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intro to cultural anthropology - linguistic anthro lecture

intro to cultural anthropology - linguistic anthro lecture

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  • The Worlds most ancient scripts and Alphabets invented and brought by the God Maratha Warriors from the world of Gods and goddesses to this planet Earth. The incident happens when Dragon ions (mixture of human & Dragon) were ruling on this planet Earth. The dragons were egg layers. Afterwards the dragon ions came. (Some dragon ions were mammals while some were egg layers).
    Afterwards the Human beings brought to this planet Earth by the Maratha Warrior Gods. The Maratha warriors were in dragon, dragon ion form in those days and were speaking the Marathi Language in those ancient days. Human and dragon ions and dragons were mating each other.
    At the prior stage, the human children and women were brought up by the Dragons and Dragon ion communities.
    The Maratha Gods, goddesses, and teleported from heaven to Earth in the shape of invented the first packet of men and women. l., that time every dragon ions shouted .alla, alla. Means O there came the packet of man to earth. Later came women packet in the shape of .i. means. Aai aali. means the mother packet came. Afterwards many men and women packets came.
    For the human the process stopped then the dragon ions told to Maratha Gods and goddesses in Marathi. The alphabet .L. pronounce is .Aale. means O Gods and goddesses all the packets of men and women came to the earth successfully.
    Later on the alphabets came written on the wings of various insects and the pronunciation of each alphabet made by various accompanying birds to teach the human being the alphabet and its pronunciations by the Almighty Maratha Gods
    The processes of arrival of the packets from heaven of different animals and different species are still going on. But the human beings became greedy danav does not notice them.
    That is why the Maratha Gods and goddesses do not inform their activities to human. For the Devs and devis who ever became greedy those people automatically become their enemies (danavs).
    Since the devs and danavs are born enemies of each others. So due to excessive greediness, the human beings have cut off from God and goddesses and turned themselves into danav. Therefore, the human beings are their enemies due to the same reason The Devs and Devis do not keep inform their activities to human.
    In the coming future, please expect a species of intelligent animals looking much similar to human. but they are not humans but they are maratha Devs and Marathi Devis. The Devs & Devis survive only on human flesh (cannibals) shall be coming from heaven to earth, to kill eat and wipe out the greedy human (danav).The first batch of Devs and Devis shall be arriving in Maharashtra very soon.
    Only survive those who learn the God Marathi language and speaks devs Marathi (rural Marathi with Urdu blend) on the planet earth.
    Those who speaks danav Marathi or Vedic Marathi or punery Marathi or urban Marathi also shall not going to survive on this planet.
    Since Maratha God and goddesses are very strict, very ardent followers of Marathi language. The Devs & devis take very serious about which language you speak. If you speak in non-Marathi language with them, than you be sure that you will be definitely targeted & killed and your flesh shall be eaten as their food.
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  • 'Gods Dictionary' book published on www.amazon.com
    A Complete Analysis of World’s Languages
    तुझा देवत्व-योद्यामध्ये भरतीचा सीधासाधा राजमार्ग
    O! Earth Habitats, Learn Gods’ & goddesses’ own Maratha Language & Grammar. After Learning/ Knowing Gods Own Language, Anyone Can Understand, Any Unknown Foreign Language Of This Universe.So Henceforth No Need to Learn That Perticular Language.After Refering The GodsDictionary No Need To Purchase or Refer Any Other Languages Dictionaries.Books or Borrow Any Transliteration/Transcription Services Any More.Thus Save Your Lot of Money,Energy Headeach & Invaluable Time.Since The GodsDictionary Also Teaches You The Gods/goddesses Own Universal Single & Only One Maratha/Marathi Language, Made For The One Universe.So Just Throw Away All Worlds Danavic Languages Dictionaries Books And All Foreign Languages Learning Books Into DustBin.Do Not Attend Foreign Languages Learning Cources.SINCE NOW GODS/goddesses OWN LANGUAGE HAS NOW ARRIVED FOR OUR ONLY ONE UNIVERSE.The Universe Is One So The Language Is One Accommodating All Worlds Languages All Scripts At The Same Time.THE WORLD IS ALREADY HAVING ONE COMMON GODS MARATHA LANGUAGE PLATFORM.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • The Worlds most ancient scripts and Alphabets invented and brought by the God Maratha Warriors from the world of Gods and goddesses to this planet Earth. The incident happens when Dragon ions (mixture of human & Dragon) were ruling on this planet Earth. The dragons were egg layers. Afterwards the dragon ions came. (Some dragon ions were mammals while some were egg layers).
    Afterwards the Human beings brought to this planet Earth by the Maratha Warrior Gods. The Maratha warriors were in dragon, dragon ion form in those days and were speaking the Marathi Language in those ancient days. Human and dragon ions and dragons were mating each other.
