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Anth1 Marriage

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  • 1. MARRIAGE SYSTEMS From Japanese wedding designer Yumi Katsura’s 2006 Collection; Credit: english.peopledaily.com.cn
  • 2. Definitions
    • Marriage is an economic and sexual union, usually between a man and a woman
    Sami couple with their daughter
  • 3. Who is a Father?
      • Establishes legal parentage of children
      • Genitor – biological father of a child
      • Pater – socially recognized father of a child
    • We know the biological mother, but the father is sometimes unknown...
  • 4. MARRIAGE Exceptions
    • The Nayar & The Na of SW China
    • Rare Types of Marriage
      • Berdaches
      • Christian Nuns
      • Male-Male/Female-Female marriage
  • 5.
    • Berdache
    • “ Two-spirits”
  • 6. WHY IS MARRIAGE UNIVERSAL?
    • GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR
    • PROLONGED INFANT DEPENDENCY
    • SEXUAL COMPETITION
    • POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS
  • 7. Incest and Exogamy
      • Forces people to create and maintain a wide social network
    • Incest – sexual relations with a close relative
      • The incest taboo is a cultural universal
      • What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture
    • Exogamy – practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group
  • 8. Explaining the Taboo
    • No universally accepted explanation for fact that all cultures ban incest
      • Cross cultural finding show rules of incest avoidance shaped by kinship structures
  • 9. RESTRICTIONS ON MARRIAGE, Including incest Taboo
    • Instinctive Horror Theory
    • Childhood-Familiarity Theory
    • Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Family-Disruption Theory
    • Cooperation Theory
    • Inbreeding Theory (Biological Degeneration Theory)
  • 10. Instinctive Horror Theory
    • Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest
      • This theory has been refuted
    • Specific kin types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than a biological basis
  • 11. Biological Degeneration Theory
      • Decline in fertility and survival accompanies brother-sister mating across several generations
      • Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration several generations in the future
    • Incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions
  • 12. Attempt and Contempt
      • Opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up
    • Malinowski (and Freud) argued incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one’s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations
  • 13. Explaining the Taboo
      • More accepted argument is that taboo originated to ensure exogamy
      • Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks
      • Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct
    • Marry Out or Die Out
  • 14. Royal Incest
    • Royal families in widely diverse cultures engaged in what would be called incest, even in their own cultures
      • Manifest function – reason given for a custom by its natives
      • Latent function – effect custom was not explicitly recognized by the natives
      • Royal incest, generally, had latent economic function
  • 15. WHO ONE MARRIES
    • Arranged Marriages vs. Love Marriages
    • Exogamy & Endogamy
    • Cousin Marriages
      • Cross-cousins
      • Parallel cousins
    • Levirate & Sororate
  • 16. Parallel and Cross Cousins and Patrilineal Moiety Organization
  • 17. Sororate and Levirate
  • 18. Divorce
      • Marriages that are political alliances between groups harder to break up than marriages that are more individual affairs
      • Bridewealth discourages divorce
      • Divorce is more common in matrilineal societies as well as societies in which postmarital residence is matrilocal
    • Divorce found in many different societies
  • 19. HOW DOES ONE MARRY?
      • Bridewealth (Bride price, progeny price)
      • Bride Service
      • Exchange of Females
      • Gift Exchange
      • Dowry
      • Indirect Dowry
  • 20. Marriage Arrangements Ember & Ember “Cultural Anthropology” 2006
  • 21. HOW MANY DOES ONE MARRY?
    • MONOGAMY
    • POLYGYNY
      • Sororal
      • Nonsororal
    • POLYANDRY
      • Fraternal
      • Nonfraternal
    Shah family (polygyny) - Photo By J. Fortier
  • 22.  
  • 23. Plural Marriages
      • Even in cultures that approve of polygamy, monogamy tends to be the norm
      • Polygyny more common than polyandry because, where sex ratios are not equal, there tend to be more women than men
        • Multiple wives tend to be associated with wealth and prestige
    • Polygyny
  • 24. Plural Marriages
      • Polyandry rare, but practiced almost exclusively in South Asia
        • Polyandry usually practiced in response to specific circumstances, and in conjunction with other marriage formats
        • Among Paharis of India, polyandry associated with relatively low female population, due to covert female infanticide
        • In other cultures, polyandry resulted from the fact that men traveled a great deal
    • Polyandry
  • 25. THE FAMILY
    • Variation in Family Form
      • Matrifocal
      • Nuclear
      • Extended
    Karki Family - Matrifocal - Photo by J. Fortier
  • 26. Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns Post-Marital Residence Patterns
  • 27. Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns