Bioenergy from wood


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For rural energy demand, production of woody biomass and processing technologies are needed.meeting

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Bioenergy from wood

  2. 2. Comparison of bio-fuels with fossil fuels Why bio-fuels? Current contribution of bio-fuels to primary energy supply
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENT & BIOFUELS: BENIGN, RENEWABLE• The fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - are simply ancient biomass. Over millions of years, the earth has buried ages-old plant material and converted it into fuels.• But while fossil fuels contain the same constituents - as those found in fresh biomass, fossil fuels are not renewable because they take such a long time to create. 3
  4. 4. Reclaim wasteland by growing biomass; Its Use is carbon neutral• When a plant decays, it returns its chemical matter into the atmosphere and is part of carbon cycle. Fossil fuels are carbon locked away deep in the ground; when they are burned on a large scale, fossil fuels overload the earth’s atmosphere with added CO2,SO2, and NOx. Biofuel has lower sulphur and NOx emissions and can help rehabilitate degraded lands. 4
  5. 5. Energy Services,Pumping, Lighting,Cooking, Heating, ↑ Impact on ↑  economyElectricity, Equity Fuels, Social Structures SUSTAINABLECogeneration  DEVELOPMENT  ↑ Empowerment ↑  EnvironmentBiomassConversionSystems ↑ BIOMASS PRODUCTION 5
  6. 6. Rural economics & environment• Biomass-energy systems can increase economic development without contributing to the greenhouse effect since biomass is not a net emitter of CO2 to the atmosphere and it is produced and used on sustainable basis.• Growing biomass is a rural, labour-intensive activity, and can, therefore, create jobs in rural areas and help stem rural-to-urban migration 6
  7. 7. Improved natural resource management• The use of biomass in larger commercial systems based on sustainable, already accumulated resources and residues [from agro-industries] can help improve natural resource management. 7
  8. 8. Land use and cropping patterns• Growing biomass provides convenient carriers to help promote other rural industries.• The "multi-uses" approach: how land can best be used for sustainable development, what mixture of land use and cropping patterns will make optimum use of a particular plot to meet multiple objectives of food, fuel, fodder, societal needs etc.• This requires a full understanding of the complexity of land use. 8
  9. 9. Current contribution- biofuels• On a global basis, biomass contributesabout 14% of the worlds energy (55EJ or25 M barrels oil equivalent). This offsets1.1 Pg C of net CO2 emissions annually.• Biomass based energy in developingcountries: About 90% in countries such as Nepal,Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda About 45% in India, 28% in China andBrazil 9
  10. 10. Current contribution - In European industrial countries / EU /USA:•It is 14% in Austria, 20% in Finland and 18% inSweden.•It represents about 4% of the primary energy usein both the EU and USA.• In the EU this is equivalent to 2 EJ/year of theestimated total consumption of 54 EJ. Estimatesshow a likely potential in Europe in 2050 of 9.0-13.5 EJ depending on land areas, yields, andrecoverable residues, representing about 17-30%of projected total energy 10
  11. 11. Share of bio-energy in primary energy consumption in India• In India, the share of bio-energy was estimated at around 36 % to 46 % of the total primary energy consumption in 1991 , and has come down to around 27 % in 1997.• For cooking, water heating and village industry, use of firewood may have been substituted by LPG, kerosene and diesel. Though availability has improved, now prices are increasing. Improved cook stoves may also improve energy utilization efficiency. 11
  12. 12. Rural India & bio-energy• Before the advent of fossil fuels, energy needs for all activities were met by renewable sources such as solar, biomass, wind, animal and human muscle power.• It is interesting to note that in rural India, traditional renewables such as biomass and human and animal energy continue to contribute 80 % of the energy consumption [MNES, 2001]. 12
  13. 13. Technology Energy services provided Biogas  Cooking • Heating  Electricity (local pumping, milling, lighting, and possible distribution via utility gridProducer  Electricity (local pumping, milling, lighting, gas and possible distribution via utility grid) • HeatingEthanol / • Vehicle transportationBio-diesel • Cooking Boiler + • Electricity (for industrial processing) Steam • Heating process heat turbineBiofuel + • Electricity (for industrial processing)Gas turbine • Heating process heat 13
  14. 14. Biomass is called "the poor woman’s oil,"since women (and children) in rural areasspend time collecting daily fuel wood needsand suffer the brunt of indoor air pollutioncaused by direct combustion of biomass forcooking and heating. 14
