AGRICULTURE AND BIOPRODUCTS
THANKS TO PETE DESAI
“Knowledge Based Economy” a new Driver
Great Opportunity for Agriculture
...
The 20th Century:
CCoonnvveerrggeennccee
Century of Physics & Chemistry
EEnntteerrttaaiinnmmeenntt
IInnffoorrmmaattiioonn
...
CCoonnvveerrggeennccee
The 21st Century: Century of
Biotechnology, Physics & Chemistry
EEnntteerrttaaiinnmmeenntt
IInnffoo...
Molecular Biology
NanotechnologyInformatics
Electricity
ComputersFlight
Technology and Global impact
Electricity
20th Cent...
Did you know
Canada
Sales Per Year
Automobiles $ 47 Billion
Residential Housing $ 13 Billion
Computers $ 1.2 Billion
USA
W...
Did You Know
FOOD GROCERIES EXPENDITURE
Canada $ 64 Billion
USA $ 600+ Billion
FOOD for THOUGHT #1
Agriculture is a BIG Business
The pie is bigger than we ALL think
“THINK BIG”
The Age of Biology is beginning…
Unit of Heredity
(G. Mendel)
DNA structure DNA sequencing HGP
DNA is heredity
material
Co...
GGeennee MMeettaabboolliicc PPrrootteeiinn MMiiccrroo-- BBiioo--
GGeennoommiiccss EExxpprreessssiioonn PPaatthh EEnngg.. E...
Improved primary production = renewable resources
Genomics to identify genes and regulation
of expression…
Chromosomes
Gen...
Renewable resources are sustainable (Primary
energy capture to multiple uses)…
SOLAR ENERGY Ecological cycles
Fossil
Fuels...
Traditional biomass approaches are
insufficient to meet demand…
Renewable Resources
T
FORESTRY
TYPICAL BIOMASS
Bioenergy P...
A vision for renewable resources...
Demand
National security
Environmental footprint
Rural development
Economic sustainabi...
World Energy Use = 382 Quads
or 65 million Btu/yr/capita
Facts and Figures: World Energy Use…
BY TYPE: BY REGION:
Renewabl...
Total renewable energy
use in the US = 7.5 Quads
(<8% total consumption)
US Renewable Energy…
Total renewable energy
use i...
Canada: reserves and time left…
Known reserves:
Crude oil = 4.7 B bbls
Nat gas = 61 T cu ft
Coal = 9.5 B tons
125
100
Prov...
Vision 2020 roadmap identifies several areas
and the need to integrate research...
Key areas for integrated research
Plant...
Methanol, H2
Bioenergy
Evolution of the bio-refinery?
Grains
Stover
Other/
Waste
Feed
Many derivatives
Biomass
Marine B
Oi...
Emerging Future: Duality in Feedstocks and Processes
OOiill BBaasseedd RReenneewwaabbllee RReessoouurrcceess BBaasseedd
99...
LLiiqquuiidd oorr
SSoolliidd BBiioommaassss
GGaass
SSeeeedd
Technology Progress
BIOPROCESSING
FFeerrmmeennttaattiioonn
Bio...
Opportunities for Plant-Produced,
Renewable Materials
VVaalluuee
$$//LLbb..
PPhhaarrmmaa -- HHiigghh VVaalluuee PPrroottee...
Use of biotech to modify existing
components…
Typical wood: (or stalks/fiber)
Cellulose (1,4-glucan) – tensile strength
Li...
Spider silk proteins…
 Seven known protein types
 Repetitive amino acid arrays
“Flagelliform” silk
 Highly elastic (20...
Advances in renewables
Functional materials
New materials
Novel genes
Functional materials
Sea shells contain in interesti...
Millions of diverse species
Billions of diverse genes
Pharmaceuticals
Nutraceuticals
Advances in renewables
Functional mat...
Pulp & paper quality
Degree of lignification
Enzyme modification of fibers
Gasification of residues
• Methanol – fuels cel...
Polylactic acid (PLA) from
grown carbon...
D
E Dimerization
X
T Lactic
Controlled
polymerization
R
Fermentation
O
S
E
Acid...
Genomics can assist in moving special
fatty acids between plant species…
Fatty acids and/or their triglycerides
= renewabl...
Improved primary production = renewable resources
Genomics to identify genes and regulation
of expression…
Chromosomes
Gen...
