Basics of nanotechnology


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This approach to materials science has many good possibilities in many applications.

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Basics of nanotechnology

  1. 1. Basics of Nanotechnology A primer UG
  2. 2. History of ’Nano’ • The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 paper. • In the 1980s the basic idea of this definition was explored in much more depth by Dr. Eric Drexler, who promoted the technological significance of nanoscale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books 2
  3. 3. Nanotechnology is any technology which exploits phenomena and structures that can only occur at the nanometer scale, which is the scale of single atoms and small molecules. 3
  4. 4. Define ’Nanotechnology’ • The United States National Nanotechnology Initiative website defines it as follows: "Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications." 4
  5. 5. What phenomena are involved? • Such phenomena include ‘quantum confinement’ -- which can result in different electromagnetic and optical properties of a material between nanoparticles and the bulk material. 5
  6. 6. …phenomena involved? • Such phenomena include the Gibbs- Thomson effect --which is the lowering of the melting point of a material when it is nanometers in size, and such structures including Carbon nanotubes. 6
  7. 7. Which Sci & Eng Departments worry about NT? • Nanoscience and nanotechnology are an extension of the field of materials science, and materials science departments in conjunction with physics, mechanical engineering, bioengineering, and chemical engineering departments are leading the breakthroughs in nanotechnology. 7
  8. 8. Say more about Nano Sci & Eng • These interdisciplinary fields of science are devoted to the study of nano-scale phenomena employed in nanotechnology. This is the world of atoms, molecules, macromolecules, quantum dots, and macromolecular assemblies, and… 8
  9. 9. …Say more Nano Sci & Eng ? • It is dominated by surface effects such as Van der Waals force attraction, hydrogen bonding, electronic charge, ionic bonding, covalent bonding, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, and quantum mechanical tunneling, 9
  10. 10. …Say more Nano Sci & Eng? • to the virtual exclusion of macroscale effects such as turbulence and inertia. For example, the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume opens new possibilities in surface-based science, such as catalysis. 10
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  13. 13. Applications in Energy 13
  14. 14. What are nanodevices & their characteristics? • One fundamental characteristic: Nanodevices self-assemble. • Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. • Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. 14
  15. 15. …nanodevices & their characteristics? • By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. Atoms can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques, that can be used for things like helping to guide self-assembling systems. 15
  16. 16. How are atoms, molecules assembled into devices that work? • Supramolecular chemistry is here a very important tool. Supramolecular chemistry is the chemistry beyond the molecule, and molecules are being designed to self-assemble into larger structures. 16
  17. 17. Biology is a place to find inspiration: cells and their pieces are made from selfassembling biopolymers- proteins and protein complexes. A synthesis of organic molecules by adding them to the ends of complementary DNA strands such as ---A and ----B, with molecules A and B attached to the end; when these are put together, the complementary DNA strands hydrogen bonds into a double helix ====AB, and the DNA molecule can be removed to isolate the product AB. 17
  18. 18. What significance assembled ‘nano’ has? • Natural or man-made particles or artifacts often have qualities and capabilities quite different from their macroscopic counterparts. Gold, for example, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. 18
  19. 19. Top ten applications of NT 1.Energy storage, production and conversion; 2. Agricultural productivity enhancement; 3. Water treatment and remediation; 4. Disease diagnosis and screening; 5. Drug delivery systems …. 19
  20. 20. …Top ten applications of NT 6. Food processing and storage; 7. Air pollution and remediation; 8. Construction; 9. Health monitoring; 10. Vector and pest detection and control. 20
  21. 21. Some Indian initiative in NT • In 2000, government launched a USD 15 million fund for a five-year national programme on Smart Materials. • It is coordinated by 5 government agencies involving10 research centres across India. • Focus is on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. 21
  22. 22. …. Indian initiative in NT • MEMS is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. • The Nanomaterials topics include nanostructure synthesis and characterizations, DNA chips, nanoelectronics, and nanomaterials. 22
  23. 23. In 2002, the Department of Science and Technology launched the National Nanotech Programme with total funding of USD 10 million committed over the next 3 years. The Indian Institute of Science (IISc), known as Knowledge Hub of India, was awarded USD 1.0 million for its Nanoscience Research Centre. 23
  24. 24. What is ’IndiaNano’ ? • IndiaNano, a platform recently established by the US and Indian US Community in the Silicon Valley together with Indian R&D community, 24
  25. 25. IndiaNano, a platform …. • trying to coordinate the Indian academic, corporate, government, and private labs, entrepreneurs, earlystage companies, investors, IP, joint ventures, service providers, start-up ventures, and strategic alliances. 25
  26. 26. IIT Bombay's Centre for Research in Nanotechnology & Science (CRNTS) is expected to play a key role in the country in the development of Nanotechnology R&D. Indian nanoscience and technology covers a wide spectrum of topics which include MEMS & NEMS, Nanostructure synthesis and characterizations, Bio-chips or lab-on-a chip concepts, Nanoelectronics (transistors, quantum computing, optoelectronics.etc.) and nanomaterials (CNT, nanoparticles, nanopowder, nanocomposites). 26
  27. 27. Much work is funded and coordinated by DST, MCIT, DBT and a few other government agencies. A recent effort has been that of the National Programme on Smart Materials (NPSM) in the area of MEMS and smart materials. This programme has funded several industries, research labs and academic institutions in various aspects of MEMS, including materials, aerospace applications, design, and biological applications. Two centres of excellence in Nanoelectronics have also been sanctioned by the Govt. of India at IIT Bombay and I I Sc Bangalore 27
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  29. 29. Solar PV System for Electricity. A solar photovoltaic cell (PV) is a device that converts solar radiation energy into electricity. Solar cells were commonly used to power small-sized items such as calculators and watches. But solar PV system have a great future in providing the electricity needs for rural communities, homes, and businesses, when their cost is brought down and energy efficiency in converting light to electricity can be made high. Scientists found that quantum dots to can give more efficient photovoltaic cells and research in nano-solar cells along with battery may lead to an economic Solar PV System in future. 29
  30. 30. Catalysts used in the petroleum industry like zeolites (silicates and aluminosilicates), which are structured with pores and channels having the ‘right’ dimensions to encase selected molecules for catalytic activity (hence they may be specific to certain chemicals). These materials may also be used as molecular sieves and exchange ion catalysts. The sol gel method has been shown to yield, under appropriate conditions, a wide variety of nanoporous structures where the dimensions of the pores may be varied depending on the starting material and treatment conditions. 30