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Chicago j douillard Document Transcript

  • 1. Chicago City HallCase Study9/20/11Janaki Douillard 1  Figure 1 Design Plan View of Chicago City Hall Green Roof                                                             1  Guide to Rooftop Gardening 
  • 2. PROJECT NAME: Chicago City HallCLIENT: City of ChicagoPROJECT LOCATION: Chicago, IllinoisCOMPLETION DATE: Summer 2001PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS2GREEN ROOF CATEGORY: Combination of shallow and deep (semi-intensive)NEW or RETROFIT: RetrofitSIZE: 20300 sq.ft.MEDIA DEPTH: 3.5-9 inches3TYPE OF MEMBRANE: Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO)4COST: $2.5 millionDESIGNERS/MANUFACTURERS OF RECORD5LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT: Conservation Design ForumROOFSCAPES CONTRACTOR: Church LandscapeARCHITECT: McDonough + PartnersGREENROOF SYSTEM: Roofscapes, Inc. (later renamed Roofmeadow)PROJECT ENGINEERING: Roy F. Weston, Inc.GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Bennett and Brosseau RoofingWATERPROOFING: SarnafilMAINTENANCE COMPANY: Chicago Department of Transportation6                                                             2  Greenroofs.com 3  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 4  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 5  Greenroofs.com 6  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/   1 
  • 3. GENERAL PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Chicago City Hall’s green roof was designed as a test roof for the UrbanHeat Island project7 and as such had weather systems installed to monitor certainatmospheric variables both on the green roof side of the building and on the black tarroof which was on the County’s side of the building. This particular green roof sparkedthe “greening” movement of Chicago, which led to Chicago’s new title of the “greenestcity in America.”ECONOMIC BENEFITSEnergy Efficiency Green roofs are known to lower the costs of heating and cooling a buildingbecause they increase the insulation layer in the winter and reflect a lot of the heat thatwould be retained on a black tar roof in the summer. The Chicago City Hall green roof isno different, in fact it saves the City Hall $5000 a year on utility bills according toMichael Berkshire.8 The National Research Council of Canada (2003) claims greenroofs can reduce the transfer of heat through the roof by 70-90% in the summer and 10-30% in the winter, which lowers the overall energy usage by 75%.9Increased Solar Panel Efficiency Recently, it has become known that solar panels begin to decline in efficiency ifthe ambient temperature on a roof increases too much on a hot day. The InternationalGreen Roof Association encourages the use of green roofs and solar panels togetherbecause green roofs naturally lower the ambient temperature on a roof, which results in                                                             7  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 8  Greenroofs.com 9  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp:8   2 
  • 4. higher efficiency of the solar panels.10 Solar panels are also easy to install on greenroofs, provide shade for low growing plants, and reduce wind levels that tear uptopsoil.11 The Chicago City Hall green roof does not incorporate the symbiosis of thegreen roof-solar panel combination. The already exorbitant price of $2.5 million for theChicago City Hall green roof12 may have been a factor in their decision to opt out on thesolar panel inclusion. This green roof cost approximately $120/sq. ft, and with solarpanels costing approximately $100/ sq. ft13, the inclusion of solar panels would havenearly doubled the price of this project.Prolonged Membrane Durability and Longevity Green roofs protect the roof membrane and can extend the useful life of a roof byaround 50% because it protects the membrane from weather and wear.14 The type ofmembrane used on the Chicago City Hall green roof was a thermoplastic polyolefin(TPO)15. TPO is a synthetic roofing material that serves the function of bothwaterproofing membrane but also root barrier as a part of a green roof system. It isimportant that the waterproofing membrane selected is resistant to chemical exposureas are TPO membranes since chemical can leach through the green roof layer andattack the membrane.16                                                             10  http://www.igra‐world.com/engineering/solar_energy.php 11  http://www.igra‐world.com/engineering/solar_energy.php 12  http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=21 13  http://solarpowerauthority.com/how‐much‐does‐it‐cost‐to‐install‐solar‐on‐an‐average‐us‐house/ 14  Guide to Rooftop Gardening 15  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 16  http://www.firestonebpco.com/roofing/tpo/   3 