Traits that are on the horizon...
 Crop protection.
– New approaches via natural genes….
 Crop performance.
– Fertilizer...
The next generation will involve selecting
technology to fit consumer needs...
Structural Genomics
Functional Genomics
Ger...
Viable businesses will be
more integrated but along
a different dimension
What changes can you
implement to increase
the p...
The Value Chain
Wealth Creation
Technology Germplasm Seeds Grower Grain Primary Secondary Retailing
Handling Processing Pr...
The Value Chain
Agriculture industry must form new systems to create,
capture and deliver the value from the technology.
T...
Success Factors for Bio-Based
Economy
Consistent Supply Perceived
or Add Real Value
Functionality
Property
Create a New In...
Success Factors for Bio-Based
Economy
Short Term Quick HITS FOCUS,
Focus. focus on WINNERS Need the
Biomass equivalent of:...
FOOD for THOUGHT #2
NO one can do it alone
Major Successes will be through
Multi Disciplinary
“TEAM APPROACH”
Think Global
Act Local
If you do what you always did then
“You will get what you always got”
*
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Bioproducts and modern agriculture

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Biotechnology developments are expected to benefit mankind immensely in the present times.

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Bioproducts and modern agriculture

  1. 1. AGRICULTURE AND BIOPRODUCTS THANKS TO PETE DESAI “Knowledge Based Economy” a new Driver Great Opportunity for Agriculture Tremendous Prospects for Plant Science
  2. 2. The 20th Century: CCoonnvveerrggeennccee Century of Physics & Chemistry EEnntteerrttaaiinnmmeenntt IInnffoorrmmaattiioonn TTeecchhnnoollooggyy CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn Mathematics Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Chemistry / Physics Material Science Electronics Microbiology EEnneerrggyy FFoooodd // AAAgggrrriiicccuuullltttuuurrreee IInndduussttrriiaall MMaatteerriiaallss TTrraannssppoorrttaattiioonn PPhhaarrmmaacceeuuttiiccaallss IInnssttrruummeennttss Co-evolution and convergence of different scientific disciplines create many new application opportunities with large societal benefits, both economic and scientific.
  3. 3. CCoonnvveerrggeennccee The 21st Century: Century of Biotechnology, Physics & Chemistry EEnntteerrttaaiinnmmeenntt IInnffoorrmmaattiioonn TTeecchhnnoollooggyy CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn BIOTECHNOLOGY Mathematics Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Chemistry / Physics Material Science Electronics Microbiology EEnneerrggyy FFoooodd // AAAgggrrriiicccuuullltttuuurrreee IInndduussttrriiaall MMaatteerriiaallss TTrraannssppoorrttaattiioonn PPhhaarrmmaacceeuuttiiccaallss IInnssttrruummeennttss Co-evolution and convergence of different scientific disciplines create many new application opportunities with large societal benefits, both economic and scientific.
  4. 4. Molecular Biology NanotechnologyInformatics Electricity ComputersFlight Technology and Global impact Electricity 20th Century Advances Flight Computers Molecular Biology The next threshold in human progress Informatics Nanotechnology
  5. 5. Did you know Canada Sales Per Year Automobiles $ 47 Billion Residential Housing $ 13 Billion Computers $ 1.2 Billion USA Wall-Mart $ 339 Billion Exxon $ 333 Billion
  6. 6. Did You Know FOOD GROCERIES EXPENDITURE Canada $ 64 Billion USA $ 600+ Billion
