Energy from-biomass

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This Science and Technology topic can contribute to India's need for non-fossil fuels.

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Energy from-biomass

  1. 1. ENERGY RECOVERY FROM BIOMASS BIO-FUEL SOURCES, CHARACTERISTICS, CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING TREE SPECIES FOR ENERGY PLANTATIONS
  2. 2. Fossil fuels - vs - Bio-fuels Why bio-fuels? Current contribution of bio-fuels to primary energy supply
  3. 3. Problems in biomass utilization 3
  4. 4. WHY BIOFUELS? • The fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - are simply ancient biomass. Over millions of years, the earth has buried ages-old plant material and converted it into fuels. But while fossil fuels contain the same constituents - as those found in fresh biomass, fossil fuels are not renewable because they take such a long time to create. 4
  5. 5. Why Biofuels? …environmental impact • Environmental impacts pose a distinction between biomass and fossil fuels. When a plant decays, it returns its chemical matter into the atmosphere and is part of carbon cycle. Fossil fuels are carbon locked away deep in the ground; when they are burned on a large scale, fossil fuels overload the earth’s atmosphere with added CO2,SO2, and NOx. 5
  6. 6. Why Biofuels? …creates rural jobs • Biomass-energy systems can increase economic development without contributing to the greenhouse effect since biomass is not a net emitter of CO2 to the atmosphere and it is produced and used on sustainable basis. • Growing biomass is a rural, labour-intensive activity, and can, therefore, create jobs in rural areas and help stem rural-to-urban migration 6
  7. 7. Why Biofuels? …Use Waste, No GHG • Biofuel has lower sulphur and NOx emissions and can help rehabilitate degraded lands. • The use of biomass in larger commercial systems based on sustainable, already accumulated resources and residues [from agro-industries] can help improve natural resource management. 7
  8. 8. Why Biofuels? …Technology developed • Modern technology for using bio-fuels can generate heat and electricity through direct combustion substituting fossil fuels. • Modern devices for bio-fuel combustion range from very-small-scale domestic boilers to multi-megawatt size power plants for electricity (e.g. via gas turbines). New developments are expected. 8
  9. 9. Transportation: Liquid Biofuels • Liquid fuels for motor vehicles such as ethanol, or other alcohol and bio-diesel can be made based on biomass. • With increases in population and per capita demand, and depletion of fossil-fuel resources, the demand for biomass is expected to increase rapidly in developing countries. 9
  10. 10. Why Biofuels? …multi-uses approach • Growing biomass provides convenient carriers to help promote other rural industries. • The "multi-uses" approach: how land can best be used for sustainable development, what mixture of land use and cropping patterns will make optimum use of a particular plot to meet multiple objectives of food, fuel, fodder, societal needs etc. • This requires a full understanding of the complexity of land use. 10
  11. 11. Current contribution- biofuels • On a global basis, biomass contributes about 14% of the world's energy (55EJ or 25 M barrels oil equivalent). This offsets 1.1 Pg C of net CO2 emissions annually. • Biomass based energy in developing countries: About 90% in countries such as Nepal, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda About 45% in India, 28% in China and Brazil 11
  12. 12. Current contribution - In European industrial countries / EU /USA: •It is 14% in Austria, 20% in Finland and 18% in Sweden. •It represents about 4% of the primary energy use in both the EU and USA. • In the EU this is equivalent to 2 EJ/year of the estimated total consumption of 54 EJ. Estimates show a likely potential in Europe in 2050 of 9.013.5 EJ depending on land areas, yields, and recoverable residues, representing about 17-30% of projected total energy 12
  13. 13. Share of bio-energy in primary energy consumption in India In India, the share of bio-energy was estimated at around 36 % to 46 % of the total primary energy consumption in 1991 [Ravindranath and Hall, 1995], and has come down to around 27 % in 1997 [Ravindranath et al., 2000]. 13
  14. 14. Rural India & bio-energy • Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy needs for all activities were met by renewable sources such as solar, biomass, wind, animal and human muscle power. • It is interesting to note that in rural India, traditional renewables such as biomass and human and animal energy continue to contribute 80 % of the energy consumption [MNES, 2001]. 14
  15. 15. Present problems in use of bio-fuels Traditional biomass use is characterized by • low efficiency of devices, scarcity of fuel wood, drudgery associated with the devices used, • environmental degradation (such as forest degradation) and low quality of life. 15