  • 5. Fire Prevention Although green roofs can be a source of fire prevention in cities, on the ChicagoCity Hall green roof that did not appear to be the priority. This green roof was designedto be able to withstand the harsh wind and water conditions as well as the dramaticseasonal shifts in Chicago, which meant utilizing a lot of the native prairie plants.17Since prairie plants are designed to thrive with less water, they do not serve as well forfire prevention as succulent plants.Local Job Creation Several of the firms hired to develop and maintain the Chicago City Hall greenroof were local Illinois companies. Conservation Design Forum, Church Landscape,Bennett and Brosseau Roofing and the Chicago Department of Transportation were alllocal companies employed in the creation of the City Hall green roof. It is surprising thatChicago City Hall didn’t outsource more of their work to nonlocal green roof companiessince none of the local contractors had any experience with green roofs.18 Fortunately,Chicago City Hall did employ a few local companies, which led to both Roofscapes Incand Church Landscape to go on and develop the green roof for the Chicago Center forGreen Technologies (CCGT) and the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum.19 ConservationDesign Forum was employed again on the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum as well.20The Chicago City Hall green roof sparked the creation of many more green roofsthroughout Illinois. By 2008, there were 186,000 sq meters of green roofs in Chicago                                                             17 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_city_hallrooftopgardenplantsandmaintenance.html 18  House transportation and infrastructure subcommittee on water resources 19  http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=18 20  http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=448   4 
  • 6. alone, which was more than the combination of all other US cities.21 Job creation relatedto green roofs rose 80% from 2004-200522 and green roof construction rose 30% in2007 alone23. Not only did the Chicago City Hall green roof spark rapid proliferation ofgreen roofs but also it subsequently increased the projects available for these nowexperienced local green roof companies to pick up.Meeting Regulatory Requirements for Water Treatment of Urban Runoff Green roofs are newly being considered and implemented for their aid inreducing the burden stormwater events can take on the existing sewer systems andwaste water treatment plants. The Chicago City Hall green roof can retain 75% of a 1-inch rainfall before the runoff begins to enter the stormwater system.24 In certain stormwater events, the runoff and sewer overflow can surpass the capacity of the watertreatment facilities in which case the excess is diverted into local waterways.25 Greenroofs can lessen the necessity of dumping raw wastewater into rivers and polluting localeco-systems. Chicago’s new Water Agenda admitted that traditional stormwatermanagement techniques are insufficient in Chicago’s case and new “greeninfrastructure” will need to be implemented in order to prevent over taxing the existingsewer system.26 This new project and green infrastructure has the goal of reducingstorm water run off by 50%. 27                                                             21  Chicago’s green revolution starts at the top 22  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 9.  23  Green roofs take root in cities across the country 24 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_s_city_hallrooftopgarden.html 25  Green roofs take root in cities across the country  26  House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources 27  House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources   5 
  • 7. Reduce Community Resistance to new Developments The aesthetic and “green” nature of rooftop gardens can limit the amount ofresistance local communities levy against new developments. Studies have shown thatcreating more “green” spaces within urban environments can also dramatically increasereal estate prices.28 So not only do communities fuss less over new developments whenthere are green roofs involved but real estate surrounding green roof areas is soughtafter by local communities.LEED and Opportunity for local, regional and national market exposure Green roofs are a great technique to bring more awareness to a company or city.Chicago has spent millions of dollars on greening up their city to earn the title the“Emerald City” or the “Greenest City in America”.29 This new branding of Chicago hasincreased tourism and real estate prices throughout the city. In nine years, Chicagoreceived nine awards and Mayor Daley himself received two from the American Societyfor Landscape Architects (ASLA).30 Chicago has been recognized as a leader in greenroof development and in 2010 boasted 600 green roofs totaling an approximate 7 millionsq. feet.31 Green spaces in cities also denote areas of pride and investment thatcontactors take into account when choosing new areas to develop.32                                                             28  House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources 29  Chicago’s green revolution starts at the top 30  American Society for Landscape Architects ASLA 31  Roundup: Chicago benefits 32  House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources   6 
  • 8. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITSCreation and Preservation of Habitat and Increasing Biodiversity The Chicago City Hall green roof created an entirely new ecosystem with morethan 150 varieties of plant life.33 There are 100 varieties of shrubs, 40 varieties of vinesand 2 varieties of trees that make up the total of 20,000 plants found on Chicago CityHall’s rooftop (for a full list of plants used see index). Many of these plants areperennials and were chosen for their low-maintenance tendencies.34 The City Hall greenroof also created a new habitat for bees with the incorporation of two beehives.35 Thesetwo beehives not only produce over 150 lbs of honey every year but also increase thebiodiversity of the rooftop by providing a source of food for other insects that survive byconsuming bees.36 37Figure 2 Variation of Plant Life                                                             33  Roundup: Chicago benefits 34  Roundup: Chicago benefits 35  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 36  Roundup: Chicago benefits 37  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/   7 
