Why should you ALWAYS PREWRITE List immediate impressions of the topic List all possible arguments for both sides Allows for thorough development Allows for objective analysis of the best argument Allows for full concentration in the drafting stage Helps in development of a counter-argument Helps with organization
Step 1Step 1 involves making a choice about your topic. Once youget your prompt, you need to make a judicious decisionabout what you will argue. If you just choose quickly andbegin to write, you may find thatyou don’t have enough strongexamples to support your claim.Choose the most effective way toget your ideas down on paperbefore you forget them. Prewritingkeeps you from writing yourselfinto a corner!
Free writeFree write is exactly what it sounds like. You just begin writing anything thatcomes to mind. You will organize it later. A free write is the best choice when youhave a broad topic that you have to narrow down to one idea to defend. To freewrite, all you need to do is just write anything that comes to your mind. Make jotlists of topic ideas and examples – really just anything at all that comes to mind. Prompt: What do you think is the most important or influential invention in the past one hundred years? Write an essay defending your choice and explaining why it is more significant than other inventions. Computer Television Efficient work, communication Entertainment, information, ed ucation Cell phone Internet Relationships, communication, Efficient work, communication. entertainment, safety, Entertainment, education, orga organization nization (google calendar) iPad Satellite Entertainment, creativity, Communication, navigation, ent mobile work ertainment
T-ChartT-Charts are best to use when your assignment asks you to choose between two sides of anargument. You should list support for both arguments, even if you staunchly agree with oneside already. You should choose the side for which you have the strongest argument – even ifthat means that you argue against what you truly believe. No one is going to follow up to besure you are living by what you wrote on your persuasive essay.Prompt: Your principal has decided to implement a school uniform. She says that it will keep studentsfrom dressing inappropriately and take away the need to remember school dress code rules. Somestudents are saying that it takes away independent expression and creative thinking. Write a letter tothe school board registering your opinion on the subject and defending your position. Students should wear Students should not school uniforms wear school uniforms • Eliminates need for discipline for • Students should be allowed to dress code violation express their individuality • Cuts down on bullying • School uniforms are often • Reduces the amount of money uncomfortable. spent on expensive designer clothing • Makes students feel a sense of belonging Strongest argument
Step 2In step 2, you will organize your brainstormed information. There isno “best” choice for this step. There are hundreds of graphicorganizers you could use. You also have the option of a quickoutline or just a list of what you will include in your essay. In thisstep, make sure to think of an example ordetail for each argument and look forsomething in your brainstorming that youcan use as a counter-argument. If youdon’t think through an organizationplan, your arguments may end up in anillogical order, which will weaken youressay!
Thought PillarThesis Statement A thought pillar is one graphic Argument 1 organizer that will help you visualize your essay. This Example Details organizer, for vertical thinkers, helps many people to see how the arguments, examples, and Argument 2 details work to support the thesis and tie the introductory Example Details and conclusion paragraphs together. Remember that if you don’t Argument 3 have access to “pretty” graphic organizers, you will need to Example Details make a rudimentary version of the one that works best for you. Conclusion
Tree Argument • Example 1 • Details Argument • Example Thesis Statement 2 Conclusion • Details Argument • Example 3 • DetailsA tree organizer, for horizontal thinkers, will allow for a bit more space toexpand your prewriting and may be the better option if you want to includeall of your ideas in your prewriting.Once you have your arguments written down, if you change your mind aboutthe order in which you will present your ideas, just change the numbers!
When brainstorming arguments… REMEMBER RHETORIC ETHOS Uuuum, w hat’s PATHOS “Rhetoric?” LOGOS
EthosSHOWING MORAL CHARACTER OR ESTABLISHING CREDIBILITY As a student myself, I can attest to the fact that homework creates stress.
PathosAPPEAL TO PASSION ORAPPEAL TO EMOTION One of my best friends became so stressed by the excessive homework that she became clinically depressed.
Logos APPEAL TO LOGIC ORAPPEAL TO INTELLECT Because students have so much homework, they don’t have time for a part- time job and often ask their parents for money.
And remember to identify a COUNTER-ARGUMENTIDENTIFY THE OPPOSITION’S STRONGEST ARGUMENT AND…. DESTROY IT! Most teachers believe that homework reinforces concepts learned in class, but they couldn’t be more wrong.
Remember that prewriting is Neat Written in complete sentences Scored or judged Timed Meant to be time-consuming Carved in stone Meant only to occur before writing begins
Let’s practiceUsing the Cinderella License topic, take a few minutes to brainstorm for youressay. Write down every idea you can think of because you never know what willhelp when you’re composing. You don’t have to use everything you write, but younever know what you’ll need! Here are your steps:1. Choose a step 1 strategy and brainstorm2. Choose a step 2 strategy and organize/develop your brainstorming3. Include at least 2 arguments and 1 counter-argument.4. Use only one piece of paper to complete this activity.5. Time yourself! Write the amount of time you spent prewriting in the upper right corner of your paper. Spend NO MORE THAN 15 minutes working on your prewriting – and you really shouldn’t spend that long.No need to turn this in; just use it when you’re writing!