Biomass as biofuel in India
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  • 1. ENERGY FROM BIOMASSSOURCES, CHARACTERISTICS, CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING TREE SPECIES FOR ENERGY PLANTATIONS
  • 2. BIOMASS• Biomass is material derived from plant and animal sources.• Forestry, Agriculture, Urban and Industrial Waste Disposables are sources of biomass that may be converted into biofuels. 2
  • 3. On a global basis• Biomass contributes about 14% of theworlds energy (55EJ or 25 M barrels oilequivalent). This offsets 1.1 Pg C of netCO2 emissions annually.• Biomass based energy in developingcountries: About 90% in countries such as Nepal,Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda About 45% in India, 28% in China andBrazil 3
  • 4. In European industrial countries / EU /USA:14% in Austria, 20% in Finland and 18% inSweden.•It represents about 4% of the primary energy usein both the EU and USA.• In the EU this is equivalent to 2 EJ/year of theestimated total consumption 54 EJ. Estimates show a likely potential inEurope in 2050 of 9.0-13.5 EJ depending on landareas, yields, and recoverable residues,representing about 17-30% of projected totalenergy 4
  • 5. Share of bio-energy in primary energy consumption in IndiaIn India, the share of bio-energy was estimated at around 36 % to 46 % of thetotal primary energy consumption in 1991 [Ravindranath and Hall, 1995], and has come down to around 27 % in 1997 [Ravindranath et al., 2000]. 5
  • 6. Rural India & bio-energy• Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy needs for all activities were met by renewable sources such as solar, biomass, wind, animal and human muscle power.• It is interesting to note that in rural India, traditional renewables such as biomass and human and animal energy continue to contribute 80 % of the energy consumption [MNES, 2001]. 6
  • 7. Fuelwood alone accounts for about 60% of the total fuel inthe rural areas. In urban areas, the consumption pattern ischanging fast due to increased availability of commercialfuel (LPG, kerosene, and electricity). During 1983–1999,the consumption of traditional fuel declined from 49% to24% and LPG connection to households increased from10% to 44%. Developments in the petroleum sectorfacilitate the availability of LPG and kerosene, the twomost important forms of energy preferred as substitutesfor fuelwood in households for cooking. 7
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  • 10. Problems in use of bio-fuelsTraditional biomass use is characterized by• low efficiency of devices, scarcity of fuelwood, drudgery associated with the devices used,• environmental degradation (such as forest degradation) and low quality of life. 10
  • 11. India has over two decades of experience of implementingbioenergy programmes. The Ministry of Non-conventionalEnergy Sources (MNES), the prime mover of theprogrammes in India, has now responded with acomprehensive renewable energy policy to give afurther fillip to the evolving sector. The need for climatechange mitigation provides an opportunity for promotingthe renewable energy (RE) sector. This calls for anassessment of the policy barriers to the spread ofbioenergy technologies (BETs) in India. 11
  • 12. • The experience shows that despite several financial incentives and favourable policy measures, the rate of spread of BETs is low because of the existence of institutional, technical, market and credit barriers.• These barriers are by and large known, but what still remains to be understood is the type and size of barriers from the stakeholders’ perspective, which varies for a given technology and the stakeholder.• Policy options suggested to overcome such barriers include: 12
  • 13. Barriers:(1) rational energy pricing,(2) incentives to promote private sector participation,(3) institutions to empower and enable community participation,(4) financial support for large-scale demonstration programmes and forfocused research and development on BETs for cost reduction andefficiency improvement, and finally,(5) favourable land tenurial arrangements to promote sustainedbiomass supply.The global mechanisms for addressing climate change such as theClean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Global EnvironmentFacility (GEF) provide additional incentives to promote BETs. 13
  • 14. Modern Bio Energy Technologies•Offer opportunities to conserve biomassthrough efficiency improvements, and forconversion to electricity and liquid andgaseous fuels.• Bio-energy technologies based onsustained biomass supply are carbonneutral and lead to net CO2 emissionreduction if used to substitute fossil fuels. 14
  • 15. Sources of bio-fuelsPrimary:• Forestry-Dense, Open; Social Forestry• Agriculture, Animal Husbandry,• MarineSecondary:• Industry,• Municipal Waste 15
  • 16. Forest resource base-India• 1 % of Worlds forests on 2.47 % of worlds geographical area• Sustaining 16 % of the worlds population and 15 % of its livestock population• Forest area cover—63.3 mill. hectares, is 19.2% of the total geographical area of India. 16
  • 17. Causes of tremendous pressure on Forest resource base• Exponential rise in human and livestock population• increasing demand on land allocation to alternative uses such as agriculture, pastures and development activities.• Insufficient availability, poor purchasing power of people in rural areas for commercial fuels like kerosene & LPG 17
  • 18. The National Forest Policy• A minimum of 33 % of total land area underforest or tree cover from present 19.2%cover.•Recognize the requirements of local peoplefor timber, firewood, fodder and other non-timber forest produce-- as the first charge onthe forests,• The need for forest conservation on thebroad principles of sustainability andpeople’s participation. 18