  • 9. Temperature Regulation - Reduce ‘urban heat island effect’ The Chicago City Hall green roof was a pilot project called Chicago City’s UrbanHeat Island Initiative, which was designed to test the benefits of green roofs.38 Sincestudying the temperature changes caused by the green roof was of such a centralinterest to this project, consistent monitoring was set-up. Weather stations that recordedtemperature readings were positioned both on the green roof side of the building andalso on the black tar side that housed Cook County’s administrative offices.39 Thesetemperature readings were then recorded and studied by the U.S. EPA and LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory to determine the large-scale benefits of green roofs.40After 10 years of monitoring the 2 difference roof sections, the average air temperatureon the green roof side has proven to be consistently 10-15 degrees F lower than theblack tar side.41 It was even shown that on hot days the temperature difference could beas great as 50 degrees F.42Improve Air Quality It is well known that plants help cleanse the air of certain airborne pollutants andsome plants do this better than others. In the case of the Chicago City Hall green roof,although the City does claim that the green roof improves air quality, there is little data                                                             38 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_s_city_hallrooftopgarden.html 39 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/monitoring_the_cityhallrooftopgardensbenefit.html 40 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/monitoring_the_cityhallrooftopgardensbenefit.html 41  United States: Greening the concrete jungle 42  United States: Greening the concrete jungle   8 
  • 10. that supports how well this particular green roof garden is improving the air quality.43The decision for certain plants over other plants was determined by the plants resilienceto harsh weather conditions like strong winds, little water and dramatically changingseasons.44Stormwater Management Green roof systems absorb, slow and often filter the run-off produced by largerainwater events. Deeper growth media systems as can be seen at the green roof onChicago’s City Hall, which reaches up to 9 inches of medium, are a huge aid in slowingdown run-off in event situations.45 The Chicago City Hall green roof utilizes acombination of Type II and Type III systems (more info on Roofmeadow Type II andType III systems can be found in the Index), Type III being the 9 inches of medium isdesigned for absorbing moisture and slowing the water discharge rate.46 Chicago’sClimate Action Plan (CCAP) which includes utilizing green roof systems for their array ofbenefits is also repaving streets and other hard surfaces with permeable, light coloredsubstitutes that help slow down stormwater and also reduce the Urban Heat Islandeffect (UHI) by reflecting instead of retaining heat from the sun.47Water filtration As a natural part of a green roof system, the layers of the system provide a fairlyconsistent method of water filtration. The water that does drain through the Chicago City                                                             43 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_s_city_hallrooftopgarden.html 44 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_s_city_hallrooftopgarden.html 45  http://www.roofmeadow.com/case‐studies/selected‐case‐studies/chicago‐city‐hall/ 46  http://www.roofmeadow.com/details‐specs‐services/details‐specs/type‐iii/ 47  United States: Greening the Concrete Jungle   9 
  • 11. Hall green roof system has been filtered through several layers of medium and will haveremoved much of the airborne pollutants the stormwater would have collected on itsway down through the atmosphere. This means that the water that does make its wayinto the sewer system from the green roof will be less polluted and less taxing on thecity’s “aging” waster water treatment plant.48COMMUNITY & SOCIAL BENEFITSAesthetics & New Amenity / Recreational Space The greening on Chicago City Hall’s rooftop is naturally more aestheticallyappealing than the black tar on the County side of the building’s roof49. Unfortunately,the design of this rooftop garden was not a recreational space, new amenity for thecitizens of Chicago or even open for public tours50. In order to appreciate the rooftopgarden on top of Chicago’s City Hall, one can view it from the neighboring Departmentof Environment building or various other neighboring office buildings51.Improved Health and Horticultural Therapy Although the Chicago City Hall green roof was not designed with the addedhealth benefits that access to a natural environment can provide, it did create a sense ofpride and became the City’s symbol for its various “greening the city” initiatives. TheChicago City Hall does recognize the effect higher city temperatures can have on health                                                             48  House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources 49 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/monitoring_the_cityhallrooftopgardensbenefit.html 50  http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=21 51  Chicago’s green revolution starts at the top   10 