  15. 15. Fuel wood Cook stoves & indoorair pollution:58 percent of all human exposure toparticulate air pollution is estimated tooccur indoors in rural areas ofdeveloping countries Better cookstoves reduce this indoor air pollution 15
  16. 16. Biomass production: multipurpose activityBioenergy feed stocks can be produced inconjunction with — food, fodder, fuelwood,construction materials, artisan materials,other agricultural crops, etc. Feedstockproduction can help restore the environmenton which the poor depend for theirlivelihoods: 16
  17. 17. Growing biomass, a multiple use activity• Re-vegetating barren land,• protecting watersheds and harvesting rainwater,• providing habitat for local species, stabilising slopes or river banks, or• reclaiming waterlogged and salinated soils. 17
  18. 18. Present problems in use of bio-fuelsTraditional biomass use is characterized by• low efficiency of devices, scarcity of fuel- wood, drudgery associated with the devices used,• environmental degradation (such as forest degradation) and low quality of life. 18
  19. 19. Bio-energy activities can provide locally produced energy sources to:• pump water for drinking and irrigation,• light homes, schools, and health clinics,• improve communication and access to information,• provide energy for local enterprises, and• ease pressure on fuel wood resources. 19
  20. 20. Biomass Utilization in IndustrializedCountries:Converted into electricity and process heat in cogeneration systems (combined heat and power production) at industrial sites or at municipal district heating facilities.Thus both produces a greater variety of electricity (a few megawatts at an average-sized facility) and process steam to meet the processing needs of a mill. 20
  21. 21. Develop: Modern Bio Energy Technologies [BET]•Modern ‘B E T’ offer opportunities toconserve biomass through efficiencyimprovements, and for conversion toelectricity and liquid and gaseous fuels.• Bio-energy technologies based onsustained biomass supply are carbonneutral and lead to net CO2 emissionreduction if used to substitute fossil fuels. 21
  22. 22. IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY OF BIOMASS SOURCES:•Biomass productivity can be improvedwith good management, as in manyplaces now it is low, being much lessthan 5 t / ha / year for woody species. 22
  23. 23. •Increased productivity is the key toboth providing competitive costs and•better utilization of available land.•Advances have included theidentification of fast-growing species,breeding successes and•multiple species opportunities. 23
  24. 24. •Advances have included from newphysiological knowledge of plant growthprocesses, and• manipulation of plants throughbiotechnology applications, which couldraise productivity 5 to 10 times overnatural growth rates in plants or trees. 24
  25. 25. Sources of biomassPrimary and secondary sources, Characteristics, categories,properties of biomass based bio- fuels
  26. 26. Sources of bio-fuelsPrimary:• Forestry-Dense, Open; Social Forestry• Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Agroforestry• MarineSecondary:• Industrial process byproducts, effluents,• Municipal Waste 26
  27. 27. Classification of biomass basedon physicochemical properties:• WOODY,• NON-WOODY (Agro-residues, cultivated),• WET [AQUEOUS] ORGANIC WASTE 27
  29. 29. Physical Properties of Solid Bio-fuels for combustion: • Moisture Content, • Particle Size and Size distribution • Bulk Density & Specific gravity • Higher Heating Value 29
  30. 30. Chemical Composition of Solid Bio- fuels for combustion :• Total Ash %,• Solvent soluble %,• Water Soluble %,• Lignin %,• Cellulose %,• Hemi-cellulose % 30
  31. 31. Chemical composition• Wood is grouped as either hardwood or softwood.• Softwoods have 40–45% cellulose, 24–37% hemicellulose and 25–30% lignin.• Hardwoods contain approximately 40–50% cellulose and 22–40% hemicellulose. 31
  32. 32. Elemental Composition:• Carbon• Hydrogen• Oxygen• Nitrogen• Sulphur 32
  33. 33. Properties of Wet biomass for biomethanation process:• C O D value• B O D value• Total dissolved solids• Volatile solids 33
  34. 34. Forestry, Energy Plantations and Agro-forestry Forestry, Agro-forestry, and Energy Plantations Current practice in India and future possibilities
  35. 35. Forest resource base-India• 1 % of Worlds forests on 2.47 % of worlds geographical area.• Sustaining 16 % of the worlds population and 15 % of its livestock population.• Forests fulfill nearly 40% of the country’s energy needs and 30% of fodder needs. Annual production of fuelwood, fodder and timber is 270MT(mill. tonnes), 280 MT and 12 Mill. cubic metres , respectively. (Plan. Com. 2002). Forest cover is about 20.7% of the area in 2005. 35
  36. 36. Rural demand for Fuelwood for cooking• Use of dung and agricultural waste is widespread in agriculturally prosperous regions with fertile soils and controlled irrigation, such as the Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and northern Bihar, but wood continues to be the main domestic fuel in less endowed and poorer regions. 36