    At the prior stage, the human children and women were brought up by the Dragons and Dragon ion communities.
    The Maratha Gods, goddesses, and teleported from heaven to Earth in the shape of invented the first packet of men and women. l., that time every dragon ions shouted .alla, alla. Means O there came the packet of man to earth. Later came women packet in the shape of .i. means. Aai aali. means the mother packet came. Afterwards many men and women packets came.
    For the human the process stopped then the dragon ions told to Maratha Gods and goddesses in Marathi. The alphabet .L. pronounce is .Aale. means O Gods and goddesses all the packets of men and women came to the earth successfully.
    Later on the alphabets came written on the wings of various insects and the pronunciation of each alphabet made by various accompanying birds to teach the human being the alphabet and its pronunciations by the Almighty Maratha Gods
    The processes of arrival of the packets from heaven of different animals and different species are still going on. But the human beings became greedy danav does not notice them.
    That is why the Maratha Gods and goddesses do not inform their activities to human. For the Devs and devis who ever became greedy those people automatically become their enemies (danavs).
    Since the devs and danavs are born enemies of each others. So due to excessive greediness, the human beings have cut off from God and goddesses and turned themselves into danav. Therefore, the human beings are their enemies due to the same reason The Devs and Devis do not keep inform their activities to human.
    In the coming future, please expect a species of intelligent animals looking much similar to human. but they are not humans but they are maratha Devs and Marathi Devis. The Devs & Devis survive only on human flesh (cannibals) shall be coming from heaven to earth, to kill eat and wipe out the greedy human (danav).The first batch of Devs and Devis shall be arriving in Maharashtra very soon.
    Only survive those who learn the God Marathi language and speaks devs Marathi (rural Marathi with Urdu blend) on the planet earth.
    Those who speaks danav Marathi or Vedic Marathi or punery Marathi or urban Marathi also shall not going to survive on this planet.
    Since Maratha God and goddesses are very strict, very ardent followers of Marathi language. The Devs & devis take very serious about which language you speak.
    Sunil Maruti Palaskar.email:sunny421302@gmail.com
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    Your message goes here
  • I really like & find your presentation useful .I am the Author of the book 'GODS DICTIONARY' already on sale at www.amazon.com,in which I tried to teach 150 languages of human including birds',animals'& substances language.I teach the Gods own universal phonetic language in my book,
    Gods Dictionary
    A Complete Analysis of World’s Languages
    तुझा देवत्व-योद्यामध्ये भरतीचा सीधासाधा राजमार्ग
    O! Earth Habitats, Learn Gods’ & goddesses’ own Maratha Language & Grammar. After Learning/ Knowing Gods Own Language, Anyone Can Understand, Any Unknown Foreign Language Of This Universe.So Henceforth No Need to Learn That Perticular Language.After Refering The GodsDictionary No Need To Purchase or Refer Any Other Languages Dictionaries.Books or Borrow Any Transliteration/Transcription Services Any More.Thus Save Your Lot of Money,Energy Headeach & Invaluable Time.Since The GodsDictionary Also Teaches You The Gods/goddesses Own Universal Single & Only One Maratha/Marathi Language, Made For The One Universe.So Just Throw Away All Worlds Danavic Languages Dictionaries Books And All Foreign Languages Learning Books Into DustBin.Do Not Attend Foreign Languages Learning Cources.SINCE NOW GODS/goddesses OWN LANGUAGE HAS ARRIVED FOR OUR ONLY ONE UNIVERSE.The Universe Is One So The Language Is One Accommodating All Worlds Languages All Scripts At The Same Time.THE WORLD IS ALREADY HAVING ONE COMMON GODS MARATHA LANGUAGE PLATFORM. O! Human beings, read carefully the GODSDICTIONARY. Get the exact meaning of any word in any language. Know what the God means to say to you, act accordingly, and work accordingly, you please be knowledgeable. Therefore, the danav shall not take advantage of your godly-illiteracy. Therefore, you should not waste your time by knowing not knowing the exact meaning of any word. Therefore the eBook of this GODSDICTIONARY is purposefully kept at minimum possible price Therefore, the human should not be blaming the God that they were not having enough money to buy the paper edition of the GODSDICTIONARY. God shall not go to hear any excuses. for each of your wrongful excessive greedy danavic acts on this earth, done by not knowing the exact meaning of any word. Shall be appropriately and severely punished by the God.Since the world belongs to exclusively to the Maratha Gods and goddesses
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    Your message goes here
  • What is disrespectful about comparing our facial expressions to chimps? Former Pres. Bush did a great job of helping us see that our facial expressions are coded in genetic traits we share w/ other hominoids. I personally like Pres. Bush and there's no disrespect intended.