  • 19. Joint Forest Management system.15.5 m. ha of degraded forest land has natural rootstock available, which may regenerate given propermanagement under the JFM•Another 9.5 m. ha is partially degraded with somenatural rootstock, and another six m. ha is highlydegraded. These last two categories togetherconstitute another 15.5 m. ha, which requirestreatment through technology-based plantation offuel, fodder and timber species with substantialinvestment and technological inputs. 19
  • 20. The emphasis will be on:• Fuelwood and fodder plantations to meetthe requirements of rural and urbanpopulations.•Plantations of economically importantspecies (through use of high-yielding clones)on refractory areas to meet the growingtimber requirement.• Supplementing the incomes of the tribalrural poor through management anddevelopment of non-timber forest products. 20
  • 21. The emphasis will be on cont…• Developing and promoting pasture on suitabledegraded areas.• Promoting afforestation and development ofdegraded forests by adopting, through micro-planning, an integrated approach on a watershedbasis.• Suitable policy initiatives on rationalization of treefelling and transit rules, assured buy-backarrangements between industries and treegrowers, technology extension, and incentives likeeasy availability of institutional credit etc. 21
  • 22. Forestry in the New Millenium:To sum up, tropical India, with its adequatesunlight, rainfall, land and labour,is ideally suitable for tree plantations.With the enhanced plan outlay forforestry sector and financial supportfrom donor agencies, the country willbe able to march ahead towards the targetof 33 percent forest cover. 22
  • 23. Agro-forestryIntegrates trees with farming, such as linesof trees with crops growing between them(alley cropping), hedgerows, living fences,windbreaks, pasture trees, woodlots, andmany other farming patterns.Agro-forestry increases biodiversity,supports wildlife, provides firewood,fertilizer, forage, food and more, improvesthe soil, improves the water, benefits thefarmers, benefits everyone. 23
  • 24. Energy Plantation: Growing trees for their fuel value• ‘Wasteland’-- not usable for agriculture and cash crops, useful for a social forestry activity• A plantation that is designed or managed and operated to provide substantial amounts of usable fuel continuously throughout the year at a reasonable cost-- energy plantation 24
  • 25. Criteria for energy plantation• Wasteland‘--sufficient area, not usable for agriculture and cash crops, available for a social forestry activity• Tree species favorable to climate and soil conditions• Combination of harvest cycles and planting densities that will optimize the harvest of fuel and the operating cost--12000 to 24000 trees per hectare. 25
  • 26. Criteria for energy plantation-continued• Multipurpose tree species-fuel wood supply & improve soil condition• Trees that are capable of growing in deforested areas with degraded soils, and withstand exposure to wind and drought• Rapid growing legumes that fix atmospheric nitrogen to enrich soil 26
  • 27. Criteria for energy plantation-continued• Species that can be found in similar ecological zones• Produce wood of high calorific value that burn without sparks or smoke• Have other uses in addition to providing fuel - - multipurpose tree species most suited for bio-energy plantations or social forestry 27
  • 28. Indian TREES / WOOD:• Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)• Acacia sp (Babool)• Casurina sp• Derris indica (Pongam)• Eucalyptus sp• Sesbania sp• Prosopis juliflora• Azadiracta indica (Neem) 28
  • 29. Leucaena leucocephalaCrop Use:Forage legume = vegetable,• Regeneration of earthworm populations in adegraded soil by natural and planted fallows underhumid tropical conditions• Use of Leucaena leucocephala: Fodder, fuelwood, erosion control, nitrogen fixation, alley cropping, staking material• Ntrogen fixation legume: Due to Leucaena leucocephala crop wasteland is reclaimed 29
  • 30. HYDROCARBON PLANTS, OIL PRODUCING SHRUBS:• Hydrocarbon-- Euphorbia group• & Euphorbia Lathyrus• OIL Shrubs-- Euphorbia Tirucali• Soyabean• Sunflower• Groundnut• Jatropa 30
  • 31. Classification of biomass based on physicochemical properties:• WOODY,• NON-WOODY(cultivated),• WET [AQUEOUS] ORGANIC WASTE 31
  • 32. Physical Properties of Solid Biomass :• Moisture Content,• Particle Size and Size distribution• Bulk Density & Specific gravity• Higher Heating Value 32
  • 33. Chemical Composition of Solid Biomass :• Total Ash %,• Solvent soluble %,• Water Soluble %,• Lignin %,• Cellulose %,• Hemi-cellulose % 33
  • 34. Elemental Composition:• Carbon• Hydrogen• Oxygen• Nitrogen• Sulphur 34
  • 35. Properties of Wet and Biodegradable biomass:• C O D value• B O D value• Total dissolved solids• Volatile solids 35
  • 36. BIOENERGY SYSTEMS 36
  • 37. BIOMASS UTILIZATION 37
  • 38. The promotion of energy using biomass availablein form of natural waste such as agriculturalresidue, sugarcane bagasse, banana stems,organic effluents, cattle dung, night soil, fuelwoodand twigs holds considerable promise. A NationalProgramme on Biomass Power/Cogeneration waslaunched to optimise the use of a variety offorestry-based and agro-based residues for powergeneration by the adoption of state-of-the-artconversion technologies. 38
  • 39. Reference book from T. E. R. I. Chapters 12 to15 39
  • 40. The Energy and Resources InstituteReference book Chapters 12 to15 40