  37. 37. •Price Changes: Fuelwood prices in Indiaincreased fast between 1970 and 1985.•But fuelwood prices have since stabilized.•The rise in fuelwood prices during the period1989– 97 was slightly less than the rise in thewholesale price index (WPI). 37
  38. 38. Forests1. Tropical dense evergreen forests2. Tropical semi-evergreen forests3. Moist deciduous forests4. Dry deciduous forests 38
  39. 39. Causes of tremendous pressure on Forest resource base• Exponential rise in human and livestock population• increasing demand on land allocation to alternative uses such as agriculture, pastures and development activities.• Insufficient availability, poor purchasing power of people in rural areas for commercial fuels like kerosene & LPG 39
  40. 40. The National Forest Policy• Achieve a minimum of 33 % of total landarea under forest or tree cover from present19.2% cover.•Recognize the requirements of local peoplefor timber, firewood, fodder and other non-timber forest produce-- as the first charge onthe forests,• The need for forest conservation on thebroad principles of sustainability andpeople’s participation. 40
  41. 41. Joint Forest Management system.•In total, 15.5 m. hectare of degraded forestland has natural root stock available, whichmay regenerate given proper managementunder the JFM• 9.5 m. hectare is partially degraded withsome natural rootstock, and another 6 m. hais highly degraded. 41
  42. 42. •These last two categories togetherconstitute 15.5 m. hectare,• which requires treatment throughtechnology-based• plantation of fuel, fodder and timberspecies with• substantial investment andtechnological inputs. 42
  43. 43. JFM-2:The emphasis will be on:• Fuel-wood and fodder plantations to meetthe requirements of rural and urbanpopulations.•Plantations of economically importantspecies (through use of high-yieldingclones) on refractory areas to meet thegrowing timber requirement.• Supplementing the incomes of the tribalrural poor through management anddevelopment of non-timber forest products. 43
  44. 44. JFM-3: The emphasis will be on cont…• Develop and promoting pasture on suitabledegraded areas.• Promote development of degraded forestsby adopting, through micro-planning, anintegrated approach on a watershed basis. 44
  45. 45. JFM-4: The emphasis will be on cont…• Suitable policy initiatives on rationalization of tree felling and transit rules, assured buy-back arrangements between industries and tree growers, technology extension, and incentives like easy availability of institutional credit etc. 45
  46. 46. Forestry in the New Millennium:To sum up, tropical India, with its adequatesunlight, rainfall, land and labour,is ideally suitable for tree plantations.With the enhanced plan outlay forforestry sector and financial supportfrom donor agencies, the country willbe able to march ahead towards the target of 33percent forest cover. 46
  47. 47. Agro-forestryIntegrates trees with farming, such as linesof trees with crops growing between them(alley cropping), hedgerows, living fences,windbreaks, pasture trees, woodlots, andmany other farming patterns.Agro-forestry increases biodiversity,supports wildlife, provides firewood,fertilizer, forage, food and more, improvesthe soil, improves the water, benefits thefarmers, benefits everyone. 47
  48. 48. Energy Plantation: Growing trees for their fuel value• A plantation that is designed or managed and operated to provide substantial amounts of usable fuel continuously throughout the year at a reasonable cost is called an energy plantation‘• ‘Wasteland’-- not usable for agriculture and cash crops, is used for this activity 48
  49. 49. Criteria for energy plantation• Sufficient area of Wasteland‘, not usable for agriculture and cash crops, be made available for this social forestry activity• Tree species favorable to climate and soil conditions• Combination of harvest cycles and planting densities that will optimize the harvest of fuel and the operating cost--12000 to 24000 trees per hectare. 49
  50. 50. Criteria for energy plantation-continued- 2• Multipurpose tree species-fuel wood supply & improve soil condition• Trees that are capable of growing in deforested areas with degraded soils, and withstand exposure to wind and drought• Rapid growing legumes that fix atmospheric nitrogen to enrich soil 50
  51. 51. Criteria for energy plantation-continued- 3• Species that can be found in similar ecological zones• Produce wood of high calorific value that burn without sparks or smoke• Have other uses in addition to providing fuel - - multipurpose tree species most suited for bio-energy plantations or social forestry 51
  52. 52. Tree species for regions of India Trees for energy plantations, their selection basis and utility
  53. 53. Indian TREES / WOOD:• Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)• Acacia nilotica• Casurina sp• Derris indica (Pongam)• Eucalyptus sp• Sesbania sp• Prosopis juliflora• Azadiracta indica (Neem) 53
  54. 54. HYDROCARBON PLANTS, OIL PRODUCING SHRUBS:• Hydrocarbon-- Euphorbia group• & Euphorbia Lathyrus• OIL Shrubs-- Euphorbia Tirucali• Soya bean• Sunflower• Groundnut• Jatropha 54