  • 12. and in that way promoted the use of more green roofs to lower the Urban Heat Islandeffect and therefore lower diseases that arise from hot polluted climates.52Noise Reduction, Blocking Electromagnetic Radiation Green roofs have the benefit of being able to reduce noise levels within buildingsby 40-60 decibels.53 This does not appear to be the intention or even a foreseenconsequence of a green roof atop Chicago’s City Hall. Another unforeseenconsequence could be the green roof’s effect on honeybee livelihood. Green roofsreduce the amount of electromagnetic radiation by up to 94%54 and research shows thatthe recent decline in honeybees may be attributed to the increase in electromagneticradiation due to the proliferance of cell phones today.55 It is possible that reduction ofdisturbing electromagnetic radiation atop the Chicago City Hall building may beincreasing the production of the two beehives on the roof than there might be otherwisein such an urban environment.Creating Ballast against Wind Uplift The high winds that are seen atop skyscrapers can create wind uplift, which isnaturally a straining force on the roof. A heuristic for wind is that for every 10 stories up,the wind speed doubles56, which means wind uplift just gets worse on taller buildings.Green roofs provide enough weight on top of the roof that it can often counter thepressure and strain that wind uplift causes on a roof, especially along the edges of a                                                             52  Guide to Rooftop Gardening 53  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 12 54  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 12 55  Colony collapse disorder 56  Guide to Rooftop Gardening   11 
  • 13. roof.57Urban Agriculture Although green roofs are capable of agricultural growth, the rooftop garden atChicago’s City Hall was not designed for food production. Rooftop gardens can providea source of local farming in cities, which reduces harmful emissions involved intransportation and reduces overall cost. The Chicago City Hall rooftop garden may nothave incorporated urban agriculture because of the wind intensity 11 stories58 aboveground and the fact agricultural gardens need to be extensive systems. Since theexisting rooftop garden is semi-extensive, it is likely there was not enough extensiveflowerbed space to make an efficient vegetable garden. The high winds on the rooftopalso make the optimum plants not agricultural but native prairie plants59. Mayor Daleydid implement local growing at a different location in Chicago though. As a part of theChicago Organic plan, which aims to provide local food to Chicago citizens, a City Farmwas created and there are many local farmers markets within the city.60Public Education Green roofs can be a great opportunity for educating the public about rooftopgardens or just gardens in general. Mayor Daley’s objective with this green roof was toget the ball rolling in terms of environmental policies and as such he chose to begin witha symbol of his dedication to environmentalism, the City Hall’s green roof. This symbolmay have done more for educating the populace about the possibilities of green roofs                                                             57  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 12 58  United States: Greening the concrete jungle 59 http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/supp_info/chicago_s_city_hallrooftopgarden.html 60  Chicago’s green revolution starts at the top   12 
  • 14. than any booklet or demonstration workshop could. After completing the Chicago CityHall green roof, the City of Chicago went on to create more green roofs such as theones on the Chicago Center for Green Technology (CCGT), Millennium Park and theO’Hare International Airport. This sparked the emergence of many green roofs in theprivate sector within Chicago at some well-known companies such as Apple Store,Walmart, Target, Best Buy and FedEx (For a more complete list of Private Sector andPublic Sector green roofs see the Index). In a more hands-on form of public education,the city of Chicago did develop a demonstration program on the green roof at the PeggyNotebaert Nature Museum.61 The City of Chicago Department of Environment alsodeveloped a booklet of guidelines for creating a green roof in Chicago to make theprocess easier and more user-friendly.62   63Figure 3 Cover of Green Roof Guidelines Brochure                                                             61  Roundup: Chicago benefits 62  Greenroofs.com 63  Guide to Rooftop Gardening   13 
  • 15. Reduction of Waste Volumes The City of Chicago claims green roofs on average last 50% longer thanconventional roofs.64 There are other studies that claim they last even longer, 2.5-3times longer.65 This all supports the fact that the less often roofs need to be replacedthe less waste is generated that ends up in landfills. Stable and lower roof temperaturescan also increase the effectiveness and useful life of HVAC systems and other rooftopelectronic systems, which are not only costly to replace but also to dispose of.66SUMMARY Chicago is in the unique position of having marketed itself as the “greenest city inAmerica.” Chicago also has more green roofs per square foot than all the cities in theUS combined. With the research done on its pilot project, the City Hall green roof,Chicago now has the opportunity with all the data and clout it has collected to educateand inspire other cities to follow in its footsteps. Chicago has been able to prove thatgreen roofs can lower urban temperature, help with stormwater management,rejuvenate dilapidated communities, increase tourism and increase surrounding realestate prices. Since green roofs are such a visual representation of greening the city,they were a great first step in getting the citizens of Chicago on board for more greentechnologies. Unfortunately, green roofs are expensive and have not made it to thehomes of the general population. Chicago now has the opportunity and challenge of                                                             64  Guide to Rooftop Gardening  65  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 13.  66  Design Guidelines and Maintenance Manual for Green Roofs in the Semi‐Arid and Arid West – pp. 13.   14 
  • 16. finding a way to market green roofs to the everyday citizens of Chicago at a price theycan afford. The constraints surrounding green roofs are that often they can be veryexpensive to deploy, especially if the existing roof was not made to withstand theadditional weight of a roof garden. Extensive green roof systems generally weigharound 20-34 lbs/sq. ft and Intensive green roof systems can weigh all the way up to150 lbs/sq. ft.67 Even just an extensive green roof system could be doubling the weightcapacity of a Chicago roof if it was made to withstand only the required snow load of 30lbs/sq. ft.68 If no structural additions were required in order to sustain a green roof, thecost would still be around 50% more than the cost of a conventional roof.69 Thesubstantial cost of a green roof has made the movement into green roofs center mostlyin the public sector and commercial buildings. Most private home have not made thisgreen leap yet.                                                             67  Guide to Rooftop Gardening 68  Guide to Rooftop Gardening 69  Guide to Rooftop Gardening    15 
  • 17. BIBLIOGRAPHYA Guide to Rooftop Gardening. The City of Chicago Department of Environment, Mayor Daley’s Landscape Task Force, and the Green Roof Infrastructure Committee.American Society of Landscape Architects ASLA; Landscape Architects Gather in Chicago for Annual Meeting on "Beyond Sustainability" Anonymous. Ecology, Environment & Conservation Business. Atlanta:Oct 10, 2009. p. 22Annual Green Roof Industry Survey. Steven Peck. Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. April 2011. www.greenroofs.orgChicagos green revolution starts at the top; Rooftop gardens flourish in Windy City, thanks to Mayor Daley Leslie Garrett. Toronto Star. Toronto, Ont.:Aug 14, 2008. p. T.2Chicago City Hall. Greenroofs.com. 2010. http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/ pview.php?id=21Chicago City Hall: Chicago, IL. Roofmeadow. 2011. http://www.roofmeadow.com/case- studies/selected-case-studies/chicago-city-hall/Colony collapse disorder. Laura Bellingan Biologist: Institute of Biology. 54 n. 3 Aug 2007. P. 124Green Buildings, Roofs & Homes. City of Chicago: The City of Chicago’s Official Site. 2010-2011 City of Chicago. http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/doe/ provdrs/green.htmlGreen fingers are spreading across the pond Rosie Boycott. Evening Standard. London (UK):Sep 17, 2009. p. 15Green roofs take root in cities across the country Lisa Anderson. McClatchy - Tribune News Service. Washington:Sep 23, 2008.  16 
  • 18. House Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment Hearing - Impact of Green Infrastructure and Low Impact Development on the Nations Water Quality, Economy and Communities Testimony by David Yocca. Congressional Documents and Publications. Federal Information & News Dispatch, Inc. Sept. 30, 2010. p. 1-7Roundup: Chicago benefits from seven million square feet of green roof space Anonymous. Xinhua News Agency - CEIS. Woodside:Jul 30, 2010.United States: Greening the concrete jungle; Cities and climate change Anonymous. The Economist. London:Sep 3, 2011. Vol. 400, Iss. 8749, p. 29-32  17 
  • 19. INDEXPrivate Green Roofs:70 FedEx Cargo Relocation Project, Main Sort Building, Enterprise Rental Car FacilityMaintenance Building at OHare, FedEx Cargo Relocation Project, World Service Center& Administration Building, Enterprise Rental Car Facility Customer Service Center atOHare, FedEx Cargo Relocation Project, Vehicle Maintenance Building, MenardsHome Improvement Store, Shedd Aquarium, Aqua, Chicago Botanic Garden Daniel F.and Ada L. Rice Plant Conservation Science Center, Fletcher Jones Mercedes Benz,mkSolaire™ Smart Home at Museum of Science and Industry, 900 North MichiganAvenue Parking Garage (Rush & Walton), Jewel-Osco Supermarket, Ronald McDonaldHouse of Chicago, McCormick Place Convention Center, Wal-Mart Store #5402, Bankof America, Gary Comer Youth Center Green Roof, Chicago Residential Highrise 950 W.Monroe, Home Depot Western Avenue, Target Store McKinnley, ABN AMRO, 2020Green Dream, Target Store South Loop, Target Store West Addison, SchwabRehabilitation Hospital, Best Buy Elston Store, Apple Computer Store, Peggy NotebaertNature Museum, Sachs Residence                                                             70  List from greenroofs.com   18 
  • 20. Public Chicago Green Roofs: 71 OHare International Airport North Air Traffic Control Base Building, Chicago MidwayAirport Garage, OHare International Airport Mount Prospect Road Guard Post, OHareInternational Airport Building 607 New South Vault and New Duct Bank Buildings,OHare International North Air Traffic Control Tower ComEd Building, Chicago CulturalCenter, OHare International Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) Station #3,Millennium Park, Soldier Field, Engine Company #98 Chicago Department of GeneralServices, Chicago Center for Green Technology (CCGT)                                                             71  List from greenroofs.com   19 
