologyInternational journals 6.00Extension Block(50m x 20m = 1 000 sq. m.) 10.00 --------Total ( Nonrecurring, In Rs. Lakhs) 50.00 --------Staff and Other recurring fund Requirements: A) Teaching Staff: Professor :One Assistant Professor:One Lecturer: One B) Technical Staff: Trained Laboratory assistants: Three
  • Particulars of Recurring Amount (in lakhs of Rupees)Salaries of faculty 6.36Salaries of non-technical staff 1.28Other recurring expenditure 1.60Total Fund required: Particulars Rs. lakhs a) Recurring 9.74 b) Non-recurring 50.00 Grand Total 59.74
  • DETAILS ABOUT THE COURSE:INFORMATI ON THE COURSE TO BE RECOGNISED / TO BE INTRODUCEDNAME OF THE DEPARTMENT: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING1 Name of the course : M.Tech. Bio-chemical EngineeringName of Name of Intake Year of Duration Name of degreethe degree specialisation. (full time) starting (total) & branch eligible for admissionM.Tech. Biochemical 25 2002 2 years 4 years B.E. Engineering ( 4 semester) /B.Tech or equiv. degree in Chemical/ Biochemical/ Electrochemical Engineering2 Course structure and scheme of evaluation (semester - wise) Name of the subject Hours per week Credits Evaluation (Marks) L T P Internal Written Practical TotalSemester – IMicrobiology 3 3 100 100 200Biochemistry 3 3 100 100 200Biochemical Engineering 3 4 100 100 200Biochemical Reaction 3 3 100 100 200EngineeringMicrobiology & 9 3 100 100 200Biochemistry Laboratory Elective – 1 3 3 100 100 200(See Annexure iv) Total Credits in Semester 1 = 19
  • Name of the subject Hours per week Credits Evaluation (marks L T P Internal Written Practical/ Tota Viva lSemester - IIBioprocess equipment 3 3 100 100 200DesignBioprocess Instrument. & 3 3 100 100 200ControlBioprocess Modeling and 3 1 4 100 100 200SimulationBioprocess Laboratory 9 3 100 100 200Elective - 2 3 3 100 100 200Elective - 3 3 3 100 100 200(See page 12) Total Credits in Semester 2 = 19Semesters IIIElective 4 3 3 100 100 200Elective 5 3 3 100 100 200Elective 6 3 3 100 100 200Project Work 6 100 Total Credits in Semester 3 = 15Semesters IV 12 200 200 400Project Work (Viva voce) Total Credits in Semester 4 = 12 Total Credits in the Course = 65
  • M.Tech. (Bio-chemical Engineering)- SUMMARY OF SYLLABUS M. Tech. Specialization: Biochemical Engineerng SEMESTER 1 SEMESTER 2 Code No: Title (core) Code No Title (core) MBCH MBCH 101 Industrial Microbiology 201 Bioprocess Equipment Design 102 Applied Biochemistry 202 Bioprocess Instrumentation & Control 103 Bioprocess Engineering Principles 203 Modeling & Simulation of Bioprocesses 104 Biochemical reaction Engineering 204 Bioprocess Lab 105 Microbiology & biochemistry Lab MBCHE** Elective Subject 2 MBCHE ** MBCH Elective Subject 1 Elective Subject 3 E** M. Tech Specialization: Biochemical Engineering SEMESTER 3 SEMESTER 4 Code Title (Elective) Code Title No No MBCHE ** Elective Subject 4 MBCHE ** Elective Subject 5 MBCHE ** Elective Subject 6 PROJECT WORK PROJECT WORKCODE M. Tech Specialization: Biochemical Engineering NO: TITLE OF ELECTIVE SUBJECTSMBCH E 01 Separation & Analytical Techniques E 02 Recombinant DNA Technology E 03 Food Processing E 04 Environmental Biotechnology E 05 Plant Cell Culture E 06 Advanced Downstream Processes E 07 Pharmaceutical Technology E 08 Animal Cell Technology E 09 Enzyme Technology
  • 3. Method of admission to the course: GATE / Separate admission test4. Facilities available in the Department for conducting the courseThe department has a full fledged Bioprocess laboratory.5. Supporting facilities available in the institution in the other departments: Faculty from Chemistry, Instrumentation & Control Engineering, and Mathematics Department are available for teaching the course.6. Employment potential for those who will obtain the degree in the proposed courseThe M. Tech. Biochemical Engineering degree envisaged will meet the demand for wellqualified young Biochemical Engineers to commercialize