Prevent pollution


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For sustainable development, Green engineering principles are now developed that prevent pollution due to human activity.

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Prevent pollution

  2. 2. Pollution Prevention: A Win-Win Solution P2 Hierarchy 2
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  8. 8. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP)1) pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphene2) industrial chemicals: hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and3) unintended by-products: dioxins and furans India signed the Stockholm convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) on 14 May 2002, to restrict the use of a dozen toxic chemicals. 8
  9. 9. India moves to eliminate the POP India has to a large extend banned the use and manufacture of the 8 identified pesticides and HCB (listed in both categories of intentional and non-intentional POPs) and has been permitted as of now to use DDT only for its malaria control programme. The main objective of the convention is to protect the human health and the environment from the twelve of these toxic organic compounds or POPs, popularly known as the dirty dozen. 9
  10. 10. What is Pollution Prevention? Reducing or eliminating toxic materials  replacing a material in the production line  reformulating the product  installing new or modifying existing process equipment Closed loop (on-site) recycling Should involve a holistic approach 10
  11. 11. Pollution Prevention Policy pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible; pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible; and disposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort and should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner. 11
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  15. 15. Source Reduction Example: H2O2 as replacement oxidant for chlorine based oxidants: New cost effective benign manufacturing process makes this possible.
  16. 16. Pollution Reduction at SourceReduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through: increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources, or protection of natural resources by conservation. 16
  17. 17. Define "source reduction" to mean anypractice which: reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal; and reduces the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants. 17
  18. 18. Pollution Reduction at SourceReduce or eliminate the  synthesis, processing and creation of pollutants use of chemicals that through: reduces risks to human increased efficiency in the health and the environment use of raw materials,  synthetic chemistry energy, water, or other designed to use and resources, or generate fewer hazardous protection of natural substances resources by conservation.  aims at reducing the use of endangered resources by switching to more plentiful or renewable resources 18
  19. 19. Conventional H2O2 process: Catalytic hydrogenationfollowed by auto-oxidation of alkylated anthraquinone. The autoxidation of 2-ethyl-9,10- dihydroxyanthracene (C16H14O2) to 2- ethylanthraquinone (C16H12O2) and hydrogen peroxide using oxygen from the air. In this reaction, the hydroxy groups on the middle ring of anthracene are deprotonated and are turned into ketones, while two double bonds are lost from the middle ring and are replaced as C=O double bonds in the ketone groups. 19
  20. 20. Conventional process: Catalytic hydrogenation followed byauto-oxidation of alkylated anthraquinone. The anthraquinone derivative is then extracted out and reduced back to the dihydroxy compound using hydrogen gas in the presence of a metal catalyst. The overall equation for the process is deceptively simple: H2 + O2 → H2O2 However the economics of the process depend on effective recycling of the quinone and extraction solvents, and of the hydrogenation catalyst. 20
  21. 21. H O2 manufacture by cleaner Technology: 2Recent Development Catalytic route to aqueous H2O2 by DUPONT Controlled oxidation of hydrogen. In 2009, a new process of producing hydrogen peroxide using gold-palladium nanoparticles has been reported. This process claims to be inexpensive, efficient, and environmental friendly. ^ 19141507.htm ". Science) 323 (5917): 1037–41. doi:10.1126/science.1168980. PMID 19229032. 21
  22. 22. Solvay is a fully integrated producer of hydrogenperoxide using the Auto-Oxidation process tocombine the basic raw materials oxygen andhydrogen for manufacturing technical grades ofhydrogen peroxide on a large scale. 22
  24. 24. Recycling paper by reusing paper as a raw material Papers such as newspaper, magazines, cardboard, packaging, wrapping paper, etc. can be recycled. In Europe, an average of 50% of the paper is recovered for recycling. The first step in the recycling process is the cleaning of the used fibers. The fibers are made into a slush substance similar to the slurry used when the originally paper was made. Reused pulp is usually not sufficient in strength to be used alone, so new pulp must be added to the mixture of recycled pulp before the paper is made. Depending on the grade of paper desired, large or small quantities of new pulp must be added. 24
  25. 25. Under the US Pollution Prevention Act, recycling, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal are not included within the definition of pollution prevention. Some practices commonly described as "in-process recycling" may qualify as pollution prevention. Recycling that is conducted in an environmentally sound manner shares many of the advantages of prevention—it can reduce the need for treatment or disposal, and conserve energy and resources. 25