  • 21. Roofmeadow® Type II Data SheetOur experience demonstrates that the most efficient designs for the vast majority of American green roofs can bederived from five basic green roof types (Type I, II, III, IV, V). Roofmeadow® has developed assemblies for each ofthese types.The selected assembly depends in part on project conditions including climate, desired plant community,performance requirements, and load bearing capacity of the building. All assemblies will include the followingelements: 1) protection of the waterproofing membrane from root and biological attack, 2) protection of thewaterproofing membrane from physical abuse and accident, 3) a base drainage layer, 4) a separation layer to preventfine-grained engineered soils from fouling or clogging the drainage layer system, and 5) an engineered soil to supportthe vegetation.Type II: Single Media With Sheet DrainType II assemblies include a synthetic drain layer that offers a much lower resistance to water flow than growthmedia. In this assembly, the drainage layer is a geocomposite sheet drain, and the growth media exhibits a moderatepermeability and porosity. A filter fabric separates the media from the underlying geocomposite sheet drain. The root-permeable filter fabric keeps media fines out of the drainage zone. A common variation, used mostly in conjunctionwith PMR roofing systems, utilizes a sheet drain with recesses to retain water. This type of sheet minimizes the lossof moisture into the underlying insulation. To reduce plant stress during drought conditions, the drainage layer shouldnot exceed one-inch (2.5 cm) in thickness. Type II assemblies are probably the most common extensive assembliesin the United States, and typical assembly thicknesses range from 3 to 6 inches (8 to 15 cm). This assembly is notoptimized for irrigation, which is not recommended in temperate climates.The profile of a Type II assembly is as follows:Wind Erosion Stabilization SystemGrowth MediumRoot-permeable Separation FabricSheet DrainSlope Stabilization Systems (for roof pitches exceeding 2:12)Protection LayerRoot Barrier Membrane (when required)Waterproofing System Roofmeadow ♦ 7135 Germantown Ave., 2nd Floor ♦ Philadelphia, PA, 19119 ♦ o. 215.247.8784 ♦ f. 215.247.4659 ♦ info@roofmeadow.com
  • 22. Roofmeadow® Type III Data SheetOur experience demonstrates that the most efficient designs for the vast majority of American green roofs can bederived from five basic green roof types (Type I, II, III, IV, V). Roofmeadow® has developed assemblies for each ofthese types.The selected assembly depends in part on project conditions including climate, desired plant community,performance requirements, and load bearing capacity of the building. All assemblies will include the followingelements: 1) protection of the waterproofing membrane from root and biological attack, 2) protection of thewaterproofing membrane from physical abuse and accident, 3) a base drainage layer, 4) a separation layer to preventfine-grained engineered soils from fouling or clogging the drainage layer system, and 5) an engineered soil to supportthe vegetation.Type III: Dual MediaThe dual media Type III assembly utilizes a granular mineral drainage media layer beneath a lightweight, fine-grainedgrowth media. A root-permeable separation fabric separates the media layers and keeps the growth media fines frommixing with the granular media. The permeable granular media base provides several advantages; it 1) absorbsmoisture, 2) provides additional hospitable volume for root growth, and 3) moderates the rate at which water isdischarged from the green roof. This assembly best approximates the natural conditions associated with shallow soilover shale bedrock. Assembly thicknesses typically range from 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 cm). Compared to Type IIassemblies of a comparable thickness, Type III assemblies are significantly more drought tolerant and accommodatea broader plant palette, even supporting turf in many climates. Type III green roofs promote strong plant growth bydraining and distributing water efficiently and concentrating root mass in a stable temperature and moisture zone. Ifirrigation is required, then highly efficient base capillary irrigation introduces water at the root level, an approach thatminimizes water loss from evaporation and promotes deep root development.The profile of a Type III assembly is as follows:Wind Erosion Stabilization SystemGrowth MediumRoot-permeable Separation FabricLight-weight Granular Drainage MediaProtection Fabric (for un-irrigated systems)Capillary Fabric (for irrigated systems)Root Barrier Membrane (when required)Waterproofing System Roofmeadow ♦ 7135 Germantown Ave., 2nd Floor ♦ Philadelphia, PA, 19119 ♦ o. 215.247.8784 ♦ f. 215.247.4659 ♦ info@roofmeadow.com
  • 23. Growing medium. Providers recommended custom mix of organic and inorganic materials that willsupport vigorous growth of the specified plant species, complying with the following requirements of theGerman FLL standards: Extensive Soil Intensive Soil Drain Material one layer multi layered soil mixture bulk material mixture PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Water retention min. 25 % min. 35% min. 50% min.15% (without water (compressed condition) damming) Water permeability min. 60 mm/min min. 0,6 min. 0.3 mm/min min. 180 mm/min (compressed condition) mm/min Air content min. 25% min. 15% min. 20% (fully saturated) 3 3 3 3 3 Weight (density) 0.8-1.4 g/cm 1.0-2.2 g/cm 1.4-2.2 g/cm 1.0-1.8 g/cm 0.8-1.8 g/cm dependent on (fully saturated) the material CHEMICAL PROPERTIES pH-value 6.5 - 9.5 6.5 - 8.0 6.5 - 7.5 6.5 - 8.0 Salt content of water max. 1 g/liter extract (recommended, if possible) Initial organic matter 3-8 % 3-6 % 6-12 % Nitrogen (N) slightly max. 60 mg/liter max. 60 mg/liter soluble Phosphorous (P2O 5) max. 150 mg/liter max. 200 mg/liter Potassium (K2O) min. 150 mg/liter min. 150 mg/liter Magnesium (Mg) max. 120 mg/liter max. 120 mg/liter
