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Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
Anth1 Modern World
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Anth1 Modern World

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  • 1. The Modern World System Ch 14
  • 2. The Modern System
    • The Emergence of the World System
    • Industrialization
    • Stratification
    • The World System Today
  • 3. The Emergence of the World System
      • World system shaped by world capitalist economy
      • 3 political and economic specialization positions
        • Core
        • Semiperiphery
        • Periphery
    • Modern world system – global system in which nations are economically and politically interdependent
  • 4. Wallerstein’s World System Theory
      • Capital – wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit
      • Capital is a social relationship, not an object
    • Capitalist world economy – single world system committed to production for sale or exchange, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs
  • 5. Wallerstein’s World System Theory
      • Technologically advanced, capital-intensive products produced and exported to the semiperiphery and the periphery
    • Semiperiphery nations – industrialized Third World nations
      • Lack power and economic dominance of core nations
    • Core nations – strongest and most powerful nations
  • 6. Wallerstein’s World System Theory
      • Primarily concerned with exporting raw materials and agricultural goods to core and semiperiphery nations
      • Telecommunications allows well-educated workers in such low-wage countries as India to compete with skilled U.S. workers
    • Periphery nations – nations whose economic activities are less mechanized
  • 7. Core/Periphery/Margins: Core/Semi-Periphery/Periphery; Courtesy www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/Trade/CPM3a.jpg
  • 8. Industrialization
    • Industrial Revolution – socioeconomic transformation in Europe, after 1750 through industrialization of the economy
    Seurat Locomotive
  • 9. Causes of the Industrial Revolution
    • Widely used goods whose manufacture could be broken down into simple routines that machines could perform
    • Population increasing dramatically & fueled consumption of raw materials
    • Began in cotton, iron, and potter trades
    Courtesy: globallearning.pwnet.org
  • 10. Industrialization
    • Max Weber argued pervasiveness of
    • “ C of E” Protestant beliefs contributed to spread and success of industrialization in England
      • Catholicism inhibited industrialization in France
  • 11. Industrial Stratification
      • Factory owners soon began to recruit cheap labor from among the poorest populations.
      • Prosperity uneven
      • Social & health problems emerged
    • Initially industrialization in England raised the overall standard of living
  • 12. Industrial Stratification
      • Bourgeoisie – owned means of production
      • Working class (proletariat) – had to sell labor to survive
      • Proletarianization – separation of workers from the means of production
    • Marx saw trend as expression of fundamental capitalist opposition: bourgeoisie (capitalists) versus proletariat (propertyless workers)
  • 13. Social Class Stratification
      • K. Marx’ “Class consciousness” – recognition of collective interests and personal identification with one’s economic group
      • Viewed classes a powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence history
  • 14. Industrial Stratification
      • Developed model with three main factors contributing to socioeconomic stratification:
        • Wealth (economic status)
        • Power (political status)
        • Prestige (social status)
    • Weber argued that Marx’s model was oversimplified
  • 15. Stratification
      • Growing middle class and existence of peripheries within core nations complicate issue beyond the vision of Marx or Weber
    • With modification, combination of Marxian and Weberian models can describe modern capitalist world
  • 16. The World System Today
    • Mass production gave rise to a culture of overconsumption
      • Acquisitiveness
      • Conspicuous consumption
    The spread of industrialization and overconsumption takes place from core to periphery
  • 17. American informal economy at the periphery
    • Tennessee family, 1936
    • Garment industry pays low wages
    • People rely on swap meets, other informal economies
  • 18. Industrial Degradation
      • Expansion of world system often accompanied by genocide, ethnocide, and ecocide
    • Industrial Revolution accelerated encompassment of world by agrarian-based states, all but eliminating previous cultural adaptations
      • Foraging
      • Pastoralism
      • Horticulture
  • 19. Questions for Consideration:
    • What are 1 way that you personally are connected in the Modern World System?
    • In what ways might key powerful individuals in peripheral nations enable exploitation of their nations’ resources?
  • 20. Colonialism
      • Imperialism – Formal rule over foreign nations
      • Colonialism domination of territory and its people
        • political, social, economic, and cultural forms of domination
        • Physical or Ideological
        • Colonies
    Pith helmet of the Second French Empire <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism>
  • 21. Colonialism
    • European colonialism had two phases
      • “ Age of Discovery” (1492–1852)
      • 1850 to just after end of World War II
        • Dominated by Britain and France
  • 22. British Colonialism
      • Driven by need for economic expansion
      • First phase concentrated in the New World, west Africa, and India
      • Closed with American Revolution
    • British empire covered fifth of world’s land surface and ruled fourth of its population
  • 23. British Colonialism
      • British colonial efforts justified by what Kipling called “white man’s burden”
      • Began to fall apart after W.W. II
    • During the second period of colonialism, Britain eventually controlled most of India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and large portions of eastern and southern Africa
  • 24. French Colonialism
      • First phase, starting in early 1600s, focused in Canada, the Louisiana Territory, the Caribbean, and parts of India
      • Second phase (1870 to W.W. II) included most of North Africa and Indochina
    • French colonialism driven by state, church, and military, rather than by business interests
  • 25. French Colonialism
      • Spread French culture, language, and religion throughout the colonies
      • French & British used 2 forms of rule:
        • Indirect rule : practice of governing through native political structures and leaders
        • Direct rule : practice of imposing new governments upon native populations
    • Ideological legitimization for French colonialism was mission civilisatrice (similar to “white man’s burden”)
  • 26.
      • Many modern political boundaries in west Africa based on linguistic, political, and economic contrasts as result of European colonial policies
    Colonialism and Identity
    • Whole countries, along with social groups and divisions within them, were colonial inventions
  • 27. Postcolonial Studies
      • Settler countries: large numbers of European colonists and sparser native populations
      • Nonsettler postcolonies: large native populations and only a small number of Europeans
      • Mixed postcolonies: sizable native and European populations
    • Postcolonial : study of interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized
  • 28. Development
      • Economic development plans : industrialization, modernization, westernization, and individualism are desirable evolutionary advances that will bring long-term benefits to natives
    • Intervention philosophy : ideological justification for outsiders to guide local peoples in specific directions
  • 29. Neoliberalism
      • Free trade best way for nation’s economy to develop
      • No restrictions on manufacturing
      • No barriers to commerce
      • No tariffs
    • Neoliberalism : governments should not regulate private enterprise; free market forces should rule
  • 30. Neoliberalism
    • Since fall of Communism (1989–1991), revival of economic liberalism
      • In exchange for loans, governments of postsocialist and developing nations must accept neoliberal premise that deregulation leads to economic growth
    • Prevailed in U.S. until President Roosevelt’s New Deal during the 1930s

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