Anth1 Modern World

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Anth1 Modern World

  1. 1. The Modern World System Ch 14
  2. 2. The Modern System <ul><li>The Emergence of the World System </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Stratification </li></ul><ul><li>The World System Today </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Emergence of the World System <ul><ul><li>World system shaped by world capitalist economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 political and economic specialization positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semiperiphery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periphery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern world system – global system in which nations are economically and politically interdependent </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wallerstein’s World System Theory <ul><ul><li>Capital – wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital is a social relationship, not an object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capitalist world economy – single world system committed to production for sale or exchange, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Wallerstein’s World System Theory <ul><ul><li>Technologically advanced, capital-intensive products produced and exported to the semiperiphery and the periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiperiphery nations – industrialized Third World nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack power and economic dominance of core nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core nations – strongest and most powerful nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Wallerstein’s World System Theory <ul><ul><li>Primarily concerned with exporting raw materials and agricultural goods to core and semiperiphery nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications allows well-educated workers in such low-wage countries as India to compete with skilled U.S. workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periphery nations – nations whose economic activities are less mechanized </li></ul>
  7. 7. Core/Periphery/Margins: Core/Semi-Periphery/Periphery; Courtesy www.archatlas.dept.shef.ac.uk/Trade/CPM3a.jpg
  8. 8. Industrialization <ul><li>Industrial Revolution – socioeconomic transformation in Europe, after 1750 through industrialization of the economy </li></ul>Seurat Locomotive
  9. 9. Causes of the Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Widely used goods whose manufacture could be broken down into simple routines that machines could perform </li></ul><ul><li>Population increasing dramatically & fueled consumption of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Began in cotton, iron, and potter trades </li></ul>Courtesy: globallearning.pwnet.org
  10. 10. Industrialization <ul><li>Max Weber argued pervasiveness of </li></ul><ul><li>“ C of E” Protestant beliefs contributed to spread and success of industrialization in England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholicism inhibited industrialization in France </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Industrial Stratification <ul><ul><li>Factory owners soon began to recruit cheap labor from among the poorest populations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity uneven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social & health problems emerged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initially industrialization in England raised the overall standard of living </li></ul>
  12. 12. Industrial Stratification <ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie – owned means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working class (proletariat) – had to sell labor to survive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proletarianization – separation of workers from the means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marx saw trend as expression of fundamental capitalist opposition: bourgeoisie (capitalists) versus proletariat (propertyless workers) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Social Class Stratification <ul><ul><li>K. Marx’ “Class consciousness” – recognition of collective interests and personal identification with one’s economic group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed classes a powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence history </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Industrial Stratification <ul><ul><li>Developed model with three main factors contributing to socioeconomic stratification: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth (economic status) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power (political status) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige (social status) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Weber argued that Marx’s model was oversimplified </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stratification <ul><ul><li>Growing middle class and existence of peripheries within core nations complicate issue beyond the vision of Marx or Weber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With modification, combination of Marxian and Weberian models can describe modern capitalist world </li></ul>
  16. 16. The World System Today <ul><li>Mass production gave rise to a culture of overconsumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conspicuous consumption </li></ul></ul>The spread of industrialization and overconsumption takes place from core to periphery
  17. 17. American informal economy at the periphery <ul><li>Tennessee family, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Garment industry pays low wages </li></ul><ul><li>People rely on swap meets, other informal economies </li></ul>
  18. 18. Industrial Degradation <ul><ul><li>Expansion of world system often accompanied by genocide, ethnocide, and ecocide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution accelerated encompassment of world by agrarian-based states, all but eliminating previous cultural adaptations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Questions for Consideration: <ul><li>What are 1 way that you personally are connected in the Modern World System? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways might key powerful individuals in peripheral nations enable exploitation of their nations’ resources? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Colonialism <ul><ul><li>Imperialism – Formal rule over foreign nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonialism domination of territory and its people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>political, social, economic, and cultural forms of domination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or Ideological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul></ul></ul>Pith helmet of the Second French Empire <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism>
  21. 21. Colonialism <ul><li>European colonialism had two phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Age of Discovery” (1492–1852) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1850 to just after end of World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by Britain and France </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. British Colonialism <ul><ul><li>Driven by need for economic expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First phase concentrated in the New World, west Africa, and India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed with American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British empire covered fifth of world’s land surface and ruled fourth of its population </li></ul>
  23. 23. British Colonialism <ul><ul><li>British colonial efforts justified by what Kipling called “white man’s burden” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began to fall apart after W.W. II </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During the second period of colonialism, Britain eventually controlled most of India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and large portions of eastern and southern Africa </li></ul>
  24. 24. French Colonialism <ul><ul><li>First phase, starting in early 1600s, focused in Canada, the Louisiana Territory, the Caribbean, and parts of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second phase (1870 to W.W. II) included most of North Africa and Indochina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French colonialism driven by state, church, and military, rather than by business interests </li></ul>
  25. 25. French Colonialism <ul><ul><li>Spread French culture, language, and religion throughout the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French & British used 2 forms of rule: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect rule : practice of governing through native political structures and leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct rule : practice of imposing new governments upon native populations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological legitimization for French colonialism was mission civilisatrice (similar to “white man’s burden”) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Many modern political boundaries in west Africa based on linguistic, political, and economic contrasts as result of European colonial policies </li></ul></ul>Colonialism and Identity <ul><li>Whole countries, along with social groups and divisions within them, were colonial inventions </li></ul>
  27. 27. Postcolonial Studies <ul><ul><li>Settler countries: large numbers of European colonists and sparser native populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsettler postcolonies: large native populations and only a small number of Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed postcolonies: sizable native and European populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postcolonial : study of interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized </li></ul>
  28. 28. Development <ul><ul><li>Economic development plans : industrialization, modernization, westernization, and individualism are desirable evolutionary advances that will bring long-term benefits to natives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention philosophy : ideological justification for outsiders to guide local peoples in specific directions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Neoliberalism <ul><ul><li>Free trade best way for nation’s economy to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No restrictions on manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No barriers to commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No tariffs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neoliberalism : governments should not regulate private enterprise; free market forces should rule </li></ul>
  30. 30. Neoliberalism <ul><li>Since fall of Communism (1989–1991), revival of economic liberalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In exchange for loans, governments of postsocialist and developing nations must accept neoliberal premise that deregulation leads to economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevailed in U.S. until President Roosevelt’s New Deal during the 1930s </li></ul>

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