  55. 55. Leucaena leucocephala (Subabul)• It makes good yields for green manure.• Leucaena yields fuelwood.• Leucaena has great potential for carbon sequestration• Leucaena Fixes Nitrogen.• Leucaena is a legume, a tree that fixes nitrogen from the air. It is a fast growing nitrogen fixing tree (FGNFT), which can be profitably grown and used by both small and large farmers. 55
  56. 56. Leucaena produces firewood Can produce furnituremake paper and fibers for rayon-cellophane make parquet flooring make living fence posts make small woodcraft items make fertilizer make livestock feed create shade for plants and banana crops 56
  57. 57. neem tree (Azadirachta indica)• Tree used as windbreaks, fuelwood, and silvo-pastoral systems, for dry zones and infertile, rocky, sandy soils. The leaves, bark, wood and fruit of the neem either repel or discourage insect pests; these plant parts are incorporated into traditional soil preparation, grain storage, and animal husbandry practices.• Neem - based biological pest control (BPC) products have been developed. The neem tree can provide an inexpensive integrated pest management (IPM) resource for farmers, the raw material for small rural enterprises, or the development of neem-based industries. 57
  58. 58. JATROPA CURCAS [PHYSIC NUT]• Jatropha curcas [ physic nut], is unique among biofuels. Jatropha is currently the first choice for biodiesel. Able to tolerate arid climates, rapidly growing, useful for a variety of products,• Jatropha can yield up to two tons of biodiesel fuel per year per hectare.• Jatropha requires minimal inputs, stablizes or even reverses desertification, and has use for a variety of products after the biofuel is extracted. 58
  59. 59. Jatropha, continued• What makes Jatropha especially attractive to India is that it is a drought-resistant and can grow in saline, marginal and even otherwise infertile soil, requiring little water and maintenance.• It is hearty and easy to propagate-- a cutting taken from a plant and simply pushed into the ground will take root. It grows 5 to 10 feet high, and is capable of stabilizing sand dunes, acting as a windbreak and combating desertification. 59
  60. 60. Jatropha projects are documented to becarried out since 1991 with disappointingresults.However, there is now more experience,better expertise about the strengths andweaknesses and success factors in Indiaavailable, even though not yet well compiled.As well, Jatropha efforts have a much betterGovernment backing now than ten yearsago. 60
  61. 61. In M.P., Babul ( Acacia nilotica) is the mostsought after wood species due to its highcalorific value. The next most popular areDhaoda ( Anogcisum latifolia) and Satputa( Dalbergia panniculata). These arecheaper than Babul but are inferior as fuels.The ideal girth class is 25 to 45 cm, atwhich size the logs can be used straightaway. Logs of larger girth have to be split,demanding more time and expenditure,while thinner logs burn too quickly. 61
  62. 62. Acacia nilotica: babul• A useful nitrogen fixing tree found wild in the dry areas of tropical Africa and India• plantations are managed on a 15-20 year rotation for fuelwood and timber.• calorific value of 4950 kcal/kg, making excellent fuelwood and quality charcoal. It burns slow with little smoke when dry• The bark of ssp. indica has high levels of tannin (12-20%) 62
  63. 63. Pongamia pinnata• A nitrogen fixing tree for oilseed• Also called as Derris indica, karanga,• Produces seeds containing 30-40% oil.• is a medium sized tree that generally attains a height of about 8 m and a trunk diameter of more than 50 cm• natural distribution of pongam is along coasts and river banks in India and Burma 63
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. Liquid fuels from biomass• Liquid fuels for motor vehicles such as ethanol, or other alcohol and bio-diesel can be made based on biomass.• With increases in population and per capita demand, and depletion of fossil-fuel resources, the demand for biomass is expected to increase rapidly in developing countries. 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. Reference books (Biomass is one of therenewable energy sources)
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71
  72. 72. 1. a) Discuss the terms Agro-forestry and EnergyPlantation. b) What criteria are used in selecting species of treesfor such programs? c) Enumerate different agro-residues available in Indiaand discuss their characteristics as sources of energy2. a) For solid biomass used for combustion, what is thesignificance of Proximate, Ultimate Analysis and HigherHeating Value? b) Give typical values for saw dust, bagasse, woodchar and rice husk. b) Discuss fluidized bed combustion of woodybiomass. 72
  73. 73. 3. a) Discuss pyrolysis of biomass for (i) char and (ii) liquidfuel production.b) Explain down-draft gasifier with gas purification forproducer gas.4. a). Discuss cogeneration system involving steam-injectedgas turbine as applicable to biomass fuel.b). Explain combined cycle with inter-cooled steam injectedgas turbine.c). Discuss case studies on combined cycle cogenerationsystems developed in cane sugar industry 73