production of Biotech.Products.7. Additional Faculty and Other Staff Required if the Course is approved:Professor Assistant Lecturer Technical Non-technical Professor Supporting supporting Staff staff 1 1 1 3 -8. Additional fund requirements for the courseParticulars Amount (in lakhs of Rupees)a) Recurring1. Salaries of faculty 6.362. Salaries of non-technical staff 1.283. Salaries of supporting staff -4. Scholarships -5. Expenditure for travel -6. Other recurring expenditure 1.60Total 9.74b) Non-recurring 1. Extension Block 10.00 50m x 20m = 1 000 sq. m. 2. Upgradation of Laboratory Experimental 40.00 Facilities3. Others Nil
  • Grand Total , Rs. Lakhs 59.74 9. Specify the funds required from AICTE/Ministry of HRD a) Recurring 9.74 Rs. lakhs b) Non-recurring 50.00 Rs. lakhs Grand Total 59.74 Rs. lakhs 10. Details of Faculty already available for conducting the proposed courses. Name of the course No. of Professors No. of Asst. No. of Lecturers Total Professors Ph.D. Ph.D. Ph.D. NonPh.D. Biochemical Engineering 3 5 3 1 1211. Please mention the source of fund for the proposed course: Fund required from the approved scheme of financial assistance for PG courses(MHRD / AICTE/ DST (FIST- Level –1) and sponsored projects would be utilized.12. Details of the UG courses (already being conducted in the department proposing thecourse) which is relevant to the proposed course.Name of the AICTE approval Intake Year of Duration Name of Degree/degree no. and date starting (Total) Branch eligible for admissionB.Tech. in F.2-15/B-111/RC- 36 1967 4yrs N.A.Chemical Engg. MB/93 21-5-94 1. Signature of the Head of the Department Name : Dr. S.Sundaram 2. Signature of the Head of the Institution Name : Dr.
  • Annexure 2 Central Grants Utilized for FacilitiesName of project Sanction letter year Amount No & date awarded / spent Rs.LakhsIIT-REC(Biochemical F 4-1 / 87-T7 1988 5Engg.Laboratory) dt.2-3-88IIT-REC(Biochemical F 2-1/ 88-T7 1989 5Engg.Laboratory) dt.17-1-89Central Assistance,Thrust F1-2/88T7 1989 10Area(Biotechnology) Dt.17-1-89Central Assistance,Thrust F1-6/90-TD6 1991 10Area(Biotechnology) Dt. 25-1-91 Details of research grant from different agencies during the years 1993 to 2002: Source Year Amount of Grant MHRD – R & D 2000 8.0 lakhs AICTE-modernization 1999 6.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1997 5.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1995 5.0 lakhs AICTE-R&D 1995 8.0 lakhs
  • ANNEXURE-3 Library Facilities EnhancedI Back volumes of the journal, Bioengineering and Biotechnology (upto 1987) were added to the Central library of the institution at a cost of about Rs. 29000/= during 1990-91. The following International Journals in biotechnology were subscribed: a) Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering b) Journal of Biotechnology c) BiomassII Reference Books made available during the last ten years:1. Biotechnology, Volumes 1 to 8.Edited by H J Rehm and G. Reed, First Edition, Verlag Chemie, FRG (1985-86)2. Comprehensive Biotechnology, Volumes 1 to 4. Edited by Murray Moo Young, Pergamon Press (1984-85)3. Advances in Biochemical Engg. / Biotechnology, Volumes 22 to 32, Springer Verlag (Annual Volumes)4. Biotechnologies:Challemges and promises-Albert Sasson-UNESCO (1984)5. Precott and Dunn‟s Industrial Microbiology (4 th Edition), Edited by G. Reed, Macmillan (1992)6. Bio-reactor Immopbilised Enzymes and Cells: Fundamentals and Applications, Ed. By Murray Moo Young, Elsevier Applied Sciences (1988)7. A Revolution in biotechnology, Ed. By J. L. Marx, Cambridge University Press, Cambrdidge, (1989)8. Handbook of Enzyme Biotechnology Ed. By A. Wiseman, Ellis Horwood, Chichester (1985)9. Immobilized Cells and Enzymes: A Practical Approach, J. Woodward, IRL Press (1985)10. Process Engineering Aspects of Immobilized Cell System. Institution of Chemical Engineers, U.K., (1986)11. Microbiological Methods (5th Edition) C.H. Collins and P. M. Lyne, Butterworths, (1985)12. Bioprocess Technology: Kinetics and Reactors A. Moser, Springer Verlag (1988)13. Enzymes by Dixon and Web, (Third Edition) Academic Press(1979)14. Fundamentals of Biotechnology, Edited by P. Prave, VCH, Weinheim (1987)15. Bioreactors and Bio-transformations Ed. By G.W. Moody and P.B. Baker, Elsevier Applied Science (1987)