  7. 7. FOOD for THOUGHT #1 Agriculture is a BIG Business The pie is bigger than we ALL think “THINK BIG”
  8. 8. The Age of Biology is beginning… Unit of Heredity (G. Mendel) DNA structure DNA sequencing HGP DNA is heredity material Corn hybrids Genetic code First transgenic plants First commercial biotech crops 1865 1920s 1944 1953 1965 1977 1982 1990 1994 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Million bp sequenced 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2000 • Over 6000 million bp sequenced • 6 multi cellular genomes • 60 microbial genomes • Gene expression arrays, proteomics, regulation cascades, HTS, SNPs…. • Over 100 million acres biotech crops
  9. 9. GGeennee MMeettaabboolliicc PPrrootteeiinn MMiiccrroo-- BBiioo-- GGeennoommiiccss EExxpprreessssiioonn PPaatthh EEnngg.. EEnnggiinneeeerriinngg BBiioollooggyy EEnnggiinneeeerriinngg FFeerrmmeennttaattiioonn EEnnaabblliinngg TTeecchhnnoollooggiieess FFuurrtthheerr BBuuiillddiinngg OOnn:: Platform Technologies CCoonnttrrooll && MMaanniippuullaattee DDiiggiittiizzee && AAnnaallyyzzee DDiissccoovveerr DDiirreecctteedd EEvvoolluuttiioonn FFuunnccttiioonnaall GGeennoommiiccss GGeennoommiicc SSeeqquueenncciinngg PPrrootteeiinn EEnnggiinneeeerriinngg PPrrootteeiinn FFuunnccttiioonn PPrrootteeiinn SSttrruuccttuurree CCeellll SSyysstteemmss CChheemmoo GGeennoommiiccss PPrrootteeiinn && CCeellll SSiiggnnaalliinngg GGeennoommee PPrrootteeoommee LLiiffee NNeettwwoorrkkss
  10. 10. Improved primary production = renewable resources Genomics to identify genes and regulation of expression… Chromosomes Genes DNA Sequences A T C A G C T G A Proteomics Metabolism Regulation Computer databases Improved understanding of genes, gene function, and metabolic regulation Improved primary production = renewable resources
  11. 11. Renewable resources are sustainable (Primary energy capture to multiple uses)… SOLAR ENERGY Ecological cycles Fossil Fuels CO2 Energy, Food, Feed, Fiber, & Chemicals Consumption & Processing > 1 million years Photosynthesis High energy Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids & Oils Oxygen chemical bonds & carbon skeletons Metabolites Many chemicals
  12. 12. Traditional biomass approaches are insufficient to meet demand… Renewable Resources T FORESTRY TYPICAL BIOMASS Bioenergy Platform R Residues A D CROP I Residues T I O PROCESS N Residues A Hemi- cellulose Other Cellulose Lignin BIOFUELS BIOPOWER BIOPRODUCTS L MUNICIPAL Waste High energy compounds Novel building blocks - carbon skeletons - novel polymers recycling Processing METHODS Designed SOURCES NEW FUTURE APPROACHES
  13. 13. A vision for renewable resources... Demand National security Environmental footprint Rural development Economic sustainability 5-fold 5-fold again Supplied from Renewables Fossil fuel use is kept about flat Supplied from Fossil Fuels TODAY 2020 2050 Source: Renewable Resources Vision 2020
  14. 14. World Energy Use = 382 Quads or 65 million Btu/yr/capita Facts and Figures: World Energy Use… BY TYPE: BY REGION: Renewables Far East Nuclear 7% Petroleum 40% 8% Natural Gas 23% Coal 22% Africa Middle East E. Europe/F. Soviet W. Europe Canada & Mexico C. & S. America US 0 50 100 150 Quadrillion Btus World Energy Use = 382 Quads or 65 million Btu/yr/capita Source: USDOE