  16. 16. Develop: Modern Bio Energy Technologies [BET] •Modern ‘BET’ offer opportunities to conserve biomass through efficiency improvements, and for conversion to electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels. • Bio-energy technologies based on sustained biomass supply are carbon neutral and lead to net CO2 emission reduction if used to substitute fossil fuels. 16
  17. 17. SCOPE FOR DEVLOPMENT OF BIOMASS SOURCES: •Biomass productivity can be improved with good management, as in many places now it is low, being much less than 5 t / ha / year for woody species. 17
  18. 18. •Increased productivity is the key to both providing competitive costs and •better utilization of available land. •Advances have included the identification of fast-growing species, breeding successes and •multiple species opportunities. 18
  19. 19. •Advances have included from new physiological knowledge of plant growth processes, and • manipulation of plants through biotechnology applications, which could raise productivity 5 to 10 times over natural growth rates in plants or trees. 19
  20. 20. Sources of biomass Primary and secondary sources, Characteristics, categories, properties of biomass based bio-fuels
  21. 21. Sources of bio-fuels Primary: • Forestry-Dense, Open; Social Forestry • Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, • Marine Secondary: • Industrial process byproducts, effluents, • Municipal Waste 21
  22. 22. Primary biomass resources are produced directly by photosynthesis and are taken directly from the land. They include perennial short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops, the seeds of oil crops, and residues resulting from the harvesting of agricultural crops and forest trees (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover, and the tops, limbs, and bark from trees). Secondary biomass resources result from the processing of primary biomass resources either physically (e.g., the production of sawdust in mills), chemically (e.g., black liquor from pulping processes), or biologically (e.g., manure production by animals). Tertiary biomass resources are post-consumer residue streams including animal fats and greases, used vegetable oils, packaging wastes, and construction and demolition debris. 22
  23. 23. Classification of biomass based on physicochemical properties: • WOODY, • NON-WOODY (Agro-residues, cultivated), • WET [AQUEOUS] ORGANIC WASTE 23
  24. 24. WOODY BIOMASS • FORESTS • PLANTATIONS (MULTI- PURPOSE TREES) • TREES FROM VILLAGE COMMON LANDS [T.O.F] • HYDROCARBON PLANTS • TREES BEARING NONEDIBLE OIL SEEDS 24
  25. 25. Agro-residue, Mil.T/annum Agro-residue India, Wheat Straw 83.3 Rice Husk 39.8 Maize Cobs 2.8 Pearl Millet straw 90.6 Sugar Cane Bagasse 93.4 Coconut shell 3.4 Coconut pith 3.4 Groundnut shells 2.6 Cotton Stalks 27.3 Jute Stalks 2.7 T.Nadu, 9.2 3.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 - 25
  26. 26. WET ORGANIC WASTE • • • • • • • ANIMAL MANURE, SLUDGE MICROALGAE AND SEAWEEDS WASTE STARCH & SUGAR SOLUTIONS DOMESTIC GARBAGE [MSW] FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS NONEDIBLE OILS FROM SEEDS & ANIMAL FATS HYDROCARBON LATEX FROM TREES 26
  27. 27. Microalgae and Seaweeds • Algae have potentially greater productivity growing in water, thus avoiding water and nutrient limitations, as well as their potential for continuous cultivation at near maximal productivity compared to plants. Further, algae have few nonproductive parts such as roots or stems. Thus, although algae do not have an inherently more efficient photosynthetic process and some vascular plants (e.g., irrigated sugar cane in the tropics) can approach the productivities reported for algae, they certainly are among the most productive photosynthetic organisms 27
  28. 28. Liquid biofuels • Liquid biofuels include pure plant oil, biodiesel, and bioethanol. Biodiesel is based on esterification of plant oils. • Ethanol is primarily derived from sugar, maize, and other starchy crops. • Global production of biofuels consists primarily of ethanol, followed by biodiesel production. 28
  29. 29. Physical Properties of Solid Bio-fuels for combustion: • Moisture Content, • Particle Size and Size distribution • Bulk Density & Specific gravity • Higher Heating Value 29
  30. 30. Chemical Composition of Solid Bio-fuels for combustion : • • • • • • Total Ash %, Solvent soluble %, Water Soluble %, Lignin %, Cellulose %, Hemi-cellulose % 30
  31. 31. Chemical composition • Wood is grouped as either hardwood or softwood. • Softwoods have 40–45% cellulose, 24–37% hemicellulose and 25–30% lignin. • Hardwoods contain approximately 40–50% cellulose and 22–40% hemicellulose. 31
  32. 32. Elemental Composition: • • • • • Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur 32
  33. 33. Properties of Wet biomass for biomethanation process: • • • • C O D value B O D value Total dissolved solids Volatile solids 33
  34. 34. Forestry, Energy Plantations and Agro-forestry Forestry, Agro-forestry, and Energy Plantations Current practice in India and future possibilities
  35. 35. Forest resource base-India • 1 % of World's forests on 2.47 % of world's geographical area • Sustaining 16 % of the world's population and 15 % of its livestock population • Forest area cover—63.3 mill. hectares, is 19.2% of the total geographical area of India. 35
  36. 36. Rural demand for Fuelwood for cooking • Use of dung and agricultural waste is widespread in agriculturally prosperous regions with fertile soils and controlled irrigation, such as the Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and northern Bihar, but wood continues to be the main domestic fuel in less endowed and poorer regions. 36
  37. 37. •Price Changes: Fuelwood prices in India increased fast between 1970 and 1985. •But fuelwood prices have since stabilized. •The rise in fuelwood prices during the period 1989– 97 was slightly less than the rise in the wholesale price index (WPI). 37
  38. 38. Forests 1. Tropical dense evergreen forests 2. Tropical semi-evergreen forests 3. Moist deciduous forests 4. Dry deciduous forests 38
  39. 39. Causes of tremendous pressure on Forest resource base • Exponential rise in human and livestock population • increasing demand on land allocation to alternative uses such as agriculture, pastures and development activities. • Insufficient availability, poor purchasing power of people in rural areas for commercial fuels like kerosene & LPG 39
  40. 40. The National Forest Policy • Achieve a minimum of 33 % of total land area under forest or tree cover from present 19.2% cover. •Recognize the requirements of local people for timber, firewood, fodder and other nontimber forest produce-- as the first charge on the forests, • The need for forest conservation on the broad principles of sustainability and people’s participation. 40
  41. 41. Joint Forest Management system. •In total, 15.5 m. hectare of degraded forest land has natural root stock available, which may regenerate given proper management under the JFM • 9.5 m. hectare is partially degraded with some natural rootstock, and another 6 m. ha is highly degraded. 41
  42. 42. •These last two categories together constitute 15.5 m. hectare, • which requires treatment through technology-based • plantation of fuel, fodder and timber species with • substantial investment and technological inputs. 42
  43. 43. JFM-2:The emphasis will be on: • Fuel-wood and fodder plantations to meet the requirements of rural and urban populations. •Plantations of economically important species (through use of high-yielding clones) on refractory areas to meet the growing timber requirement. • Supplementing the incomes of the tribal rural poor through management and development of non-timber forest products. 43
  44. 44. JFM-3: The emphasis will be on cont… • Develop and promoting pasture on suitable degraded areas. • Promote development of degraded forests by adopting, through micro-planning, an integrated approach on a watershed basis. 44
  45. 45. JFM-4: The emphasis will be on cont… • Suitable policy initiatives on rationalization of tree felling and transit rules, assured buy-back arrangements between industries and tree growers, technology extension, and incentives like easy availability of institutional credit etc. 45
  46. 46. Forestry in the New Millennium: To sum up, tropical India, with its adequate sunlight, rainfall, land and labour, is ideally suitable for tree plantations. With the enhanced plan outlay for forestry sector and financial support from donor agencies, the country will be able to march ahead towards the target of 33 percent forest cover. 46
  47. 47. Agro-forestry Integrates trees with farming, such as lines of trees with crops growing between them (alley cropping), hedgerows, living fences, windbreaks, pasture trees, woodlots, and many other farming patterns. Agro-forestry increases biodiversity, supports wildlife, provides firewood, fertilizer, forage, food and more, improves the soil, improves the water, benefits the farmers, benefits everyone. 47
  48. 48. Energy Plantation: Growing trees for their fuel value • A plantation that is designed or managed and operated to provide substantial amounts of usable fuel continuously throughout the year at a reasonable cost is called an 'energy plantation‘ • ‘Wasteland’-- not usable for agriculture and cash crops, is used for this activity 48
  49. 49. Criteria for energy plantation • Sufficient area of 'Wasteland‘, not usable for agriculture and cash crops, be made available for this social forestry activity • Tree species favorable to climate and soil conditions • Combination of harvest cycles and planting densities that will optimize the harvest of fuel and the operating cost--12000 to 24000 trees per hectare. 49
  50. 50. Criteria for energy plantation-continued-2 • Multipurpose tree species-fuel wood supply & improve soil condition • Trees that are capable of growing in deforested areas with degraded soils, and withstand exposure to wind and drought • Rapid growing legumes that fix atmospheric nitrogen to enrich soil 50