  • 24. QTY. BOTANICAL NAME COMMON NAME45 Achilea millefolium Paprika Yarrow20 Achillea millefolium Heidi Yarrow35 Achillea sp. Schwelienburg40 Allium canadense wild onion30 Amorpha canescens leadplant125 Andropogon scoparius little bluestem grass20 Anemone canadensis meadow anemone60 Anemone patens wolfgangiana pasque flower10 Anemone virginiana tall anemone35 Aquilegia canadensis American columbine24 Arabis caucasica Flore Pleno Fiore Pleno arabis24 Artemisia shmidtiana Silver Mound30 Artemisia sp. Powis Castle24 Artemisia stelleriana Silver Brocade30 Asclepias tuberosa butterfly weed37 Asclepias verticillata whorled milkweed50 Aster azureus sky blue aster25 Aster ericoides heath aster25 Aster laevis smooth blue aster35 Aster novae-angliae New England aster30 Aster obiongifolius aromatic aster30 Aster ptarmicoides upland white aster20 Aster sericeus silky aster20 Astragalus canadensis milkvetch40 Baptisia leucophaea cream wild indigo10 Blephilia ciliata Ohio horse mint60 Bouteloua curtipendula side-oats grama580 Bouteloua gracilis blue gramma485 Boutelous hirsuta hairy gramma725 Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass35 Callirhoe involucrata wine cups60 Campanula poscharskyana Serbian belfflower25 Campanula rotundifolia harebell445 Carex Bicknellii Bicknells sedge105 Carex cephalophora woodbank sedge100 Carex gravida sedge100 Carex grayi Morning Stae sedge1060 Carex pennsylvanica Pennsylvania sedge32 Cassia fasciculata partridge pea10 Ceanothus americanus New Jersey tea12 Ceraatium tomentosum Silberteppich15 Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum ox-eye daisy40 Coreopsis auriculataNana Coreopsis
  • 25. 15 Coreopsis lanceolata sand coreopsis190 Corydalis flexuasa Blue Panda blue corydalis230 Corydalis lutea yellow corydalis
  • 26. 440 Danthonia spicata poverty oat grass15 Desmanthus illinoensis Illinois sensitive plant32 Dianthus allwoodii Helen32 Dianthus alpinus allwood pink400 Dianthus carthusianorum dianthus370 Dianthus deltoides dianthus70 Dianthus gratianopolitanus Tiny Rubies35 Dianthus gratianopolitanus ‘spotty’20..Dianthus gratianopolitanus v. gra cheddar pinks240.Dianthus plumarius dianthus15 Dodecatheon meadii shooting star85 Echinacea purpurea purple coneflower20 Echinops bannaticus Blue Glow85 Elymus canadensis Canada wild rye85 Elymus villosus silky wild ryeIO Eryngium yuccifolium rattlesnake master35 Euphorbia polychroma cussion spurge400 Festuca amethystina Bronzegianz400 Festuca glauca Elijah Blue32 Gaillardia Kobold Blanket Flower55 Geranium sanguineum Cranesbill20 Geranium sanguineum Max Frei’ Cranesbill30 Geranium sanguineum var. striat Cranesbill40 Geum cor-cineum Borisii Geum60 Geum trfflorum prairie smoke12 Gypsophila repens Rosea12 Gypsophila repens creeping babys breath25 Helianthus mollis downy sunflower20 Helianthus rigidus showy sunflower110 Helictotrichon sempervirons blue oat grass45 Hemerocalis Anzac Daylily45 Hemerocallis Liftle Wine Cup Daylily20 HemerocallisStelia dOro Stella dOro daylify20 Heuchera brizoidesHuntsman Coralbelis45 Heuchera brizoides Red Spangif’ Coralbells10 Heuchere richardsonii prairie alum root435 Hieracium piloselia hieracium100 Hystrix patula botdebrush grass157 lberis sempervirens candytuft497 Juncus tenuis path rush45 Knautia macedonia knautia457 Koeleria cristata June grass445 Koeleda glauca large blue hair grass20..Lavandula angustifolia Munsteac’ Munstead lavender60 Lavandula angustifolia Hidecote Hidecote lavender10 Lespedeza capitata round-headed bush clover
  • 27. 75 Leymus arenarius blue lyme grass30 Liatris aspera rough blazing star47 Liatris cylindracea dwarf blazing star32 Linaria vulgaris bufter-and-eggs25 Lobelia inflata Indian tobacco25 LychnisFlottbeck Campion20 Monarda Cambridge Scarlet Bergamot10 Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot47 Opuntia humifusa prickly pear cactus20 Origanum vulgare odganum110 Panicum leibergii prairie panic grass
  • 28. 110 Panicum leibergii prairie panic grass85 Panicum virgatum switch grass45 Papaver orientate poppy20 Papaver orientale Brilliant poppy10 Parthenium integrifolium wild quinine10 Penstemon digitalis foxglove beard tongue10 Penstemon pailidus pale beard tongue65 Penstemon Prairie Dusk Obedient plant70 Penstemon sp. Utahensis182 Petalostemum candidum white prairie clover255 Petalostemum purpureum purple prairie clover295 Petrorhagia saxigrage petrorhagia112 Phlox bifida sand phlox165 Phlox sp. Emerald Cushion Blue12 Phlox sp. Emerald Pink15 Polemonium reptans Jacobsladder15 Potentilia argute prairie cinquefoil10 Prenanthes alba lions foot25 Ranunculus rhomboides prairie buttercup20 Ratibida columnifera mexican hat15 Ratibida pinnata yellow coneflower10 Rosa carolina pasture rose45 Rudbeckia subtomentosa sweet black eyed Susan215 Ruellia humilis hairy ruellia75 Salvia nemorosa Mainacht Purple Saivia25 Scutelaria parvula small skullcap320 Sedum acre wall pepper655 Sedum album white sedum540 Sedum floriferum sedum620 Sedum hybridum sedum95 Sedum kamtschatcum orange stonecrop380 Sedum Mochren Mochren sedum450 Sedum reflexum sedum720 Sedum sexangulare sedum185 Sedum spectible Matrona Matrona sedum520 Sedum spurium sedum185 Sedum Vera Jameson Vera Jameson sedum190 Sempervivum arachnoideum hens and chicks450 Sempervivum-Hybriden sepervivum15 Smilacina racemosa False Solomons seal15 Solidago flexicaulis broad-leaved goldenrod20 Solidago juncea early goldenrod25 Solidago nemoraiis old-field goldenrod20 Solidago speciosa showy goldenrod15 Solidago ulmifolia elm-leaved goldenrod110 Sporobolus heterolepis prairie dropseed