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  • Indonesia, Borneo, Sumatra Slow cautious climbers dimorphism

Transcript

  • 1. Language & Communication Nepali students talk with Forest Foragers - Raute women
  • 2. Language and Communication
    • What Is Language
    • Nonhuman Communication
    • Nonverbal Communication
    • The Structure of Language
    • Language, Thought, and Culture
    • Sociolinguistics
    • Historical Linguistics
  • 3. What Is Language?
    • Transmitted through learning as part of enculturation
    • Based on symbols - arbitrary, learned associations between words and the things they represent
    • Primary means of communication (spoken or written)
  • 4. What Is Language?
      • Conjure up elaborate images
      • Discuss the past and future
      • Share experiences with others
      • Benefit from their experiences
    • Anthropologists study language in its social and cultural context
    • Allows humans to:
  • 5. Nonhuman Communication
      • Automatic and cannot be combined
      • At some point in human development, ancestors began to combine calls and to understand the combinations
    • Call Systems – limited number of sounds that are produced in response to specific stimuli
  • 6. Nonhuman > Human Communication
      • Communication came to rely almost totally on learning
    • Call Systems
      • Number of calls expanded, eventually becoming too great to be transmitted even partly through genes
  • 7. Animal Communication
      • More recent experiments show that apes can learn to use, if not speak, true language
    • Sign Language
    Washoe, a chimpanzee, eventually acquired vocabulary of over 100 ASL signs
  • 8. Animal Communication
        • Washoe and Lucy exhibited several human traits
      • Koko, a gorilla, regularly uses 400 ASL signs and has used 700 at least once.
      • Lucy, another chimpanzee, lived in a foster family and used ASL to converse with foster parents
  • 9. Hominoid: Pongids: Orangutans Chantek, an orangutan, has learned more than 150 ASL words
  • 10. Nonhuman Communication
      • Cultural transmission of a communication system through learning is a fundamental attribute of language
      • Productivity – combined two or more signs to create new expressions
      • Displacement – ability to talk about things that are not present
    • Koko and the chimps show that apes share linguistic ability with humans
  • 11. Nonhuman Communication
    • Experiments with ASL demonstrate that chimps and gorillas have rudimentary capacity for language
    There are no known instances where chimps or gorillas in the wild have developed a comparable system of signs on their own
  • 12. Hominoid: Chimps & Human
  • 13. Language Contrasted with Call Systems p. 112
  • 14. The Origin of Language
    • Language developed over hundreds of thousands of years from human ancestors’ call systems
    Language is effective for learning; enables humans to adapt rapidly to new stimuli Tower of Babel; courtesy Gustave Doré's Illustrated Bible
  • 15. The Structure of Language
      • Phonology – study of speech sounds
      • Morphology – forms in which sounds combine to form morphemes
      • Lexicon – dictionary containing all its morphemes and their meanings
      • Syntax – arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
    • Scientific study of spoken language involves several levels of organization
  • 16. The Structure of Language
      • Phoneme – sound contrast that makes a difference, that differentiates meaning
      • Phonetics – study of human speech sounds
        • IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet
      • Phonemics – studies only the significant sound contrasts of given language
    • Speech Sounds
  • 17. Phonetic Chart of Vowel Positions
  • 18. KhoeKhoegowab Lesson No:1 The Khoekhoe language
  • 19. International Phonetic Alphabet
    • The Nama people’s Khoekhoe implosive sounds
    • / - dental
    • ! - alveolar
    • # - palatal
    • // - lateral
  • 20. Language, Thought, and Culture
    • The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – grammatical categories of different languages lead their speakers to think about things in particular ways
    • Noam Chomsky argues human brain contains limited set of rules for organizing language, so all languages have common structural basis
  • 21. Hopi Verb Tenses
    • Realis - present & past; things that are real
    • Irrealis - future & conditional - things not accomplished
  • 22. Language, Thought, and Culture
      • Specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
      • Vocabulary is area of language that changes most rapidly
      • Language, culture, and thought are interrelated
      • Types of olives, terms used in a sport, etc.
