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Biodiesel in India
2
• Developments, Diesel Issues:
• New diesel fuel standards (low sulfur diesel)
• New diesel burns cleaner (good)
• Lubri...
3
Chemistry of Triglycerides
• Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy
alcohol (i.e. m...
4
What is Biodiesel?
• Alternative fuel for diesel engines
• Made from vegetable oil or animal fat
• Meets health effect t...
5
Transesterification
Whileactuallyamulti-stepprocess,theoverall
reactionlookslikethis:
CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH
|  |
CHOOR...
6
20 May, 2006 2006 Eastern Biofuel Conference
CATALYST PREPARATION
SEPARATION OF PHASES
BIODIESEL
PURIFICATION
RECOVERING...
7
After Glycerin removal, biodiesel now needs to be
cleaned/purified before use:
8
Blends of up to 20% biodiesel (mixed with petroleum
diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel
equipment and are com...
9
The use of biodiesel decreases the solid carbon fraction of
particulate matter (since the oxygen in biodiesel enables mo...
Productivity of Vegetable Oils
10
Nature
Yield
(kg/ ha. year)
Oil
Content
(%)
Productivity
(kg
seed./ha.year)
Soya 560 20 ...
Challenges for biodiesel
• Transesterification
• Uses vegetable oils
and animal fats as
feed stocks
• The reaction of a fa...
12
Challenges for biodiesel:
Increase yields on the oil-seeds production
A real multi-feedstock biodiesel production,
rega...
13
13
Biodiesel Process
• Pre-Reaction Equipment
• Oil Storage Tank
• Alcohol Storage Tank
• Catalyst Storage
• Biodiesel ...
14
•Post-Reaction Equipment
• Settling tanks and/or Separating
Equipment
• Washing Equipment
• Drying Equipment
• Biodiese...
15
• Crude Glycerin
• No Ready Market for Crude Glycerin
• Quantity produced is 10% to 20% of
biodiesel production
• Conta...
16
17
18
Jatropha: The seeds of a plant called jatropha (Jatropha
curcas / ratanjyot in Hindi) and pongamia (Pongamia
pinnata; k...
19
Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of
Pongamia pinnata.
Karmee S K, Chadha A. ( I I T MADRAS)
Biodiesel prepared f...
20
Continued Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of
Pongamia pinnata. Karmee S K, Chadha A. ( I I T MADRAS)
Solid acid...
21
In India, the price of bio-diesel was regulated by the
petroleum ministry, which used the retail price of diesel
for it...
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Biodiesel in india 2014

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Biodiesel needs immense homework for implementing and a politically sensitive issue.

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Transcript of "Biodiesel in india 2014"