  • 29. 25 Stachys byzantina Helene von Stein125 Thymus praecox Coccineus Coceineus112 Thymus praecox Albiflorus Albifforus625 Thymus serpylium thymus10 Tradescantia ohiensis common spiderwort30 Tradescantia ohiensis Zwanenbi’ spiderwort432 Trifolium arvense rabbitfoot clover50 Viola sororia common blue violet
  • 30. Trees 1 Crataegus crusgalli Cockspur hawthorn 1 Malus ioensis prairie crabappleShrubs 5 Diervilla lonicera dwarf bushhoneysuckle 24 Juniperous chinensis Sea Greer’ sea green juniper 11 Kerria japonica Japanese kerria 24 Microbiota decussata Russian arborvitae 26 Miscanthus sinensis var.gracillin Maiden grass 11 Rhus aromaticaGro-low gro-low sumac 11 Symphoricarpus alba snowberryVines 11 Celastrus scandens American bittersweet 22 Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy 4 Clematis virginiana virgins bower
  • 31. LANDSCAPE MAINTENANCE PLANThe following maintenance operations are suggested to best care for the plants that will be part of the CityHall green roof system.Installation Care - Gardener1. Post Planting Care - A component critical to the establishment of the plants is supplemental wateringduring the first growing season. This will include immediate watering after planting, and then up to 36occurrences or 3 times per week for 13 weeks. This is especially important during a hot dry spell.2. Weeding - As the plants begin to establish, weeds or undesirable volunteer plants may becomeprevalent until the new plants provide some competition. It will be important to work with a gardener whoknows how to identify these undesirable plants and remove them in a timely manner, i.e., before they havehad time to set seed. This will need to be done at least 3 times a week immediately after planting for 8weeks and then tapered to 1 time per week for the remaining weeks of the growing season.3. Dead Heading Perennial and Herbaceous Plants -To ensure that the plants look their best all season,it is important to remove spent flower blossoms every week. This will maintain the plants’ health, shape,and aesthetic qualities.4. Staking - Containerized garden plants, especially perennials, can get lanky, therefore, it is important tohave a staking program where weekly the plants are checked to see if they are leaning or losing their form.Use green bamboo (or similar aesthetically pleasing staking tool) to tie up and keep the perennials inorganized masses.5. Erosion Control - The garden should be checked for any areas that are susceptible to wind or watererosion. Any areas that show signs of erosion should be repaired and steps taken to prevent future erosion.Long-term Care - Landowner Care (also includes items listed above)1. Monitoring Program - A regular, bi-weekly monitoring program assessing the condition of the gardenand plants will be important for containing any pest problems before they spread, as well as making surethat the plants are growing well in the areas they were planted. Monitoring will also bring about new ideasfor supplemental planting, redesign, or species replacement.2. Supplemental Planting - There may be areas where the selected plants do not grow or thrive asanticipated. To ensure that the rooftop always looks its best, it is important to budget for an annualsupplemental planting program. Also, as the crowns of the trees and shrubs develop, additional shade-tolerant species should be planted.3. Perennial Division Program - Over time perennials need division in order to grow well. The dividedperennials can then be placed in other spots of the garden, or be utilized for other purposes, like plantingthem in other green roofs, employee give-aways, etc. This program should be performed every 3 to 4years.
  • 32. 4. Pruning/Trimming - The woody plants will need a regular program of trimming excess growth,maintaining the shape of the woody trees, and keeping open canopies to promote healthy growth andaesthetic value. This program should be performed mainly in the late season.5. Tree Root Pruning - Since the trees will be in a confined space, a tree root pruning program, performedevery 3- to 4-years, will be needed to keep the trees contained in their small rooting areas. A specializedarborist service should be contracted to evaluate the proper way to prune the roots to maintain health andcontain the plant. This process is similar to bonsai root pruning.6. Pest Control - Although a good maintenance program minimizes pests and diseases, there may beunpredicted stressors that could affect the plants’ health. There could be situations where aphids or mitesafflict the plants, or the pest may be mice or pigeons that become a nuisance and impact the health of theplants. A budget amount for pest control will be needed.7. Mechanical Equipment - The green roof is located near the building’s mechanical equipment. Areassurrounding this equipment should be checked regularly and should be kept clear of vegetation.8. Drainage - The overflow boxes and drains should be checked monthly and should be kept clear of anyobstructions.9. Irrigation System Maintenance/Winterizing - Part of the maintenance program will include maintainingthe irrigation system. Drip irrigation systems may need to have some lengths replaced. Additionally, thesystem’s water has to be emptied as part of winterizing. In some instances, an early freeze may cause theresidual water to freeze and the pipes to crack, resulting in the need to replace the PVC pipe.