Anth1 Marriage

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Anth1 Marriage

  1. 1. MARRIAGE SYSTEMS From Japanese wedding designer Yumi Katsura’s 2006 Collection; Credit: english.peopledaily.com.cn
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Marriage is an economic and sexual union, usually between a man and a woman </li></ul>Sami couple with their daughter
  3. 3. Who is a Father? <ul><ul><li>Establishes legal parentage of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genitor – biological father of a child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pater – socially recognized father of a child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We know the biological mother, but the father is sometimes unknown... </li></ul>
  4. 4. MARRIAGE Exceptions <ul><li>The Nayar & The Na of SW China </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Types of Marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berdaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male-Male/Female-Female marriage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Berdache </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two-spirits” </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHY IS MARRIAGE UNIVERSAL? <ul><li>GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>PROLONGED INFANT DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS </li></ul>
  7. 7. Incest and Exogamy <ul><ul><li>Forces people to create and maintain a wide social network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incest – sexual relations with a close relative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The incest taboo is a cultural universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exogamy – practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group </li></ul>
  8. 8. Explaining the Taboo <ul><li>No universally accepted explanation for fact that all cultures ban incest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cultural finding show rules of incest avoidance shaped by kinship structures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RESTRICTIONS ON MARRIAGE, Including incest Taboo <ul><li>Instinctive Horror Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood-Familiarity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Family-Disruption Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Inbreeding Theory (Biological Degeneration Theory) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Instinctive Horror Theory <ul><li>Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This theory has been refuted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific kin types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than a biological basis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Biological Degeneration Theory <ul><ul><li>Decline in fertility and survival accompanies brother-sister mating across several generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration several generations in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Attempt and Contempt <ul><ul><li>Opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malinowski (and Freud) argued incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one’s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Explaining the Taboo <ul><ul><li>More accepted argument is that taboo originated to ensure exogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marry Out or Die Out </li></ul>
  14. 14. Royal Incest <ul><li>Royal families in widely diverse cultures engaged in what would be called incest, even in their own cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest function – reason given for a custom by its natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent function – effect custom was not explicitly recognized by the natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal incest, generally, had latent economic function </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. WHO ONE MARRIES <ul><li>Arranged Marriages vs. Love Marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Exogamy & Endogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Cousin Marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cousins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel cousins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levirate & Sororate </li></ul>
  16. 16. Parallel and Cross Cousins and Patrilineal Moiety Organization
  17. 17. Sororate and Levirate
  18. 18. Divorce <ul><ul><li>Marriages that are political alliances between groups harder to break up than marriages that are more individual affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridewealth discourages divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce is more common in matrilineal societies as well as societies in which postmarital residence is matrilocal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorce found in many different societies </li></ul>
  19. 19. HOW DOES ONE MARRY? <ul><ul><li>Bridewealth (Bride price, progeny price) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bride Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of Females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gift Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dowry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect Dowry </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Marriage Arrangements Ember & Ember “Cultural Anthropology” 2006
  21. 21. HOW MANY DOES ONE MARRY? <ul><li>MONOGAMY </li></ul><ul><li>POLYGYNY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sororal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsororal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POLYANDRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fraternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonfraternal </li></ul></ul>Shah family (polygyny) - Photo By J. Fortier
  22. 23. Plural Marriages <ul><ul><li>Even in cultures that approve of polygamy, monogamy tends to be the norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygyny more common than polyandry because, where sex ratios are not equal, there tend to be more women than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple wives tend to be associated with wealth and prestige </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polygyny </li></ul>
  23. 24. Plural Marriages <ul><ul><li>Polyandry rare, but practiced almost exclusively in South Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyandry usually practiced in response to specific circumstances, and in conjunction with other marriage formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among Paharis of India, polyandry associated with relatively low female population, due to covert female infanticide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In other cultures, polyandry resulted from the fact that men traveled a great deal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polyandry </li></ul>
  24. 25. THE FAMILY <ul><li>Variation in Family Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrifocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended </li></ul></ul>Karki Family - Matrifocal - Photo by J. Fortier
  25. 26. Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns Post-Marital Residence Patterns
  26. 27. Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns

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