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  27. 27. Process Development And Design Refinement of a process concept from early conceptual stages through preliminary engineering Waste generation can often be minimized through proper design and operation of the process system 27
  28. 28. Typical Environmental Design Constraintsand ObjectivesConstraints Objectives Compliance with all applicable  Minimal use of toxics in-process environmental regulations Compliance with existing permit  Minimize life-cycle impact within requirements for discharge and emissions acceptable financial parameters Process loadings not to exceed existing  Implement all pollution prevention options treatment capacity meeting investment hurdles Zero discharge of regulated wastes  Maximize use of recycled raw materials 28
  29. 29. Academic Award in 1999 Professor Terry Collins Carnegie Mellon University TAML™ Oxidant Activators: General Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide for Green Chemistry: a series of environmentally friendly oxidant activators based on iron. These TAMLTM (tetraamido-macrocyclic ligand) activators catalyze the reactions of oxidants in general. Their activation properties with hydrogen peroxide in water are of greatest environmental significance. 29
  30. 30. TAML™ Oxidant Activators: General Activation ofHydrogen Peroxide for Green Chemistry: 1999 Award Users of TAMLTM peroxide activators will range from huge primary extractive- processing industries to household consumers throughout the world. In laboratory tests, the Collins activators have shown this potential in the major industrial application of wood-pulp delignification and In the broad-based consumer process of laundry cleaning 30
  31. 31. totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching. It has been clearly demonstrated that TAMLTM activators can provide the Pulp and Paper Industry (P&PI) with the first low-temperature hydrogen peroxide-based delignification technology for treating pulp. The new process moves the elemental balance of pulp delignification closer to what Nature employs for degrading lignin, a strategy reflected in the industry‘s recent development of totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching procedures. 31
  32. 32. What tasks enable Pollution Prevention?1. equipment or technology modifications,2. process or procedure modifications,3. reformulation or redesign or products,4. substitution of raw materials, and5. improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control. 32
  33. 33. LCA Life-cycle analysis (LCA) is a sophisticated way of examining the total environmental impact of a product through every step of its life -- from obtaining raw materials all the way through making it in a factory, selling it in a store, using it in the home, and disposing of it. 33
  34. 34. What is LCA? Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the potential environmental aspects associated with a product (or service), by: compiling an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs, evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs, interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the objectives of the study. 34
  35. 35. What is LCA of a product? A product: From It asks three basic obtaining raw materials questions all the way through  Where does the making it in a factory, product come from ? selling it in a store,  What is its effect on using it in the home, Environment ? and disposing of it.  Where does it go ? 35
  36. 36. Product Life Cycle 36
  37. 37. LCA and the Regulatory Process LCA is voluntary in the U.S. At present  its use is limited, but expanding LCA is mandatory in some European countries  used as the basis of packaging recovery and recycling targets 37
  38. 38. Benefits Of LCA companies can claim one product is better than another on the basis of LCA LCA inventory process helps to narrow in on the area where the biggest reductions in environmental emissions can be made can be used to reduce production costs 38
  39. 39. Basis of Pollution Prevention Planning requires a detailed understanding of how a company does business and how it makes its products the plan should provide a mechanism for comprehensive and continuous review of company‘s activities as they pertain to environmental issues 39
  40. 40. Major Elements of aPollution Prevention Plan building support for the plan throughout the company organizing the program setting goals and objectives performing a preliminary assessment of P2 opportunities identifying potential problems and solutions 40
  41. 41. Environmental Management Systems [EMS] P2 planning procedures are now unified into a comprehensive system for managing environmental impacts by industry ISO 14000 standards establish benchmarks for environmental management performance, and describe the measures that must be taken by industry to conform to these standards 41
  42. 42. Examples of Bioprocesses in EMS: 1.Biological Wastewater Treatment systems; Solid and Sludge Disposal by Composting, and Landfills Technology; 2.Biodegradation of xeno - biotic compounds; 3.Bioremediation; 4. Bio-fuel Technology to provide supplements to fossil fuels; 5.Bio-fertilizers, Bio- pesticides and Plant Biotechnology for Agriculture; 6.Bio-leaching of ores. 42
  43. 43. ISO 14000 EMS Model PrinciplesISO 14000:  Commitment and Environmental Policy  Environmental Management Plan  Implementation  Measurement and Evaluation  Continual Review and Improvement 43
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  45. 45. Green Design term coined by Office of Technology Assessment-USA signifies a design process in which environmental attributes of a product are treated as design opportunities, rather than design constraints incorporates environmental objectives with minimum loss to product, useful life or functionality 45
  46. 46. Dual Goals of Green Design 46
  47. 47. Product Design 47
  48. 48. Product Design example: milk satchet 48