  15. 15. Total renewable energy use in the US = 7.5 Quads (<8% total consumption) US Renewable Energy… Total renewable energy use in the US = 7.5 Quads (<8% total consumption)  Today only ~4% of US energy comes from Ethanol Fuel 1.5% Geothermal 5% Solar & Wind 1.5% Hydroelectric 47% biomass  Today only ~3% of US chemicals and materials come from biomass Wood and Waste 45%
  16. 16. Canada: reserves and time left… Known reserves: Crude oil = 4.7 B bbls Nat gas = 61 T cu ft Coal = 9.5 B tons 125 100 Proven Total projected 75 Y-axis is # YEARS until reserves are gone 50 At current rates of domestic consumption plus export 25 0 Crude oil Nat gas Coal
  17. 17. Vision 2020 roadmap identifies several areas and the need to integrate research... Key areas for integrated research Plant Science Genomics Enzymes Metabolism Composition Production Unit costs Yield Consistency Infrastructure Designer plants Processing Economics Separations Conversion Bio-catalysts Infrastructure Utilization (Materials) Economics Functionality Performance Novel uses Utilization (Demand) Price/value Performance Perception Science and technology impact Source: Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources Roadmap
  18. 18. Methanol, H2 Bioenergy Evolution of the bio-refinery? Grains Stover Other/ Waste Feed Many derivatives Biomass Marine B Oil I Process O R • Edible E • Industrial F I Glycerol N + fatty acids E R Y Residue Recycling Gasification Fiber Gluten (Protein) Starch Products Dextrose B I O P R O C E S S I N G HFCS Organic acids Amino acids Levulinate Xylose Polyols Chemicals Butanol Ethanol BioFuels
  19. 19. Emerging Future: Duality in Feedstocks and Processes OOiill BBaasseedd RReenneewwaabbllee RReessoouurrcceess BBaasseedd 9977%% OOiill WWeellll RReeffiinneerryy 8855%% FFeeeedd // FFoooodd 2255%% FFAARRMM 1155%% CCoommmmooddiittyy PPrroocceessssoorr xx%% PPllaanntt EExxpprreessssiioonn 33%% EEnneerrggyy PPeettrroocchheemmiiccaallss OOiillss 7755%% CCaarrbboo-- hhyyddrraattee SSppeecciiaallttyy PPrroocceessssoorr HHeeaatt FFoooodd 8800%% 2200%% PPrreessssuurree CCaattaallyysstt BBiioopprroocceessssiinngg Broad variety of commodity and differentiated chemicals and plastics KEY COMPETENCIES Catalysis Chem Engineering Material Science KEY COMPETENCIES BiotechBasics Bioprocessing Chem Engineering Material Science
  20. 20. LLiiqquuiidd oorr SSoolliidd BBiioommaassss GGaass SSeeeedd Technology Progress BIOPROCESSING FFeerrmmeennttaattiioonn Biocatalysis Bioreactor Separation Recovery EEnnzzyymmaattiicc PPLLAANNTT EEXXPPRREESSSSIIOONN Plant Growth Identity Preservation Separation PPrroodduuccttss PPrroodduuccttss
  21. 21. Opportunities for Plant-Produced, Renewable Materials VVaalluuee $$//LLbb.. PPhhaarrmmaa -- HHiigghh VVaalluuee PPrrootteeiinn MMaannuuffaaccttuurriinngg AAgg -- ((CChheemmiiccaallss//SSeeeeddss)) NNuuttrriittiioonnaall SSuupppplleemmeennttss EEnnzzyymmeess -- LLaarrggee VVoolluummee IInndduussttrriiaall CCaattaallyyssttss FFoooodd IInnggrreeddiieennttss SSppeecc CChheemm -- PPGG,, OOlleeoocchheemmiiccaallss CChheemmiiccaallss//PPoollyymmeerrss FFoooodd //FFeeeedd -- PPLLAA,, PPHHAA’’ss VVoolluummee
  22. 22. Use of biotech to modify existing components… Typical wood: (or stalks/fiber) Cellulose (1,4-glucan) – tensile strength Lignin (phenolic polymers) – rigidity Hemicellulose (mixed polysaccharides) Down regulated via anti-sense Typical processing involves removing lignin from cellulosic components. Not only was lignin down, growth of the trees was significantly enhanced. From: Hu et al, (1999) Nature Biotechnology, 17, pp 808-812.
