Anth103 Kinship
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Anth103 Kinship

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Anth103 Kinship Anth103 Kinship Presentation Transcript

  • FAMILIES & KINSHIP
    • Variation in Family Form
      • Matrifocal
      • Nuclear
      • Extended
      • Patrifocal
    Karki Family - Matrifocal
  • Families, Kinship, and Descent
    • Families
    • Descent
    • Kinship Calculation
    • Kinship Terminology
  • Families
    • Nuclear family – consists of a married couple and their children, normally living together in same household
    • Extended family – consists of three or more generations
    • Understanding kinship system is essential part of anthropology
    View slide
  • Families
      • Family of orientation – family in which one is born and grows up
      • Family of procreation – formed when one marries and has children
        • In most societies, relations with nuclear family members take precedence over relations with other kin
        • Nuclear family widespread, but not universal
    • Descent groups – lineages and clans
    View slide
  • Families
    • In many societies, extended families are primary unit of social organization
      • Muslims of western Bosnia – nuclear families within large extended families called zadrugas
      • Nayars – matrilineal society in which extended families live in compounds called tarawads
    • Where nuclear family is important, it is primary arena for sexual, reproductive, economic, and enculturative functions
  • Industrialism and Family Organization
      • Neolocality – married couples may live hundreds of miles from parents
      • Extended family household – expanded family household that includes 3 or more generations
      • Within stratified nations, value systems and kinship vary from class to class
    • Most prevalent residence pattern in U.S. is family of procreation living neolocally.
  • Changes in Family and Household Organization in the United States: 1970 versus 2004
      • Sources: From U.S. Census data in J. M. Fields, “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2003,” Current Population Reports , P20-553, November 2004, http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf , p. 4; J. M. Fields and L. M. Casper, “America’s Families and Living Arrangements: 2000,” Current Population Reports , P20-557.pdf; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2006 , Tables 55, 56, and 65. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/statistical_abstract.html.
  • Descent Groups
    • Patrilineal descent – individuals automatically join father’s descent group when they are born
    • Unilineal descent – descent rule only uses one line
    • Matrilineal descent – individuals automatically join mother’s descent group when they are born
  • Descent Groups
    • Clan – descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent)
    • Lineage – descent group who can demonstrate their common descent from apical ancestor
  • Patrilineal Descent
  • Matrilineal Descent
  • Ambilineal Descent
  • Bilateral Descent
    • Kin on both sides are important & recognized
    • Paining by John Holyfield (artist)
  • Functions of Descent Groups (Clans & Lineages)
    • Regulate marriage
    • Make economic decisions
    • Political functions
    • Religious functions
  • Lineages, Clans, and Residence Rules
    • Matrilocality – married couple lives with wife’s family; associated with matrilineal descent and less common than patrilocality
    • Patrilocality – married couple lives with husband’s family; associated with patrilineal descent and more common than matrilocality
  • Family versus Descent
      • Obligations to one may conflict with obligations to the other
      • Compared to patrilineal systems, matrilineal societies tend to have higher divorce rates and greater female promiscuity
    • Many societies have both families and descent groups
  • Kinship Calculation
      • Kin terms – labels given in particular culture to different kinds of relatives
      • Biological kin type – degree of actual genealogical relatedness
      • Bilateral kinship – people tend to perceive kin links through males and females as being similar or equal
    • System by which people in a society reckon kin relationships
  • Kinship Symbols and Genealogical Kin Type Notation