  • PROPOSAL FOR CONDUCTING M.TECH. DEGREE COURSE IN NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, 620 015 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING 2004 - 2005 (JANUARY, 2004) SUBMITTED TOMINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA NEW DELHI- 110 001
  • MODERNISATION AND REMOVAL OF OBSOLECENCE 1. Name and Full address with : NATONAL INSTITUTE OF with pin code of the institution TECHNOLOGY Tiruchirapalli-620015, Tamil Nadu 2. Title of Research Project : MODERNISATION AND REMOVAL OF OBSOLESCENCE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3. Name of the Department : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 4. (i) Name and Designation of Principal Investigator : Dr.S.Sundaram Professor and Head (ii) (ii) Name and Designation of Co- Investigator : Dr. H.J.Prabhu Assistant Professor (iii) Name and Designation of Co- Investigator : Dr. P.Sivashanmugam Assistant Professor 5. Total cost of the Project : 22.00lakhs.
  • MODERNISATION AND REMOVAL OF OBSOLECENCE1. Name and Full address with : NATONAL INSTITUTE OF with pin code of the institution TECHNOLOGY Tiruchirapalli-620015, Tamil Nadu2. Title of Research Project : MODERNISATION AND REMOVAL OF OBSOLESCENCE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY3. Name of the Department : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING4. (i) Name and Designation of Principal Investigator : Dr.S.Sundaram Professor and Head (ii) (ii) Name and Designation of Co- Investigator : Dr. H.J.Prabhu Assistant Professor (iii) Name and Designation of Co- Investigator : Dr. P.Sivashanmugam Assistant Professor5. Total cost of the Project : 22.00lakhs
  • 6. Details of Projects supported by the MHRD/AICTE during 1998/99 to 2002-03: [Please See Annexure –1] 7. Summary of the Project: a. Objectives of the Project: To provide facilities for experimental courses and research projects in biochemical engineering and biotechnology topics it is necessary to modernize the laboratory. To include experimental courses along with the theory courses provided at present at both the U.G, and P.G. levels, the additional facilities are needed. This will improve our capacity to undertake consultancy projects also. b. Methodology to be adopted to achieved these objectives: A committee comprising of the Principle Coordinater and Co-coordinators, Head of the Department, and the Dean, Planning and Development, will review the progress once in six months. c. Monitoring mechanism and self assessment: An assessment of the utilization of the facility for the objectives proposed will be made with feedback from the students and project investigators. Review will indicate the progress of the project. d. Stipulated Period of completion of the project: Two Years.8. Introduction: a. Present state of art: The existing laboratory was established nearly a two decade back and was used for carrying out experimental projects. Modern equipments and analysis methods can enhance the utility of the facilities for regular lab course work as well as for consultancy projects. Also, computer interfacing of the instrumented fermenter for monitoring and control of parameters needs additional input. b. Funding provided from other sources: Nil
  • c. Present level of infrastructure: At present, a laboratory is available with a five liter capacity fermenter withmonitoring facilities. A laminar air flow chamber for inoculums handling,laboratory autoclave, centrifuge, BOD incubator and muffle furnace are available.An orbital shaker, a gas chromatograph and a spectrophotometer are available inthe laboratory.
