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Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
Anth1 Marriage
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Anth1 Marriage

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  • 1. MARRIAGE SYSTEMS From Japanese wedding designer Yumi Katsura’s 2006 Collection; Credit: english.peopledaily.com.cn
  • 2. Definitions <ul><li>Marriage is an economic and sexual union, usually between a man and a woman </li></ul>Sami couple with their daughter
  • 3. Who is a Father? <ul><ul><li>Establishes legal parentage of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genitor – biological father of a child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pater – socially recognized father of a child </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We know the biological mother, but the father is sometimes unknown... </li></ul>
  • 4. MARRIAGE Exceptions <ul><li>The Nayar & The Na of SW China </li></ul><ul><li>Rare Types of Marriage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berdaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male-Male/Female-Female marriage </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Berdache </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two-spirits” </li></ul>
  • 6. WHY IS MARRIAGE UNIVERSAL? <ul><li>GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR </li></ul><ul><li>PROLONGED INFANT DEPENDENCY </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL COMPETITION </li></ul><ul><li>POSTPARTUM PROBLEMS </li></ul>
  • 7. Incest and Exogamy <ul><ul><li>Forces people to create and maintain a wide social network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incest – sexual relations with a close relative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The incest taboo is a cultural universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exogamy – practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group </li></ul>
  • 8. Explaining the Taboo <ul><li>No universally accepted explanation for fact that all cultures ban incest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross cultural finding show rules of incest avoidance shaped by kinship structures </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. RESTRICTIONS ON MARRIAGE, Including incest Taboo <ul><li>Instinctive Horror Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood-Familiarity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Family-Disruption Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Inbreeding Theory (Biological Degeneration Theory) </li></ul>
  • 10. Instinctive Horror Theory <ul><li>Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This theory has been refuted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific kin types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than a biological basis </li></ul>
  • 11. Biological Degeneration Theory <ul><ul><li>Decline in fertility and survival accompanies brother-sister mating across several generations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration several generations in the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions </li></ul>
  • 12. Attempt and Contempt <ul><ul><li>Opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malinowski (and Freud) argued incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one’s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations </li></ul>
  • 13. Explaining the Taboo <ul><ul><li>More accepted argument is that taboo originated to ensure exogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marry Out or Die Out </li></ul>
  • 14. Royal Incest <ul><li>Royal families in widely diverse cultures engaged in what would be called incest, even in their own cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest function – reason given for a custom by its natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latent function – effect custom was not explicitly recognized by the natives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal incest, generally, had latent economic function </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. WHO ONE MARRIES <ul><li>Arranged Marriages vs. Love Marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Exogamy & Endogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Cousin Marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-cousins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel cousins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Levirate & Sororate </li></ul>
  • 16. Parallel and Cross Cousins and Patrilineal Moiety Organization
  • 17. Sororate and Levirate
  • 18. Divorce <ul><ul><li>Marriages that are political alliances between groups harder to break up than marriages that are more individual affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridewealth discourages divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce is more common in matrilineal societies as well as societies in which postmarital residence is matrilocal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divorce found in many different societies </li></ul>
  • 19. HOW DOES ONE MARRY? <ul><ul><li>Bridewealth (Bride price, progeny price) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bride Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of Females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gift Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dowry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect Dowry </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Marriage Arrangements Ember & Ember “Cultural Anthropology” 2006
  • 21. HOW MANY DOES ONE MARRY? <ul><li>MONOGAMY </li></ul><ul><li>POLYGYNY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sororal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonsororal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>POLYANDRY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fraternal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonfraternal </li></ul></ul>Shah family (polygyny) - Photo By J. Fortier
  • 22.  
  • 23. Plural Marriages <ul><ul><li>Even in cultures that approve of polygamy, monogamy tends to be the norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polygyny more common than polyandry because, where sex ratios are not equal, there tend to be more women than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple wives tend to be associated with wealth and prestige </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polygyny </li></ul>
  • 24. Plural Marriages <ul><ul><li>Polyandry rare, but practiced almost exclusively in South Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyandry usually practiced in response to specific circumstances, and in conjunction with other marriage formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among Paharis of India, polyandry associated with relatively low female population, due to covert female infanticide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In other cultures, polyandry resulted from the fact that men traveled a great deal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polyandry </li></ul>
  • 25. THE FAMILY <ul><li>Variation in Family Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrifocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended </li></ul></ul>Karki Family - Matrifocal - Photo by J. Fortier
  • 26. Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns Post-Marital Residence Patterns
  • 27. Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns

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