  51. 51. Criteria for energy plantation-continued-3 • Species that can be found in similar ecological zones • Produce wood of high calorific value that burn without sparks or smoke • Have other uses in addition to providing fuel - multipurpose tree species most suited for bio-energy plantations or social forestry 51
  52. 52. Tree species for regions of India Trees for energy plantations, their selection basis and utility
  53. 53. Indian TREES / WOOD: • Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul) • Acacia nilotica • Casurina sp • Derris indica (Pongam) • Eucalyptus sp • Sesbania sp • Prosopis juliflora • Azadiracta indica (Neem) 53
  54. 54. HYDROCARBON PLANTS, OIL PRODUCING SHRUBS: • Hydrocarbon-- Euphorbia group • & Euphorbia Lathyrus • OIL Shrubs-- Euphorbia Tirucali • Soyabean • Sunflower • Groundnut • Jatropa 54
  55. 55. LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA [SUBABUL] Forage legume = vegetable, • Regeneration of earthworm populations in a degraded soil by natural and planted fallows under humid tropical conditions • Use of Leucaena leucocephala: Fodder, fuelwood, erosion control, nitrogen fixation, alley cropping, staking material • Nitrogen fixation legume: Due to Leucaena leucocephala crop wasteland is reclaimed 55
  56. 56. Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul) • It makes good yields for green manure. • Leucaena yields fuelwood. • Leucaena has great potential for carbon sequestration • Leucaena Fixes Nitrogen. • Leucaena is a legume, a tree that fixes nitrogen from the air. It is a fast growing nitrogen fixing tree (FGNFT), which can be profitably grown and used by both small and large farmers. 56
  57. 57. Leucaena produces firewood Can produce furniture make paper and fibers for rayon-cellophane make parquet flooring make living fence posts make small woodcraft items make fertilizer make livestock feed create shade for plants and banana crops 57
  58. 58. neem tree (Azadirachta indica) • Tree used in windbreaks, fuelwood plantations, and silvo -pastoral systems, for dry zones and infertile, rocky, sandy or shallow soils. The leaves, bark, wood and fruit of the neem tree either repel or discourage insect pests, and these plant parts are incorporated into traditional soil preparation, grain storage, and animal husbandry practices. • Several neem -based biological pest control (BPC) products have been developed. The neem tree can provide an inexpensive integrated pest management (IPM) resource for farmers, the raw material for small rural enterprises, or the development of neem-based industries. 58
  59. 59. JATROPA CURCAS [PHYSIC NUT] • Jatropha curcas [ physic nut], is unique among biofuels. Jatropha is currently the first choice for biodiesel. Able to tolerate arid climates, rapidly growing, useful for a variety of products, • Jatropha can yield up to two tons of biodiesel fuel per year per hectare. • Jatropha requires minimal inputs, stablizes or even reverses desertification, and has use for a variety of products after the biofuel is extracted. 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. 61
  62. 62. Jatropha, continued • What makes Jatropha especially attractive to India is that it is a drought-resistant and can grow in saline, marginal and even otherwise infertile soil, requiring little water and maintenance. • It is hearty and easy to propagate-- a cutting taken from a plant and simply pushed into the ground will take root. It grows 5 to 10 feet high, and is capable of stabilizing sand dunes, acting as a windbreak and combating desertification. 62
  63. 63. Jatropha projects are documented to be carried out since 1991 with disappointing results. However, there is now more experience, better expertise about the strengths and weaknesses and success factors in India available, even though not yet well compiled. As well, Jatropha efforts have a much better Government backing now than ten years ago. 63
  64. 64. Babul ( Acacia nilotica) • In M.P., Babul ( Acacia nilotica) is the most sought after wood species due to its high calorific value. The next most popular are • Dhaoda ( Anogcisum latifolia) and Satputa • ( Dalbergia panniculata). These are • cheaper than Babul but are inferior as fuels. • The ideal girth class is 25 to 45 cm, at • which size the logs can be used straight • away. Logs of larger girth have to be split, • demanding more time and expenditure, • while thinner logs burn too quickly. 64
  65. 65. Acacia nilotica: babul • A useful nitrogen fixing tree found wild in the dry areas of tropical Africa and India • plantations are managed on a 15-20 year rotation for fuelwood and timber. • calorific value of 4950 kcal/kg, making excellent fuelwood and quality charcoal. It burns slow with little smoke when dry • The bark of ssp. indica has high levels of tannin (12-20%) 65
  66. 66. Pongamia pinnata • • • • A nitrogen fixing tree for oilseed Also called as Derris indica, karanga, Produces seeds containing 30-40% oil. is a medium sized tree that generally attains a height of about 8 m and a trunk diameter of more than 50 cm • natural distribution of pongam is along coasts and river banks in India and Burma 66
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