  1. 1. Biodiesel in India
  2. 2. 2 • Developments, Diesel Issues: • New diesel fuel standards (low sulfur diesel) • New diesel burns cleaner (good) • Lubricity is reduced (bad) • Retail diesel prices have increased • Why? • Demand has been growing • Refining capacity is strained • Transportation capacity is strained • Higher fuel quality standards
  3. 3. 3 Chemistry of Triglycerides • Biodiesel is made from the combination of a triglyceride with a monohydroxy alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol…). • What is a triglyceride? Made from a combination of glycerol and three fatty acids:
  4. 4. 4 What is Biodiesel? • Alternative fuel for diesel engines • Made from vegetable oil or animal fat • Meets health effect testing (CAA) • Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer • Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. • Chemically, biodiesel molecules are mono-alkyl esters produced usually from triglyceride esters Fatty Acid Alcohol Glycerin Vegetable Oil BiodieselFA FAFA FA
  5. 5. 5 Transesterification Whileactuallyamulti-stepprocess,theoverall reactionlookslikethis: CH2OOR1 catalyst CH2OH |  | CHOOR2 + 3CH3OH  3CH3OORx + CHOH | | CH2OOR3 CH2OH Triglyceride 3 Methanols Biodiesel Glycerin R1, R2, and R3 are fatty acid alkyl groups (could be different, or the same), and depend on the type of oil. The fatty acids involved determine the final properties of the biodiesel (cetane number, cold flow properties, etc.)
  6. 6. 6 20 May, 2006 2006 Eastern Biofuel Conference CATALYST PREPARATION SEPARATION OF PHASES BIODIESEL PURIFICATION RECOVERING OF ALCOHOL EXCESS CRUDE GLYCERINA DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOL INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES RAW MATERIAL PRE-TREATMENT TRANSESTERIFICATION BIODIESEL Block Diagram of Industrial Process
  7. 7. 7 After Glycerin removal, biodiesel now needs to be cleaned/purified before use:
  8. 8. 8 Blends of up to 20% biodiesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. These low level blends (20% and less) don't require any engine modifications and can provide the same payload capacity and as diesel. Users should consult their engine warranty statement. Transportation and storage, however, require special management. Material compatibility and warrantee issues haven't been resolved with higher blends.
  9. 9. 9 The use of biodiesel decreases the solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since the oxygen in biodiesel enables more complete combustion to CO2) and reduces the sulfate fraction (biodiesel contains less than 24 ppm sulfur), while the soluble, or hydrocarbon, fraction stays the same or increases. Therefore, biodiesel works well with new technologies such as diesel oxidation catalysts (which reduce the soluble fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction). Emissions of nitrogen oxides increase with the concentration of biodiesel in the fuel. Some biodiesel produces more nitrogen oxides than others, and some additives have shown promise in modifying the increases. More R&D is needed to resolve this issue.
  10. 10. Productivity of Vegetable Oils 10 Nature Yield (kg/ ha. year) Oil Content (%) Productivity (kg seed./ha.year) Soya 560 20 2.800 “Nabo forrageiro” 240 30 800 Castor Bean 470 47 1.000 Sunflower–Intra- harvest 572 44 1.300 Sunflower – summer 792 44 1.800 Cotton seed 361 19 1.900 Rapeseed 713 38 1.876 Peanut–dry region 563 45 1.251 Peanut–wet region 788 45 1.751
  11. 11. Challenges for biodiesel • Transesterification • Uses vegetable oils and animal fats as feed stocks • The reaction of a fat or oil with an alcohol to form esters (biodiesel) and glycerol • Should be stored 5-10 degrees F above cloud point. Challenges: • Expensive feed stocks and inefficient production methods • Strict standards for product quality • NOx emissions • Transportation and storage concerns 11
  12. 12. 12 Challenges for biodiesel: Increase yields on the oil-seeds production A real multi-feedstock biodiesel production, regarding all the aspects, not only the technical ones. Establish of quality standards of different raw materials. Development of analytical methods for the quality control of the process and the products.
  13. 13. 13 13 Biodiesel Process • Pre-Reaction Equipment • Oil Storage Tank • Alcohol Storage Tank • Catalyst Storage • Biodiesel “Reactor” • Pumps, Filters, Plumbing
  14. 14. 14 •Post-Reaction Equipment • Settling tanks and/or Separating Equipment • Washing Equipment • Drying Equipment • Biodiesel Storage Tank • Glycerin Storage Tank • Pumps, Filters, Plumbing
  15. 15. 15 • Crude Glycerin • No Ready Market for Crude Glycerin • Quantity produced is 10% to 20% of biodiesel production • Contains Methanol & Catalyst • Possible Uses: • Compost • Fuel Oil • Refine to Pharmaceutical Grade Glycerin
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Jatropha: The seeds of a plant called jatropha (Jatropha curcas / ratanjyot in Hindi) and pongamia (Pongamia pinnata; karanj in Hindi) yield oil that, after processing, makes biodiesel. The system of production is simple. Oil is extracted and put through a process called transesterification (to convert it to fatty acid esters, the chemical description of biodiesel, by incubation with alcohol and alkali); this makes it a suitable blend for petroleum-derived diesel. The jatropha blend reduces greenhouse gas emission by half.
  19. 19. 19 Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of Pongamia pinnata. Karmee S K, Chadha A. ( I I T MADRAS) Biodiesel prepared from the oil of Pongamia pinnata with methanol in the presence of KOH as catalyst. A conversion of 92% (oil to ester) was achieved using a 1:10 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 60 degrees C. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), when used as a co- solvent increased the conversion to 95%.
  20. 20. 20 Continued Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of Pongamia pinnata. Karmee S K, Chadha A. ( I I T MADRAS) Solid acid catalysts viz. H beta-Zeolite, Montmorillonite K-10 and ZnO were also used for this transesterification. Important fuel properties of methyl esters of Pongamia oil (Biodiesel) compare well (Viscosity = 4.8 Cst @ 40 degrees C and Flash point = 150 degrees C) with ASTM and German biodiesel standards.
  21. 21. 21 In India, the price of bio-diesel was regulated by the petroleum ministry, which used the retail price of diesel for its calculation. It was sold at about Rs.30 a litre. India met just 23% of petro demand through domestic production while the rest was met from imported crude. India’s oil import dependency is projected to rise to 93 % by 2030. The Government of India approved a National Policy on Biofuels in September 2008, setting an indicative target to raise blending of biodiesel with diesel to 20 % by 2017 and scrapping taxes and duties on biodiesel.
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