  49. 49. Green Chemistry synthesis, processing and use of chemicals that reduces risks to human health and the environment synthetic chemistry designed to use and generate fewer hazardous substances aims at reducing the use of endangered resources by switching to more plentiful or renewable resources 49
  50. 50. Sustainable Development Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs 50
  52. 52. Pollution prevention approaches can beapplied to all pollution-generating activities: In the energy, agriculture, consumer, as well as industrial sectors. The impairment of wetlands, ground water sources, and other critical resources constitutes pollution, and prevention practices may be essential for preserving these resources. These practices may include conservation techniques and changes in management practices to prevent harm to sensitive ecosystems. 52
  53. 53. In the agricultural sector, pollutionprevention approaches include: reducing the use of water and chemical inputs; adoption of less environmentally harmful pesticides or cultivation of crop strains with natural resistance to pests; and protection of sensitive areas. 53
  54. 54. In the energy sector, pollution prevention can reduce environmental damages from extraction, processing, transport, and combustion of fuels. Pollution prevention approaches include: increasing efficiency in energy use; substituting environmentally benign fuel sources; anddesign changes that reduce the demand for energy. 54
  55. 55. Environmental Protection in India-1 Particularly in urban slums and rural areas, problems emerge in the supply of safe drinking and service water. At the same time, sewage disposal from private households and industries is not ensured. An environmentally sound communal waste disposal system and proper treatment of industrial residuals are still not in place. Rivers are burdened with effluents and wastes to a large extent. 55
  56. 56. Environmental Protection in India-2 Urban traffic, wood-burning and firing plants of numerous small industries lead to air pollution, frequently exceeding the stipulated limits. Urban industrial conglomerations are responsible for severe pollution of the environment. Several enterprises in rural areas also contribute to considerable contamination. 56
  57. 57. Environmental Protection in India-3 Even though the statutory organization of the Indian Government, i.e. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), was constituted in September, 1974, the awareness of environmental protection and pollution control in India came into sharp focus only in the aftermath of the ―Bhopal Gas Tragedy‖ in 1984 57
  58. 58. Ministry of Environment and Forests At Bhopal, on 2-3 December 1984, thousands died due to a leakage of over 40 tonnes of highly poisonous methylisocyanate gas from the pesticide factory of Union Carbide in Bhopal. Thereafter, the environment industry received formal recognition in the year 1985 when a full fledged Ministry of Environment and Forests was constituted at the federal level. 58
  59. 59. In 1986, following the tragedy of Bhopal,THE ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACTwas enacted. Under this measure, the centralgovernment has responsibility for• deciding standards,• restricting industrial sites,• laying down procedures and safeguards• for accident prevention and handling of hazardous waste,• oversight of investigations. 59
  60. 60. THE ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT-2 Central Govt has also responsibility for research on pollution issues, on-site inspections, establishment of laboratories, and collection and dissemination of information. Samples collected by central government officials can be admissible in court. The Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife, which is within the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, was designated as the lead agency for administration and enforcement. 60
  61. 61. Biomethanation Technology in Industry 2000 Industries Existing Biomethanation plants units Distilleries 254 145 Paper & Pulp 347 5 Starch 13 1 61
  62. 62. Questions-A 1. Discuss hydrogen peroxide as an alternative clean oxidizing agent in organic synthesis and as replacement of chlorine based oxidizing agent. Describe alternate processes that can make H2O2 production less expensive. 2. Discuss the general powers under the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 and subsequent notification of Rules, to take measures to protect and improve environment? 62
  63. 63. Questions-B3. What are the parameters mentioned and thestandards for control of emissions or discharge ofenvironmental pollutants for Thermal PowerPlants?4. Explain the pollution problems associated withlarge application of Pesticides and alternatives thatare available/ being developed.5. Distinguish between industrial pollution control ‗and prevention. Explain end of pipe emissioncontrol. Give examples 63
  64. 64.  Wood-pulp delignification has traditionally relied on chlorine-based processes that produce chlorinated pollutants. It has been clearly demonstrated that TAMLTM activators can provide the Pulp and Paper Industry (P&PI) with the first low-temperature hydrogen peroxide- based delignification technology for treating pulp. 64
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  67. 67. Text books Green Engineering , D. T. Allen and D. R. Shonnard,2002, Prentice-Hall PTR New York T.K. Roy, (Editor), Chemical Technology for better Environment, Allied publishers Ltd, Chennai 1998 Bishop P., Pollution Prevention: Fundamentals and Practice, McGraw-Hill International Edition, McGraw-Hill book Co, Singapore, 2000 67
  68. 68. Reference books;• El Halwagy, M. M, Pollution Prevention through Process Integration : Systematic Design Tools, Academic Press, N.Y. (1997)• P.T. Anastas and J.C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press. N.Y. 1998 68