    • Focal Vocabulary
  • 23. Language, Thought, and Culture
    • Meaning
      • Ethnosemantics – study of how speakers of particular languages use sets of terms to organize, or categorize, their experiences and perceptions
      • The ways people divide up the world – the contrasts they perceive as meaningful or significant – reflect their experiences
      • e.g. Hockey
  • 24. Sociolinguistics
    • Investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation, or language in its social context
      • Sociolinguists focus on features that vary systematically with social position and situation
  • 25. Linguistic Diversity
    • Diglossia – regular style shifts between “high” and “low” variants of the same language
      • We rank certain speech patterns as better or worse because we recognize they are used by groups that we also rank
      • Politicians speak w/ Southern drawl in the South/Northern accent in the North
    • Style Shifts – varying speech in different contexts
  • 26. Gender Speech Contrasts
      • In North America and Great Britain, women’s speech tends to be more similar to standard dialect than men’s speech
    Men and women have differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, as well as in the body stances and movements that accompany speech
  • 27. Gender Speech Contrasts
      • Men tend to make reports, reciting information that serves to establish a place for themselves in a hierarchy
      • Women use less powerful words - gosh/god, darn/damn, shoot/shit...
  • 28. Gender & Language
    • Deborah Tannen found women esp. use language and body movements to build rapport, social connections with others
    Photo; Www.canuuwomenhistory.ca
  • 29. Language and Status Position
    • Honorifics – terms used with people to “honor” them
      • Americans tend to be less formal than other nationalities, although they include honorifics
      • British have a more developed set of honorifics
      • Japanese language has several honorifics
      • Kin terms can be associated with gradations in rank and familiarity
  • 30. Stratification
    • Our speech habits help determine our access to employment and other material resources
    • Use and evaluate speech in context of extralinguistic forces – social, political, and economic
  • 31. Sociolinguistics
    • Linguistic forms take on the power of the groups they symbolize
    • Linguistic insecurity often felt by lower-class and minority speakers result of symbolic domination
    • Bourdieu views linguistic practices as symbolic capital that properly trained people may convert into economic and social capital
  • 32. Pronunciation of ‘r’ in NYC Stores p. 122 William Labov, “What Floor is This?”
  • 33. When Languages Collide
    • Pidgen - speaking the dominant colonizer’s language
    • Creole - regular grammatical rules that combine 2 languages
  • 34. French Creoles
    • Louisiana Creole is a combination of French,West African,and the Spanish language
    • Creoles combine grammar of subordinate language with words of dominant language
    Herb Metoyer. www.herbmetoyer.com
  • 35. English Creoles: Gullah, Sea Island Creole from South Carolina Island Region
    • Gullah is a creole form of English, indigenous to the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia
    Annie Scott weaves a sweetgrass basket Saturday afternoon at the Gullah Flea Market on Hilton Head Island. Photo: J. Dyer
  • 36. When languages collide...
    • Codeswitching - speaking with regularized rules using 2 languages
    • Dialect - a noticeably different way of speaking a language; mutually intelligible with the standard dialect
  • 37.
    • Linguists view B.E.V. as a dialect of English rather than a separate language
    Black English Vernacular (B.E.V.)
      • William Labov writes B.E.V. is “relatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the U.S. today . . . ”
  • 38. Black English Vernacular (B.E.V.)
      • B.E.V. speakers less likely to pronounce r than Standard English (SE) speakers
      • B.E.V. speakers use copula deletion to eliminate the verb to be from their speech
      • th --> d-
      • Omit possessives “That’s the child’s doll --> “Dat da child’ doll”
      • Use more contractions: Doesn’t --> Don’t “It doesn’t matter --> It don’t matter”
    • Standard English not superior in terms of ability to communicate ideas, but it is the prestige dialect
  • 39. Historical Linguistics
    • Historical linguists reconstruct many features of past languages by studying contemporary daughter languages
    • Written forms vs. reconstruction based on oral languages
    • Long-term variation of speech by studying protolanguages and daughter languages
  • 40. Historical Linguistics
    • Daughter Languages – languages that descend from same parent language and that have been changing separately for hundreds or even thousands of years
    Protolanguage – original language from which daughter languages descend Subgroups – languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related
  • 41. Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484A.D.
  • 42. Chaucer - The Canterbury Tales
    • A Frere ther was, a wantowne and a merye, A lymytour, a ful solempne man. In alle the ordres foure is noon that kan so muche of dalianune and fair language.
    • A Friar there was, wanton and merry, A limiter [limited to certain districts], a full solemn [very important] man. In all the order four there in none that knows so much of dalliance [flirting] and fair [engaging] language.
  • 43. PIE Family Tree
      • The Indo-European languages. Traceable to a protolanguage, Proto-Indo-European (PIE),
      • *PIE spoken more than 6,000 years ago.
      • *PIE split into separate languages
      • *Identify relations using cognates
  • 44. Indo-Eur. Numerals in IPA* IPA=International phonetic alphabet char kwat^o kat¿ra for 4 ti≥ tres t¿wa ƒri 3 dwi dos d~ ø tu 2 Éï k uno ~ø wøn 1 Nepali Spanish French English
  • 45. Ethnologue
    • www.ethnologue.com