  23. 23. Spider silk proteins…  Seven known protein types  Repetitive amino acid arrays “Flagelliform” silk  Highly elastic (200% extension) “Frame dragline” silk  Strength = 300,000 lbs/sq inch  Lighter than steel or petro-polymers Aerospace Structural engineering Ballistic protection Novel fibers for communications
  24. 24. Advances in renewables Functional materials New materials Novel genes Functional materials Sea shells contain in interesting materials… Natural polymers such as polyaspartate will become more prominent as a future source of renewable resources. Bio-mineralization is under genetic control Biomimetics New materials This may turn out to be the least valuable material Advances in renewables • Nanoscale biopolymers for semiconductors
  25. 25. Millions of diverse species Billions of diverse genes Pharmaceuticals Nutraceuticals Advances in renewables Functional materials New materials Genes, proteins, chemicals The marine environment has a vast array of functional chemicals and polymers… Millions of diverse species Pharmaceuticals Nutraceuticals Genes, proteins, chemicals Novel genes Functional materials Biomimetics New materials Billions of diverse genes Advances in renewables
  26. 26. Pulp & paper quality Degree of lignification Enzyme modification of fibers Gasification of residues • Methanol – fuels cells • Base chemical molecules Growth rate: productivity Pest protection Stress tolerance Wood quality Bio-diversity: • Fungi • Lichens/mosses • Microbes • Groundcover • Insects Advanced management • Remote sensing Forestry bioresources… Advanced management • Remote sensing Growth rate: productivity Pest protection Stress tolerance Wood quality Bio-diversity: • Fungi • Lichens/mosses • Microbes • Groundcover • Insects Pulp & paper quality Degree of lignification Enzyme modification of fibers Gasification of residues • Methanol – fuels cells • Base chemical molecules
  27. 27. Polylactic acid (PLA) from grown carbon... D E Dimerization X T Lactic Controlled polymerization R Fermentation O S E Acid Lactide Polylactide NatureWorks® process PLA Resins • Melt processable • Specific Mol Wts • Polymer types Thermoplastic & other markets
  28. 28. Genomics can assist in moving special fatty acids between plant species… Fatty acids and/or their triglycerides = renewable industrial materials. Moving genes to high-yielding crops. PLANT FATTY ACID USES Coriander Petroselinic (C18:1 6) Nylon, Detergents Cuphae Caprylate (C8:0) Detergents, lubricant Forest vine Palmitoleic (C18:1 9) Detergents Honesty Nervonic (C24:1 15) Slip agent Jojoba Wax and esters (C40-44) Lubricant, cosmetics Lesquerella Densipolic (12-OH C18:2 9,15) Coatings Meadowfoam Arachidonic (C20:1 5) Anti-corrosion Vernonia Vernolic (12-epoxy C18:1 9) Plasticizer, polymers
  29. 29. Improved primary production = renewable resources Genomics to identify genes and regulation of expression… Chromosomes Genes DNA Sequences A T C A G C T G A Proteomics Metabolism Regulation Computer databases Improved understanding of genes, gene function, and metabolic regulation Improved primary production = renewable resources
  30. 30. Traits that are on the horizon...  Crop protection. – New approaches via natural genes….  Crop performance. – Fertilizer use efficiency, stress tolerance….  Compositional quality. – Focus on feed moving to food (more slowly)  Nutraceutical & health related. – Antioxidants, edible vaccines….  Industrial renewable resources. – Raw materials inputs, few novel products.
  31. 31. The next generation will involve selecting technology to fit consumer needs... Structural Genomics Functional Genomics Germplasm Base T D N Genes A Mapping Sequencing Expression Proteomics R Informational Science A Bioinformatics I T Gene Shuffling S MAB Transgenics Designer Crops Grown Set of Future Consumer Needs Food & Materials Manufacture Separations Processing Harvest IP Store
  32. 32. Viable businesses will be more integrated but along a different dimension What changes can you implement to increase the probability for future sustainable development. Achieving sustainable development will require business sectors to reform new sets... Emerging arena of “Health and Well-being” PHARMA FOOD PROCESSING RESOURCE PRODUCTION (agriculture) Viable businesses will be more integrated but along a different dimension CHEMICALS Emerging arena of “Sustainable Industry” MATERIALS What changes can you implement to increase the probability for future sustainable development.
  33. 33. The Value Chain Wealth Creation Technology Germplasm Seeds Grower Grain Primary Secondary Retailing Handling Processing Processing CONSUMER
  34. 34. The Value Chain Agriculture industry must form new systems to create, capture and deliver the value from the technology. TTeecchhnnoollooggyy GGeerrmmppllaassmm SSeeeeddss GGrroowweerr GGrraaiinn PPrriimmaarryy SSeeccoonnddaarryy RReettaaiilliinngg HHaannddlliinngg PPrroocceessssiinngg PPrroocceessssiinngg Future focus on “output” traits will drive greater co-ordination between all points in the value-chain.
  35. 35. Success Factors for Bio-Based Economy Consistent Supply Perceived or Add Real Value Functionality Property Create a New Innovative Product Excellent Science Resources to Commercialize
  36. 36. Success Factors for Bio-Based Economy Short Term Quick HITS FOCUS, Focus. focus on WINNERS Need the Biomass equivalent of: - Ethylene - Oil It could be SUGARS from Biomass not Valuable commodity - Food
  37. 37. FOOD for THOUGHT #2 NO one can do it alone Major Successes will be through Multi Disciplinary “TEAM APPROACH”
  38. 38. Think Global Act Local
  39. 39. If you do what you always did then “You will get what you always got” *
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