  • 9. Budget:Name of the equipment Cost, Rs. lakhs1.Electrodes for dissolved oxygen and pH, 1.00for fermented (autoclavable)2.Laboratory sterilizer with control 3.003.Mini Jar Fermentor 5.004. Laboratory pH and ion analyzer with electrodes 3.005.Peristaltic pumps of varying capacity 1.006. Accessories for gas chromatograph 1.007. Glucose analyzer with Biosensor 5.008. Computer Networking facilities 3.00 Total 22.00
  • 10. Summary sheet 1. Name of the Institution : NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY TIRUCHIRAPALLI-620015 2. Title of the project : MODERNISATION AND REMOVAL OF OBSOLESCENCE IN BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3. Name of the Department : CHEMICAL ENGIEERING 4. Cost of the Project : Rs 22lakhs 5. Amount Released Earlier : Nil 6. Utilization Position in respect of : Refer Annexure-I grants released earlier (up to 2000-2001) for various projects (Details to be given Project-wise) 7. Reason for unspent balance : Project period is not yet Completed 8. Name of the Principal Investigator : Dr.S.Sundaram 9. Name of the Co-investigator : Dr.H.J.Prabhu and Dr.P.Sivashanmugam FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1. Name of the area : 2. Recommendations : 1) Approved 2) Not Approved 3) Deferred
  • 4). Transferred to area Amount (Rs. In lakhs)3. Remarks if any 11. Certificate Certified that i) the Principal Investigator is not due to retirement during the currency of the Project ii) the Principal Investigator is regular employee of this institution. However in case he/she proceeds on sabbatical/ resigns/proceeds on VRS etc, the institute will ensure to replace PI by a compatible academician to ensure that without any break whatsoever, project will be completed within the stipulated period of 2 years. iii) It will be ensured that the implementation will be carried out on mission mode with no time or cost over run and we are aware that ministry will neither provide any extension of time nor additional funding iv) No over heads will be charged by the institution for this project and all facilitation including other essentials/infrastructure support like air- conditioning etc will be provided by the institutionSeal of the Institution Signature of Head of Institution
  • Annexure-I Project Title Name of Co-ordinator Project Cost Project Status1.Non-linear Mr.T.K.Rathakrishnan 5.0 lakhs Completedcontrol of F.No.8017/RDChemical reactors II/BOR/95/RCHE 6823/REC 90/DT 11-3- 19992.Modernization of Dr.N.Anantharaman 6.0 lakhs Completedunit operation Lr.No-F 23-10-1198 TS-1laboratory dt 14-1-98(MODROBS)3.Study of Gas- Dr.S.Sundaram F.26- 8.0 lakhs Project TimeSolid distributive 4/99,TS-1dt 13/3/2000 Period is not yetand dynamic flow overregimes in denseflow pneumaticConveying4. Modernisation Dr.P.Sivashanmugam,F.28- 10.0 lakhs Project Timeof Chemical 3(24)/2002-TS.V dt 19-03- Period is not yetReaction 2002 overEngineeringLaboratory5. Heat Transfer Dr.Mrs.S.K.Pandey, F.26- 10.0 lakhs Project Timestudies during 1/2000 T.SV,April-2001 Period is not yetNucleate Pool overboiling6. CFD Modeling Dr.Mrs.S.K.Pandey, F.27- 10.0 lakhs Project Timeof Chemical 1/2002 T.SV,dt 19-03-2002 Period is not yetProcess Equipment over6. Studies on Dr.K.M.Meera Sheriffa 10.0 lakhs Project TimeEmulsion Liquid Begum, F.26-4/2002. TS.V Period is not yetMembrane dt 31-032003 overExtraction7.